# Functional Programming

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1 Functional Programming CS331 Chapter 14 Functional Programming Original functional language is LISP LISt Processing The list is the fundamental data structure Developed by John McCarthy in the 60 s Used for symbolic data processing Example apps: symbolic calculations in integral and differential calculus, circuit design, logic, game playing, AI As we will see the syntax for the language is extremely simple Scheme Descendant of LISP 1

2 Functional Languages Pure functional language Computation viewed as a mathematical function mapping inputs to outputs No notion of state, so no need for assignment statements (side effects) Iteration accomplished through recursion In practicality LISP, Scheme, other functional languages also support iteration, assignment, etc. We will cover some of these impure elements but emphasize the functional portion Equivalence Functional languages equivalent to imperative Clite can be implemented fairly straightforwardly in Scheme Scheme itself implemented in C Church-Turing Thesis Typical Mathematical Function Square( n) = n* n Square : R R Square maps real numbers to real numbers Value of a function such as Square depends only on the values of its parameters and not on any previous computation This property is called referential transparency 2

3 Lambda Calculus Foundation of functional programming Developed by Alonzo Church, 1941 A lambda expression defines Function parameters Body Does NOT define a name; lambda is the nameless function. Below x defines a parameter for the unnamed function: ( λx x x) Lambda Calculus Given a lambda expression ( λx x x) Application of lambda expression (( λx x x)2) 4 Identity Constant 2: ( λx x) ( λx 2) 3

4 Lambda Calculus Any identifier is a lambda expression If M and N are lambda expressions, then the application of M to N, (MN) is a lambda expression An abstraction, written ( λx M ) where x is an identifier and M is a lambda expression, is also a lambda expression Lambda Calculus LambdaExpression ident ( MN) ( λ ident M ) M LambdaExpression N LambdaExpression Examples x ( λx x) (( λx x)( λy y)) 4

5 Lambda Calculus First Class Citizens Functions are first class citizens Can be returned as a value Can be passed as an argument Can be put into a data structure as a value Can be the value of an expression (( λx x x)( λy 2)) = ( λx 2 2) = 4 Free and Bound Variables Bound variable: x is bound when there is a corresponding λx in front of the λ expression: ((λy y)y) y is bound ; y is free Free variable: x is not bound (analogous to a global variable we can access in the scope of a local function) (λy z) ; z is free (λy y) ; y is bound; y binding here 5

6 Lambda Calculus ( λx M ) : x is bound in M Bound variables are just placeholders; they can be renamed to anything else without impacting functionality Not bound implies free free( x) = x free( MN) = free( λx M ) = free( M ) free( N) free( M ) { x} Substitution Idea : function application is seen as a kind of substitution which simplifies a term ( (λx M) N) as substituting N for x in M Not quite as simple as straightforward substitution Consider ((λx (λy x+y)) 2 1) ((λy 2+y) 1) 2+1 = 3, looks OK Now consider ((λx (λy x+y)) y 1) ; i.e. y+1 ((λy y+y) 1) 1+1 = 2, WRONG! But this would work if: ((λx (λz x+z)) y 1) ((λz y+z) 1) y+1 CORRECT! Problem: y is a bound variable; need to rename before substituting 6

7 Lambda Calculus Substitution A substitution of an expression N for a variable x in M is written as M[x N] If free variables of N have no bound occurrence in M, M[x N] is formed by replacing all free occurrences of x in M by N Else Assume that variable y is free in N and bound in M Consistently replace the binding and Lambda Calculus Substitution x[ x y] = y ( xx)[ x y] = ( yy) ( zw)[ x y] = ( zw) ( zx)[ x y] = ( zy) ( λx zx)[ x y] = ( λu zu)[ x y] = ( λu zu) ( λx zx)[ y x] = ( λu zu))[ y x] = ( λu zu) 7

8 Lambda Calculus Semantics (( λx M ) N) M[ x N] This is called Beta-Reduction Replace the lambda expression using the substitution principle Represents a single function application Lambda Calculus Semantics Evaluation of lambda expression is a sequence of beta reductions A lambda expression that does not contain a function application is called a normal form (( λy (( λx xyz) a)) b) (( λy ayz) b) ( abz) (( λy (( λx xyz) a)) b) (( λx xbz) a) ( abz) 8

9 Lambda Calculus Functional programming is essentially an applied lambda calculus with built in - constant values - functions E.g. in Scheme, we have (* x x) for x*x instead of λx x*x Functional Languages Two ways to evaluate expressions Eager Evaluation or Call by Value Evaluate all expressions ahead of time Irrespective of if it is needed or not May cause some runtime errors Example (foo 1 (/ 1 x)) Problem; divide by 0 9

10 Lambda Calculus Lazy Evaluation Evaluate all expressions only if needed (foo 1 (/ 1 x)) ; (/ 1 x) not needed, so never eval d Some evaluations may be duplicated Equivalent to call-by-name Allows some types of computations not possible in eager evaluation Example Infinite lists E.g,. Infinite stream of 1 s, integers, even numbers, etc. Replaces tail recursion with lazy evaluation call Possible in Scheme using (force/delay) Running Scheme for Class A version of Scheme called PLT Scheme (via DrScheme) is available on the Windows machines in the CS Lab Download: Unix, Mac versions also available if desired 10

11 DrScheme You can type code directly into the interpreter and Scheme will return with the results: 11

12 Make sure right Language is selected DrScheme Loading Code You can open code saved in a file. DrScheme uses the extension.scm so consider the following file fact.scm created with a text editor or saved from DrScheme: 2: Run 1: Open (define factorial (lambda (n) (cond ((= n 1) 1) (else (* n (factorial (- n 1)))) ) ) ) 3: Invoke functions 12

13 Functional Programming Pure functional programming No implicit notion of state No need for assignment statement No side effect Looping No state variable Use Recursion Most functional programming languages have side effects, including Scheme Assignments Input/Output Functional Programming - Refreshingly simple - Syntax is learned in about 10 seconds - Surprisingly powerful - Recursion - Functions as first class objects (can be value of an expression, passed as an argument, put in a data structure) - Implicit storage management (garbage collection) 13

14 Scheme Dialect of Lisp Simple but provides the core constructs Functions as first class objects Lexical scoping Earlier LISPs did not do that (dynamic) Interpreter Compiled versions available too Expressions Syntax - Cambridge Prefix Parenthesized (* 3 4) (* (+ 2 3) 5) (f 3 4) In general: (functionname arg1 arg2 ) Everything is an expression Sometimes called s-expr (symbolic expr) 14

15 Expression Evaluation Replace symbols with their bindings Constants evaluate to themselves 2, 44, #f No nil in DrScheme; use () Nil = empty list, but DrScheme does have empty Lists are evaluated as function calls written in Cambridge Prefix notation (+ 2 3) (* (+ 2 3) 5) Scheme Basics Atom Anything that can t be decomposed further a string of characters beginning with a letter, number or special character other than ( or ) e.g. 2, #t, #f, hello, foo, bar #t = true #f = false List A list of atoms or expressions enclosed in () (), (1 2 3), (x (2 3)), (()()()) 15

16 Scheme Basics S-expressions Atom or list () Both atom and a list Length of a list Number at the top level Quote If we want to represent the literal list (a b c) Scheme will interpret this as apply the arguments b and c to function a To represent the literal list use quote (quote x) x (quote (a b c)) (a b c) Shorthand: single quotation mark a == (quote a) (a b c) == (quote (a b c)) 16

17 Use define function Global Definitions (define f 20) (define evens ( )) (define odds ( )) (define color red) (define color blue) ; Error, blue undefined (define num f) ; num = 20 (define num f) ; symbol f (define s hello world ) ; String Lambda functions Anonymous functions (lambda (<formals>) <expression>) (lambda(x) (* x x)) ((lambda(x) (* x x)) 5) 25 Motivation Can create functions as needed Temporary functions : don t have to have names Can not use recursion 17

18 Named Functions Use define to bind a name to a lambda expression (define square (lambda (x) (* x x))) (square 5) Using lambda all the time gets tedious; alternate syntax: (define (<function name> <formals>) <expression1> <expression2> ) Last expression evaluated is the one returned (define (square x) (* x x)) (square 5) 25 Conditionals (if <predicate> <expression1> <expresion2>) - Return value is either expr1 or expr2 (cond (P1 E1) (P2 E2) (P n E n ) (else E n+1 )) - Returns whichever expression is evaluated 18

19 Common Predicates Names of predicates end with? Number? : checks if the argument is a number Symbol? : checks if the argument is a symbol Equal? : checks if the arguments are structurally equal Null? : checks if the argument is empty Atom? : checks if the argument is an atom List? : checks if the argument is a list Conditional Examples (if (equal? 1 2) x y) ; y (if (equal? 2 2) x y) ; x (if (null? ()) 1 2) ; 1 (cond ((equal? 1 2) 1) ((equal? 2 3) 2) (else 3)) ; 3 (cond ((number? x) 1) ((null? x) 2) ((list? (a b c)) (+ 2 3)) ; 5 ) 19

20 Dissecting a List Car : returns the first argument (car (2 3 4)) (car ((2) 4 4)) Defined only for non-null lists Cdr : (pronounced could-er ) returns the rest of the list DrScheme: list must have at least one element Always returns a list (cdr (2 3 4)) (cdr (3)) (cdr (((3)))) Compose (car (cdr (4 5 5))) (cdr (car ((3 4)))) Shorthand (cadr x) = (car (cdr x)) (cdar x) = (cdr (car x)) (caar x) = (car (car x)) (cddr x) = (cdr (cdr x)) (cadar x) = (car (cdr (car x))) etc up to 4 levels deep in DrScheme (cddadr x) =? 20

21 Why Car and Cdr? Leftover notation from original implementation of Lisp on an IBM 704 CAR = Contents of Address part of Register Pointed to the first thing in the current list CDR = Contents of Decrement part of Register Pointed to the rest of the list Building a list Cons Cons(truct) a new list from first and rest Takes two arguments Second should be a list If it is not, the result is a dotted pair which is typically considered a malformed list First may or may not be a list Result is always a list 21

22 Building a list X = 2 and Y = (3 4 5) : (cons x y) ( ) X = () and Y =(a b c) : (cons x y) (() a b c) X = a and Y =() : (cons x y ) (a) What is (cons 'a (cons 'b (cons 'c '()))) (cons (cons a (cons b ())) (cons c ())) Numbers Regular arithmetic operators are available +, -, *, / May take variable arguments ( ), (* ) (/ 9 2) 4.5 ; (quotient 9 2) 4 Regular comparison operators are available < > <= >= = E.g. (= 5 (+ 3 2)) #t = only works on numbers, otherwise use equal? 22

23 Example Sum all numbers in a list (define (sumall list) (cond ((null? list) 0) (else (+ (car list) (sumall (cdr list)))))) Sample invocation: (sumall (3 45 1)) Example Make a list of n identical values (define (makelist n value) (cond ((= n 0) '()) (else (cons value (makelist (- n 1) value)) ) ) ) In longer programs, careful matching parenthesis. 23

24 Example Determining if an item is a member of a list (define (member? item list) (cond ((null? list) #f) ((equal? (car list) item) #t) (else (member? item (cdr list))) ) ) Scheme already has a built-in (member item list) function that returns the list after a match is found Example Remove duplicates from a list (define (remove-duplicates list) (cond ((null? list) '()) ((member? (car list) (cdr list)) (remove-duplicates (cdr list))) (else (cons (car list) (remove-duplicates (cdr list)))) ) ) 24

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