BITG 1233: Introduction to C++

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1 BITG 1233: Introduction to C++ 1

2 Learning Outcomes At the end of this lecture, you should be able to: Identify basic structure of C++ program (pg 3) Describe the concepts of : Character set. (pg 11) Token (pg 13): keyword, identifiers, operator, punctuation, string literal Data type (pg 25) Input function, output function (pg 33) Operator (pg 37) : arithmetic operators & assignment operators Formatting the Output (pg 49) 2 LECTURE 3

3 Basic Structure of a C++ Program /* This program computes the distance between two points. */ comment #include <iostream> // Required for cout, endl. #include <cmath> // Required for sqrt() using namespace std; // Tells which namespace to use comments // Define and initialize global variables. double x1=1, y1=5, x2=4, y2=7; 6 int main() function named main { beginning of block for main // Define local variables. double side1, side2, distance; // Compute sides of a right triangle. side1 = x2 - x1; side2 = y2 - y1; distance = sqrt(side1*side1 + side2*side2); // Print distance. string literal cout << "The distance between the two points is " << distance << endl; // Exit program. return 0; send 0 to operating system } end of block for main 3 LECTURE 3 Figure 3.1 Structure of a C++ Program

4 Structure of a C++ Program : Comments Use to write document parts (notes) of the program. Comments help people read programs: Indicate the purpose of the program Describe the use of variables Explain complex sections of code Are ignored by the compiler. In C++ there are two types of comments. Single-Line comments : Begin with // through to the end of the line. Multi-Line comments : Begin with /* and end with */ 4 LECTURE 3

5 Single-Line Comments Use to write just one line of comment : Example : int length = 12; // length in inches int width = 15; // width in inches int area; // calculated area // calculate rectangle area area = length * width; 5 LECTURE 3

6 Multi-Line Comments Could span multiple lines: /* this is a multi-line comment */ Could begin and end on the same line: int area; /* calculated area */ 6 LECTURE 3

7 Structure of a C++ Program : Preprocessor Directives Provide instructions to the compiler that are performed before the program is translated. Begin with a pound sign (#) Do NOT place a semicolon (;) at the end of a preprocessor directive line. Example: #include <iostream> The #include directive instructs the compiler to include the statements from file iostream into the program. The program needs <iostream> header file because it might need to do input and/or output operations. 7 LECTURE 3

8 Structure of a C++ Program : using Directive Instructs the compiler to use files defined in a specified area. The area is known as namespace. Example : using namespace std; The namespaces of the standard C++ system libraries is std. 8 LECTURE 3

9 Structure of a C++ Program : Function A function s process is defined between a set of braces { }. Example: int main() { //Block defines body of main function double x1 = 1, x2 = 4, side1; side1 = x2 x1; cout << side1 << endl; return 0; //Function main returns 0 to the OS } //end definition of main Every C++ program MUST contains only one function named as main(), and could consist of other function/s. C++ program always begins execution in main(). 9 LECTURE 3

10 Structure of a C++ Program : Global/Local Declarations Area An identifier cannot be used before it is defined. The areas where identifiers in a program are declared determines the scope of the identifiers. The scope of an identifier: the part of the program in which the identifier can be accessed. Local scope - a local identifier is defined or declared in a function or a block, and can be accessed only within the function or block that defines it. Global scope - a global identifier is defined or declared outside the main function, and can be accessed within the program after the identifier is defined or declared. 10 LECTURE 3

11 Character Set Consist of : 1. Number : 0 to 9 2. Alphabet : a to z and A to Z 3. Spacing 4. Special Character :,. : ;?! ( ) {} + - * / = > < # % & ^ ~ / _ 11 LECTURE 3

12 Special Characters Character Name Meaning // Double slash Beginning of a comment # Pound sign Beginning of preprocessor directive < > Open and close brackets Enclose header file name in #include ( ) Open and close parentheses Used when naming a function { } Open and close brace Encloses a group of statements " " Open and close quotation marks Encloses string of characters ; Semicolon End of a programming statement

13 Token Combination of characters, that consist of : 1. Reserved words/keywords 2. Identifiers (variable, constant, function name) 3. Punctuators 4. Operators 5. String Literal 13 LECTURE 3

14 Reserved word/ Keyword A word that has special meaning in C++. Used only for their intended purpose. Keywords cannot be used to name identifiers. All reserves word appear in lowercase. 14

15 Identifiers Allows programmers to name data and other objects in the program : variable, constant, function etc. Can use any capital letter A through Z, lowercase letters a through z, digits 0 through 9 and also underscore ( _ ) Rules for identifier: The first character must be alphabetic character or underscore It must consists only of alphabetic characters, digits and underscores. (cannot contain spaces & special characters except underscore) It cannot duplicate any reserved word C++ is case-sensitive; this means that CASE, Case, case, and CaSe are four completely different words. 15 LECTURE 3

16 Identifiers Valid names Invalid names A student_name _asystemname pi al stdntnm _anthrsysnm PI sum$ // $ is illegal 2names // can t start with 2 stdnt Nmbr // can t have space int // can t use reserved word 16 LECTURE 3

17 Identifiers : Constant Constant is memory location/s that store a specific value that CANNOT be modified during the execution of a program. Types of constant: Integer constant Float constant Numbers with decimal part Character constant A character enclosed between a set of single quotes ( ) String constant A sequence of zero or more characters enclosed in a set of double quotes ( ) 17 LECTURE 3

18 Constant: How to Define How a constant is defined is reflected as Defined constant and Memory constant Defined constant Placed at the preprocessor directive area. Using the preprocessor command define prefaced with the pound sign (#) E.g #define SALES_TAXES_RATE.0825 The expression that follows the name (.0825) replaces the name wherever it is found in the program. Memory constant Placed at global/local declaration area, depending on constant s scope. Add the type qualifier, const before the definition. E.g. const double TAX_RATE = ; 18 const int NUM_STATES = 50; LECTURE 3

19 Constant : How to use Constant can be used in two ways. Literal constant : by writing the value directly in the program. E.g 10 is an integer literal constant 4.5 is a floating point literal constant "Side1" is a string literal constant 'a' is a character literal constant Named constant : by using a name to represent the value in the program. Often the name is written in uppercase letters. 19 LECTURE 3

20 Identifiers : Variables Variable is memory location/s that store values that can be modified. Has a name and a type of data it can hold. Must be defined before it can be used. A variable name should reflect the purpose of the variable. For example: itemsordered The purpose of this variable is to hold the number of items ordered. Once defined, variables are used to hold the data that are required by the program from its operation. Example: double x1=1.0, x2=4.5, side1; side1 = x2-x1; x1, x2 and side1 are examples of variables that can be modified. 20 LECTURE 3

21 Variables Figure 3.4 Variables in memory 21 LECTURE 3

22 Variables Variable declaration syntax : <variable type> <variable name> Examples : short int maxitems; // word separator : capital long int national_debt; // word separator : _ float payrate; // word separator : capital double tax; char code; bool valid; int a, b; Examples of variable definition 22 LECTURE 3

23 Variable initialization Initializer establishes the first value that the variable will contain. To initialize a variable when it is defined, the identifier is followed by the assignment operator (=) and then the initializer which is the value the variable is to have when that part of the program executes. Eg: int count = 0; int count, sum = 0; // Only sum is initialize. int count=0, sum = 0; OR int count =0; int sum = 0; 23 LECTURE 3

24 Punctuator Special character use for completing program structure Includes the symbols [ ] ( ) { }, ; : * # Operator C++ uses a set of built in operators ( Eg : +, -, *, / etc). There are several types of operators : arithmetic, assignment, relational and logical. 24 LECTURE 3

25 Data types Type that defines a set of value and operations that can be applied on those values Set of values for each type is known as the domain for the type Functions also have types which is determined by the data it returns 25 LECTURE 3

26 26 LECTURE 3 Standard Data Type

27 Data types C++ contains five standard data types void int (short for integers) char (short for characters) float ( short for floating points) bool (short for boolean) They serves as the basic structure for derived data types Derived data types are pointer, enumerated type, union, array, structure and class. 27 LECTURE 3

28 Data types void Has no values and operations Both set of values are empty char A value that can be represented by an alphabet, digit or symbol A char is stored in a computer s memory as an integer representing the ASCII code. Usually use 1 byte of memory 28 LECTURE 3

29 Data types int A number without a fraction part (round or integer) C++ supports three different sizes of integer short int int long int 29 LECTURE 3 Typical integer size

30 Data types float A number with fractional part such as C++ supports three types of float float double long double 30 LECTURE 3 Typical float size

31 Data types bool Boolean (logical) data C++ support bool type C++ provides two constant to be used True False Is an integral which is when used with other integral type such as integer values, it converted the values to 1 (true) and 0 (false) 31 LECTURE 3

32 Determining the Size of a Data Type The sizeof operator gives the size of any data type or variable: double amount; cout << "A double is stored in " << sizeof(double) << "bytes\n"; cout << "Variable amount is stored in " << sizeof(amount) << "bytes\n";

33 Input / output function Input function cin cin is used to read input from standard input device (the keyboard) Input retrieved from cin with the extraction operator >> cin, requires iostream header file Input is stored in one or more variables. Data entered from the keyboard must be compatible with the data type of the variable. E.g of program: int age; float a, b; cin >> age; cin >> a >> b; // input must be an integer number // input must be two real numbers 33 LECTURE 3

34 Input / output function Output function - cout cout is defined in the header file iostream, to place data to standard output device (the display) We use the insertion operator << with cout to output string literals, or the value of an expression. String literals contains text of what you want to display. Enclosed in double quote marks ( ). An expression is a C++ constant, identifier, formula, or function call. 34 E.g of program : Assume the age input is 22 and name is Abu. cout << " I am " << age; cout << " years old and my name is "; cout << name; Output : I am 22 years old and my name is Abu

35 Displaying a Prompt A prompt is a message that instructs the user to enter data. You should always use cout to display a prompt before each cin statement. Example: cout << "How tall is the room? "; cin >> height; 35 LECTURE 3

36 Input / output function 36 LECTURE 3 Figure 3.5 Library functions and the linker

37 Arithmetic Operators Assume int a=4, b=5, d; C++ Operation Arithmetic Operator C++ Expression Addition + d = a + b 9 Substraction - d = b Multiplication * d = a * b 20 Division / d = a/2 2 Modulus % d = b%3 2 Value of d after assignment 37 LECTURE 3

38 Assignment Operators Assume int x=4, y=5, z=8; Assignmen t Operator Sample Expression Similar Expression Value of variable after assignment += x += 5 x = x + 5 x=9 -= y -= x y = y - x y=1 *= x *= z x = x*z x=32 /= z /=2 z = z/2 z = 4 %= y %=x y = y%x y=1 38 LECTURE 3

39 Increment and decrement Operators Operator Called Sample Expression Similar Expression Explanation ++ preincrement ++a a = a +1 a += 1 Increment a by 1, then use the new value of a to evaluate the expression in which a reside ++ postincrement a++ a = a +1 a += predecrement - - a a = a -1 a -= postdecrement a - - a = a -1 a -= 1 Use the current value of a to evaluate the expression in which a reside, then increment a by 1 Decrement a by 1, then use the new value of a to evaluate the expression in which a reside Use the current value of a to evaluate the expression in which a reside, then decrement a by 1 For example: assume k=5 prior to executing each of the following statement. m = ++k; both m and k become 6 39 n = k--; n becomes 5, k becomes 4

40 Precedence of Arithmetic and Assignment Operators Precedence Operator Associativity 1 Parentheses: () Innermost first 2 Unary operators Binary operators * / % 4 Binary operators Assignment operators = += -= *= /= %= Right to left Left ot right Left ot right Right to left 40 LECTURE 3

41 A Closer Look at the / Operator / (division) operator performs integer division if both operands are integers cout << 13 / 5; // displays 2 cout << 91 / 7; // displays 13 If either operand is floating point, the result is floating point cout << 13 / 5.0; // displays 2.6 cout << 91.0 / 7; // displays LECTURE 3

42 A Closer Look at the % Operator % (modulus) operator computes the remainder resulting from integer division cout << 13 % 5; // displays 3 % requires integers for both operands cout << 13 % 5.0; // error 42 LECTURE 3

43 Operator Precedence Example 1: int a=10, b=20, c=15, d=8; a * b / (-c * 31 % 13) * d ; 1. a * b / (-15 * 31 % 13) * d 2. a * b / (-465 % 13) * d 3. a * b / (-10) * d / (-10) * d * d Example 2: int a=15, b=6, c=5, d=4; d *= ++b a / 3 + c ; 1. d *= ++b - a / 3 + c 2. d* = 7-15 / 3 + c 3. d* = c 4. d*= d*= 7 6. d = d * 7 7. d = LECTURE 3

44 Example 1 // operating with variables #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int num1, num2; int value_div, value_mod ; } cout << "Enter two integral numbers:"; cin >> num1 >> num2; value_div = num1/num2; value_mod = num1 % num2; cout << num1 << " / " << num2 << " is "<< value_div; cout<<" with a remainder of " << value_mod <<endl; return 0; 44 LECTURE 3 Output : Enter two integral numbers : / 6 is 1 with a remainder of 4

45 Example 2 /*Evaluate two complex expressions*/ LECTURE 3 45 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main ( ) { int a = 3, b = 4, c = 5, x, y; cout << "Initial values of the variables:\n"; cout << "a = " << a << " b = " << b << "c = " << c <<endl; cout << endl; x = a * 4 + b / 2 - c * b; cout << "Value of a * 4 + b / 2 - c * b is : "<< x <<endl; y = --a * (3 + b) / 2 - c++ * b; cout << "Value of --a * (3 + b) / 2 c++ * b is: "; cout << y << endl << endl; cout << "Values of the variables now are :\n"; cout << "a = " << a << " b = " << b << " c = "<< c <<endl; return 0; }

46 Output : Initial values of the variables : a = 3 b = 4 c = 5 Value of a * 4 + b / 2 - c * b is : -6 Value of --a * (3 + b) / 2 c++ * b is: -13 Values of the variables are now : a = 2 b = 4 c = 6 46

47 Formatting Output We can identify functions to perform special task. For the input and output objects, these functions have been given a special name: manipulator The manipulator functions format output so that it is presented in a more readable fashion for the user. Must include <iomanip> header file. Eg: #include <iomanip> 47 LECTURE 3 <iomanip> header file contains function prototypes for the stream manipulators that enable formatting of streams of data.

48 Output Manipulators The lists of functions in the <iomanip> library file: endl dec oct hex Manipulators fixed showpoint setw( ) setprecision setfill( ) Use New line Formats output as decimal Formats output as octal Formats output as hexadecimal Set floating-point decimals Shows decimal in floating-point values Sets width of output fields Specifies number of decimals for floating point Specifies fill character 48 LECTURE 3

49 Basic Command of Output : Escape Sequence Escape Sequence Name Description \t Horizontal Tab Takes the cursor to the next tab stop \n or endl New line Takes the cursor to the beginning of the next line \v Vertical Tab Takes the cursor to the next tab stop vertically. \" Double Quote Displays a quotation mark (") \' Apostrophe Displays an apostrophe (') \? Question mark Displays a question mark \\ Backslash Displays a backslash (\) \a Audible alert sound 49 LECTURE 3

50 Example: //demonstrate the output manipulator #include <iostream> #include <iomanip> using namespace std; LECTURE 3 int main( ) { char letter; int num; float amount; 50 } cout << "Please enter an integer,"; cout << " a dollar amount and a character.\n"; cin >> num >> amount >> letter; cout <<"\nthank you.you entered:\n"; cout << setw( 6 ) << num << " " ; cout << setfill('*') << setprecision (2) << fixed; cout << "RM" << setw(10) << amount; cout << setfill(' ') << setw( 3 ) << letter << endl; return 0;

51 Output : Please enter an integer,a dollar amount and character G Thank you. You entered: 12 RM**** G --- THE END LECTURE 3

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