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2 To produce a floating point calculation with integer values, we must convert one of the operands to a floating point static_cast< double >( total ) o Stores a temporary version of total as a double o If total was 310, it will be stored as o This temporary value will be used in calculations Called an explicit conversion C++ can only evaluate expressions where both operands are of the same type static_cast< double >( total ) / gradecounter o Is trying to divide a double by an int double / int Compiler performs a promotion (implicit conversion) on the int to make it a double o If gradecounter was 4, will now be /3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science /3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science 1 8 average = static_cast< double >( total ) / gradecounter; If total was originally 310 and gradecounter was 4, compiler will o / 4.0 static_cast It s a unary operator The syntax: o static_cast<data type>( variable ) o Results in 77.5 If average is a double, then 77.5 is stored If average is an int then the fractional part will be truncated 10/3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science /3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science 1 10 Operator Precedence & Associativity () L->R Parentheses static_cast<type>() L->R Unary!, +, - R->L Negation, Unary +, - *,/,% L->R Mult, div, mod +, - L->R Add, Subtract <<, >> L->R Insertion/extraction <, <=, >, >= L->R Relational ==,!= L->R Equality && L->R And L->R Or = R->L Assignment 10/3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science 1 11 A Note on Stepwise Refinement P in your book describe the process of top-down stepwise refinement This is a really useful process for solving a problem It describes how to start from the top-most description of the problem and refining it until you have a detailed description of the process Be sure to read it! 10/3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science

3 Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement There is a description of how to solve a complete problem using top-down, stepwise refinement on p The solution to this problem requires that an if selection structure be embedded within a while repetition structure Assignment Operators We ve seen that C++ provides the ability to abbreviate an assignment operator in which the same variable appears on either side of the operator sum = sum + num; Can be abbreviated to sum += num; 10/3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science /3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science 1 14 Assignment Operators This abbreviation can be done to the following operators o + - * / % Examples, where c = 3, e = 4 o c += 7 o e %= 2 o c *= 3 o e /= 4 o e -= 1 10/3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science 1 15 Increment and Decrement Operators ++ is the unary increment operator x++; is the same as x = x + 1; -- is the unary decrement operator x--; is the same as x = x - 1; 10/3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science 1 16 Pre-increment vs. post-increment Example Pre k = --x; k = ++x; Increment/ decrement x then assign value of x to k Post k =x--; k = x++; Assign value of x to k, then increment or decrement x 12.2: What is the output if i = 2? cout << Value of x is << i; cout << Value of i++ is << i++; cout << Value of ++i is << ++i; cout << Value of --i is << --i; cout << Value of i-- is << i--; 10/3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science /3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science

4 Operator Precedence () L->R Parentheses ++, --, static_cast<type>() L->R Unary post-op ++, --,!, +, - R->L Negation, Unary pre-op *,/,% L->R Mult, div, mod +, - L->R Add, Subtract <<, >> L->R Insertion/extraction <, <=, >, >= L->R Relational For loops 3 main things for loops: o Initialization of lcv, testing of lcv, updating lcv For loops provide a concise way to do this for (count = 0; count < 5; count++) cout << count << endl; ==,!= L->R Equality && L->R And L->R Or?: R->L Conditional =, +=, -=, *=, /=, %= R->L Assignment 10/3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science /3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science 1 20 General Format for (initialization expression; loop repetition condition; update expression) statements; Examples 12.3: Write a for loop that outputs odd numbers less than : Write a program that computes the factorial of a number. The factorial of a number is given by the formula o N! = N*(N-1)* *2*1 where 0!=1, 1!=1, 2!=2, 3!=6, 10/3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science /3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science 1 22 Localized Declarations for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) cout << i << endl; cout << i << endl; i is declared ONLY in the loop Equivalent Logic 12.5: Rewrite the following for loop as a while loop. for (i = 5; i < 10; i+= 2) cout << i; 12.6: What does this output? 10/3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science /3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science

5 12.7: Write a program that will print the sum of the odd integers between 1 and 50 inclusive. Write one program using a while and the other using a for loop 12.8: Write a program that allows the user to enter an unknown number of integer values one at a time. When the user enters -999, you are to terminate the loop and print the following: o The sum of all integers inputted o The average of all integers inputted o The largest integer of all integers inputted 10/3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science /3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science 1 26 Summary In today s lecture we covered o Type casting o Top-down, stepwise refinement o Abbreviating assignment operators o Increment and decrement operators o for repetition structures Readings o P. 92 type casting o P. 93, p. 113 formatting output o P top-down, stepwise refinement o P. 98 Assignment operators o P Increment and decrement operators o P for repetition structures 10/3/05 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science

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Chapter 2 C++ Basics 1 Overview 2.1 Variables and Assignments 2.2 Input and Output 2.3 Data Types and Expressions 2.4 Simple Flow of Control 2.5 Program Style Slide 2-3 2.1 Variables and Assignments 2