# Big Java. Fifth Edition. Chapter 3 Fundamental Data Types. Cay Horstmann

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1 Big Java Fifth Edition Cay Horstmann Chapter 3 Fundamental Data Types

2 Chapter Goals To understand integer and floating-point numbers To recognize the limitations of the numeric types To become aware of causes for overflow and roundoff errors To understand the proper use of constants To write arithmetic expressions in Java To use the String type to define and manipulate character strings To learn how to read program input and produce formatted output

3 3.1 Number Types int: integers, no fractional part: 1, -4, 0 double: floating-point numbers (double precision): 0.5, , 3.3E24, 1E-14 A numeric computation overflows if the result falls outside the range for the number type: int n = ; System.out.println(n * n); // prints Java: 8 primitive types, including four integer types and two floating point types

4

5 Number Types: Floating-point Types Rounding errors occur when an exact conversion between numbers is not possible: double f = 3.35; System.out.println(100 * f); // prints Java: Illegal to assign a floating-point expression to an integer variable: double balance = 13.75; int dollars = balance; // Error

6

7 3.1.2 Constants: final A final variable is a constant Once its value has been set, it cannot be changed Named constants make programs easier to read and maintain Convention: Use all-uppercase names for constants final double QUARTER_VALUE = 0.25; final double DIME_VALUE = 0.1; final double NICKEL_VALUE = 0.05; final double PENNY_VALUE = 0.01; payment = dollars + quarters * QUARTER_VALUE + dimes * DIME_VALUE + nickels * NICKEL_VALUE + pennies * PENNY_VALUE;

8 Constants: static final If constant values are needed in several methods, declare them together with the instance fields of a class and tag them as static and final Give static final constants public access to enable other classes to use them public class Math {... public static final double E = ; public static final double PI = ; } double circumference = Math.PI * diameter;

9 Syntax 3.1 Constant Definition

10 ch03/cashregister/cashregister.java 1 /** 2 A cash register totals up sales and computes change due. 3 */ 4 public class CashRegister 5 { 6 public static final double QUARTER_VALUE = 0.25; 7 public static final double DIME_VALUE = 0.1; 8 public static final double NICKEL_VALUE = 0.05; 9 public static final double PENNY_VALUE = 0.01; private double purchase; 12 private double payment; /** 15 Constructs a cash register with no money in it. 16 */ 17 public CashRegister() 18 { 19 purchase = 0; 20 payment = 0; 21 } 22 Continued

11 ch03/cashregister/cashregister.java (cont.) 23 /** 24 Records the purchase price of an item. amount the price of the purchased item 26 */ 27 public void recordpurchase(double amount) 28 { 29 purchase = purchase + amount; 30 } /** 33 Enters the payment received from the customer. dollars the number of dollars in the payment quarters the number of quarters in the payment dimes the number of dimes in the payment nickels the number of nickels in the payment pennies the number of pennies in the payment 39 */ 40 public void enterpayment(int dollars, int quarters, 41 int dimes, int nickels, int pennies) 42 { 43 payment = dollars + quarters * QUARTER_VALUE + dimes * DIME_VALUE 44 + nickels * NICKEL_VALUE + pennies * PENNY_VALUE; 45 } 46 Continued

12 ch03/cashregister/cashregister.java (cont.) 47 /** 48 Computes the change due and resets the machine for the next customer. the change due to the customer 50 */ 51 public double givechange() 52 { 53 double change = payment - purchase; 54 purchase = 0; 55 payment = 0; 56 return change; 57 } 58 }

13 ch03/cashregister/cashregistertester.java 1 /** 2 This class tests the CashRegister class. 3 */ 4 public class CashRegisterTester 5 { 6 public static void main(string[] args) 7 { 8 CashRegister register = new CashRegister(); 9 10 register.recordpurchase(0.75); 11 register.recordpurchase(1.50); 12 register.enterpayment(2, 0, 5, 0, 0); 13 System.out.print("Change: "); 14 System.out.println(register.giveChange()); 15 System.out.println("Expected: 0.25"); register.recordpurchase(2.25); 18 register.recordpurchase(19.25); 19 register.enterpayment(23, 2, 0, 0, 0); 20 System.out.print("Change: "); 21 System.out.println(register.giveChange()); 22 System.out.println("Expected: 2.0"); 23 } 24 }

14 ch03/cashregister/cashregistertester.java (cont.) Program Run: Change: 0.25 Expected: 0.25 Change: 2.0 Expected: 2.0

15 3.2 Arithmetic Operators Four basic operators: addition: + subtraction: - multiplication: * division: / Parentheses control the order of subexpression computation: (a + b) / 2 Multiplication and division bind more strongly than addition and subtraction: (a + b) / 2

16 Increment and Decrement items++ is the same as items = items + 1 items-- subtracts 1 from items

17 Integer Division / is the division operator If both arguments are integers, the result is an integer. The remainder is discarded 7.0 / 4 yields / 4 yields 1 Get the remainder with % (pronounced modulo ) 7 % 4 is 3

18 Integer Division Example: final int PENNIES_PER_NICKEL = 5; final int PENNIES_PER_DIME = 10; final int PENNIES_PER_QUARTER = 25; final int PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR = 100; // Compute total value in pennies int total = dollars * PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR + quarters * PENNIES_PER_QUARTER + nickels * PENNIES_PER_NICKEL + dimes * PENNIES_PER_DIME + pennies; // Use integer division to convert to dollars, cents int dollars = total / PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR; int cents = total % PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR;

19 Powers and Roots Math class: contains methods sqrt and pow to compute square roots and powers To compute x n, you write Math.pow(x, n) However, to compute x 2 it is significantly more efficient simply to compute x * x To take the square root of a number, use Math.sqrt; for example, Math.sqrt(x) In Java, can be represented as (-b + Math.sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c)) / (2 * a)

20 Analyzing an Expression

21

22 3.2.5 Converting Floating-point Number to Integers (Cast and Round) Cast converts a value to a different type: double balance = total + tax; int dollars = balance; // Error int dollars = (int) balance; int dollars = (int) (total + tax); การ cast จะต ดจ ดทศน ยม ออก Math.round converts a floating-point number to nearest integer: long rounded = Math.round(balance); // if balance is 13.75, then rounded is set to 14

23 Syntax 3.2 Cast

24 Arithmetic Expressions

25 Self Check 3.6 What is the value of n after the following sequence of statements? n--; n++; n--; Answer: One less than it was before.

26 Self Check 3.7 What is the value of 1729 / 100? Of 1729 % 100? Answer:17 and 29

27 Self Check 3.8 Why doesn t the following statement compute the average of s1, s2, and s3? double average = s1 + s2 + s3 / 3; // Error Answer: Only s3 is divided by 3. To get the correct result, use parentheses. Moreover, if s1, s2, and s3 are integers, you must divide by 3.0 to avoid integer division: (s1 + s2 + s3) / 3.0

28 Calling Static Methods A static method does not operate on an object double x = 4; double root = x.sqrt(); // Error Static methods are declared inside classes Naming convention: Classes start with an uppercase letter; objects start with a lowercase letter: Math System.out

29 Syntax 3.3 Static Method Call

30 3.3 Input and Output import java.util.scanner;.. Scanner in = new Scanner(System.in);.. System.out.print( Please enter the number of bottles : ); int bottles = in.nextint();.. double price = in.nextdouble();

31 3.3.2 Formatted Output

32 import java.util.scanner; public class Volume { } public static void main(string[] args) { } // Read price per pack Scanner in = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Please enter the price for a six-pack: "); double packprice = in.nextdouble(); // Read price per bottle System.out.print("Please enter the price for a two-liter bottle: "); double bottleprice = in.nextdouble(); final double CANS_PER_PACK = 6; final double CAN_VOLUME = 0.355; // 12 oz. = l final double BOTTLE_VOLUME = 2; // Compute and print price per liter double packpriceperliter = packprice / (CANS_PER_PACK * CAN_VOLUME); double bottlepriceperliter = bottleprice / BOTTLE_VOLUME; System.out.printf("Pack price per liter: %8.2f", packpriceperliter); System.out.println(); System.out.printf("Bottle price per liter: %8.2f", bottlepriceperliter); System.out.println();

33 3.5 TheString Class A string is a sequence of characters Strings are objects of the String class A string literal is a sequence of characters enclosed in double quotation marks: "Hello, World!" String length is the number of characters in the String Example: "Harry".length() is 5 Empty string: ""

34 Concatenation Use the + operator: String name = "Dave"; String message = "Hello, " + name; // message is "Hello, Dave" If one of the arguments of the + operator is a string, the other is converted to a string String a = "Agent ; int n = 7; String bond = a + n; // bond is "Agent7"

35 Concatenation in Print Statements Useful to reduce the number of System.out.print instructions: System.out.print("The total is "); System.out.println(total); versus System.out.println("The total is " + total); String Input String name = in.next();

36 Converting between Strings and Numbers Convert to number: int n = Integer.parseInt(str); double x = Double.parseDouble(x); Convert to string: String str = "" + n; str = Integer.toString(n);

37 Substrings String greeting = "Hello, World!"; String sub = greeting.substring(0, 5); // sub is "Hello" Supply start and past the end position First position is at 0

38 Substrings String sub2 = greeting.substring(7, 12); // sub2 is "World" Substring length is past the end - start

39

40 Reading Input System.in has minimal set of features it can only read one byte at a time In Java 5.0, Scanner class was added to read keyboard input in a convenient manner Scanner in = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter quantity:"); int quantity = in.nextint(); nextdouble reads a double nextline reads a line (until user hits Enter) next reads a word (until any white space)

41 ศ กษาต วอย าง vendingmachine ในหน งส อ

42 Using Dialog Boxes for Input and Output

43 Reading Input From a Dialog Box String input = JOptionPane.showInputDialog( Enter price : ) Convert strings to numbers if necessary: int count = Integer.parseInt(input); Double.parseDouble(input); Conversion throws an exception if user doesn t supply a number see Chapter 11 Add System.exit(0) to the main method of any program that uses JOptionPane

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