# Scope. Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 1

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1 Scope Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 1

2 Reusing Names Scope is trivial if you have a unique name for everything: fun square a = a * a; fun double b = b + b; But in modern languages, we often use the same name over and over: fun square n = n * n; fun double n = n + n; How can this work? Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 2

3 Outline Definitions and scope Scoping with blocks Scoping with labeled namespaces Scoping with primitive namespaces Dynamic scoping Separate compilation Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 3

4 Definitions When there are different variables with the same name, there are different possible bindings for that name Not just variables: type names, constant names, function names, etc. A definition is anything that establishes a possible binding for a name Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 4

5 Examples fun square n = n * n; fun square square = square * square; const Low = 1; High = 10; type Ints = array [Low..High] of Integer; var X: Ints; Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 5

6 Scope There may be more than one definition for a given name Each occurrence of the name (other than a definition) has to be bound according to one of its definitions An occurrence of a name is in the scope of a given definition of that name whenever that definition governs the binding for that occurrence Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 6

7 Examples - fun square square = square * square; val square = fn : int -> int - square 3; val it = 9 : int Each occurrence must be bound using one of the definitions Which one? There are many different ways to solve this scoping problem Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 7

8 Outline Definitions and scope Scoping with blocks Scoping with labeled namespaces Scoping with primitive namespaces Dynamic scoping Separate compilation Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 8

9 Blocks A block is any language construct that contains definitions, and also contains the region of the program where those definitions apply let val x = 1; val y = 2; in x+y end Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 9

10 Different ML Blocks The let is just a block: no other purpose A fun definition includes a block: fun cube x = x*x*x; Multiple alternatives have multiple blocks: fun f (a::b::_) = a+b f [a] = a f [] = 0; Each rule in a match is a block: case x of (a,0) => a (_,b) => b Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 10

11 Java Blocks In Java and other C-like languages, you can combine statements into one compound statement using { and } A compound statement also serves as a block: while (i < 0) { int c = i*i*i; p += c; q += c; i -= step; } Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 11

12 Nesting What happens if a block contains another block, and both have definitions of the same name? ML example: what is the value of this expression: let val n = 1 in let val n = 2 in n end end Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 12

13 Classic Block Scope Rule The scope of a definition is the block containing that definition, from the point of definition to the end of the block, minus the scopes of any redefinitions of the same name in interior blocks That is ML s rule; most statically scoped, blockstructured languages use this or some minor variation Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 13

14 Example Scope of this definition is A-B let val n = 1 in let val n = 2 in n end end B A Scope of this definition is B Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 14

15 Outline Definitions and scope Scoping with blocks Scoping with labeled namespaces Scoping with primitive namespaces Dynamic scoping Separate compilation Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 15

16 Labeled Namespaces A labeled namespace is any language construct that contains definitions and a region of the program where those definitions apply, and also has a name that can be used to access those definitions from outside the construct ML has one called a structure Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 16

17 ML Structures structure Fred = struct val a = 1; fun f x = x + a; end; A little like a block: a can be used anywhere from definition to the end But the definitions are also available outside, using the structure name: Fred.a and Fred.f Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 17

18 Other Labeled Namespaces Namespaces that are just namespaces: C++ namespace Modula-3 module Ada package Java package Namespaces that serve other purposes too: Class definitions in class-based object-oriented languages Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 18

19 Example public class Month { public static int min = 1; public static int max = 12; The } variables min and max would be visible within the rest of the class Also accessible from outside, as Month.min and Month.max Classes serve a different purpose too Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 19

20 Namespace Advantages Two conflicting goals: Use memorable, simple names like max For globally accessible things, use uncommon names like maxsupplierbid, names that will not conflict with other parts of the program With namespaces, you can accomplish both: Within the namespace, you can use max From outside, SupplierBid.max Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 20

21 Namespace Refinement Most namespace constructs have some way to allow part of the namespace to be kept private Often a good information hiding technique Programs are more maintainable when scopes are small For example, abstract data types reveal a strict interface while hiding implementation details Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 21

22 Example: An Abstract Data Type namespace dictionary contains a constant definition for initialsize a type definition for hashtable a function definition for hash a function definition for reallocate a function definition for create Implementation a function definition for insert definitions should be hidden a function definition for search a function definition for delete end namespace Interface definitions should be visible Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 22

23 Two Approaches In some languages, like C++, the namespace specifies the visibility of its components In other languages, like ML, a separate construct defines the interface to a namespace (a signature in ML) And some languages, like Ada and Java, combine the two approaches Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 23

24 Namespace Specifies Visibility namespace dictionary contains private: a constant definition for initialsize a type definition for hashtable a function definition for hash a function definition for reallocate public: a function definition for create a function definition for insert a function definition for search a function definition for delete end namespace Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 24

25 Separate Interface interface dictionary contains a function type definition for create a function type definition for insert a function type definition for search a function type definition for delete end interface namespace mydictionary implements dictionary contains a constant definition for initialsize a type definition for hashtable a function definition for hash a function definition for reallocate a function definition for create a function definition for insert a function definition for search a function definition for delete end namespace Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 25

26 Outline Definitions and scope Scoping with blocks Scoping with labeled namespaces Scoping with primitive namespaces Dynamic scoping Separate compilation Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 26

27 Do Not Try This At Home - val int = 3; val int = 3 : int It is legal to have a variable named int ML is not confused You can even do this (ML understands that int*int is not a type here): - fun f int = int*int; val f = fn : int -> int - f 3; val it = 9 : int Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 27

28 Primitive Namespaces ML s syntax keeps types and expressions separated ML always knows whether it is looking for a type or for something else There is a separate namespace for types fun f(int:int) = (int:int)* (int:int); These are in the These are in the ordinary namespace namespace for types Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 28

29 Primitive Namespaces Not explicitly created using the language (like primitive types) They are part of the language definition Some languages have several separate primitive namespaces Java: packages, types, methods, fields, and statement labels are in separate namespaces Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 29

30 Outline Definitions and scope Scoping with blocks Scoping with labeled namespaces Scoping with primitive namespaces Dynamic scoping Separate compilation Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 30

31 When Is Scoping Resolved? All scoping tools we have seen so far are static They answer the question (whether a given occurrence of a name is in the scope of a given definition) at compile time Some languages postpone the decision until runtime: dynamic scoping Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 31

32 Dynamic Scoping Each function has an environment of definitions If a name that occurs in a function is not found in its environment, its caller s environment is searched And if not found there, the search continues back through the chain of callers This generates a rather odd scope rule Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 32

33 Classic Dynamic Scope Rule The scope of a definition is the function containing that definition, from the point of definition to the end of the function, along with any functions when they are called (even indirectly) from within that scope minus the scopes of any redefinitions of the same name in those called functions Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 33

34 Static Vs. Dynamic The scope rules are similar Both talk about scope holes places where a scope does not reach because of redefinitions But the static rule talks only about regions of program text, so it can be applied at compile time The dynamic rule talks about runtime events: functions when they are called Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 34

35 Example fun g x = let val inc = 1; fun f y = y+inc; fun h z = let val inc = 2; in f z end; in h x end; What is the value of g 5 using ML s classic block scope rule? Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 35

36 Block Scope (Static) fun g x = let val inc = 1; fun f y = y+inc; fun h z = let val inc = 2; in f z end; in h x end; With block scope, the reference to inc is bound to the previous definition in the same block. The definition in f s caller s environment is inaccessible. g 5 = 6 in ML Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 36

37 Dynamic Scope fun g x = let val inc = 1; fun f y = y+inc; fun h z = let val inc = 2; in f z end; in h x end; With dynamic scope, the reference to inc is bound to the definition in the caller s environment. g 5 = 7 if ML used dynamic scope Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 37

38 Where It Arises Only in a few languages: some dialects of Lisp and APL Available as an option in Common Lisp Drawbacks: Difficult to implement efficiently Creates large and complicated scopes, since scopes extend into called functions Choice of variable name in caller can affect behavior of called function Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 38

39 Outline Definitions and scope Scoping with blocks Scoping with labeled namespaces Scoping with primitive namespaces Dynamic scoping Separate compilation Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 39

40 Separate Compilation We saw this in the classical sequence of language system steps Parts are compiled separately, then linked together Scope issues extend to the linker: it needs to connect references to definitions across separate compilations Many languages have special support for this Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 40

41 C Approach, Compiler Side Two different kinds of definitions: Full definition Name and type only: a declaration in C-talk If several separate compilations want to use the same integer variable x: Only one will have the full definition, int x = 3; All others have the declaration extern int x; Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 41

42 C Approach, Linker Side When the linker runs, it treats a declaration as a reference to a name defined in some other file It expects to see exactly one full definition of that name Note that the declaration does not say where to find the definition it just requires the linker to find it somewhere Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 42

43 Older Fortran Approach, Compiler Side Older Fortran dialects used COMMON blocks All separate compilations define variables in the normal way All separate compilations give the same COMMON declaration: COMMON A,B,C Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 43

44 Older Fortran Approach, Linker Side The linker allocates just one block of memory for the COMMON variables: those from one compilation start at the same address as those from other compilations The linker does not use the local names If there is a COMMON A,B,C in one compilation and a COMMON X,Y,Z in another, A will be identified with X, B with Y, and C with Z Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 44

45 Modern Fortran Approach A MODULE can define data in one separate compilation A USE statement can import those definitions into another compilation USE says what module to use, but does not say what the definitions are So unlike the C approach, the Fortran compiler must at least look at the result of that separate compilation Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 45

46 Trends in Separate Compilation In recent languages, separate compilation is less separate than it used to be Java classes can depend on each other circularly, so the Java compiler must be able to compile separate classes simultaneously ML is not really suitable for separate compilation at all, though CM (a separate tool in the SML system, the Compilation Manager) can do it for most ML programs Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 46

47 Conclusion Today: four approaches for scoping There are many variations, and most languages employ several at once Remember: names do not have scopes, definitions do! Chapter Ten Modern Programming Languages 47

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