# Lecture (03) Binary Codes Registers and Logic Gates

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1 Lecture (03) Binary Codes Registers and Logic Gates By: Dr. Ahmed ElShafee Binary Codes Digital systems use signals that have two distinct values and circuit elements that have two stable states. binary number of n digits, for example represented by n binary circuit elements, each having an output signal equivalent to 0 or 1. Digital systems many also presents other discrete elements of information that is distinct among a group of quantities can be represented with a binary code. ١ ٢ A set of four elements can be coded with two bits, with each element assigned one of the following bit combinations: 00, 01, 10, 11. A set of eight elements requires a three bit code A set of 16 elements requires a four bit code The bit combination of an n bit code is determined from the count in binary from 0 to 2 n 1 Binary Coded Decimal Code binary coded decimal and is commonly referred to as BCD. number with k decimal digits will require 4k bits in BCD ٣ ٤

2 Binary The BCD value has 12 bits to encode the characters of the decimal value, but the equivalent binary number needs only 8 bits. BCD number needs more bits than its equivalent binary value. The advantage of BCD, is that the computer input and output data are generated by people who use the decimal system. BCD Addition When the binary sum is equal to or less than 1001 bcd 9 10 (without a carry), the corresponding BCD digit is correct. However, when the binary sum is greater than or equal to 1010 bcd, the result is an invalid BCD digit Add 6 10 = (0110) 2 to the binary sum converts it to the correct digit and also produces a carry as required. ٥ ٦ = 760 in BCD ٧ ٨

3 Decimal Arithmetic & signed numbers in BCD Uses signed magnitude system or signed complement system. The sign of a decimal number is usually represented with four bits to conform to the four bit code of the decimal digits. designate a plus with four 0 s and a minus with the BCD equivalent of 9, which is The signed complement system can be either the 9 s or the 10 s complement, but the 10 s complement is the one most often used. 10 s complement of a BCD number, we first take the 9 s complement and then add 1 to the least significant digit For subtraction, Take the 10 s complement of the subtrahend ٩ and add it to the minuend. (+375) + ( 240) = Find 10 s complement of 240 = ١٠ Other Decimal Codes Binary codes for decimal digits require a minimum of four bits per digit. Each code uses only 10 out of a possible 16 bit combinations that can be arranged with four bits. The other six unused combinations have no meaning and should be avoided. ١١ ١٢

4 BCD and the 2421, and code are examples of weighted codes. In a weighted code, each bit position is assigned a weighting factor in such a way that each digit can be evaluated by adding the weights of all the 1 s in the coded combination. BCD code has weights of 8, 4, 2, and 1. which correspond to the power of two values of each bit = 8 * * * * 0 = code has weights of 2, 4, 2, and 1. 2 * * * * 1 = ,weights of 8, 4, 2, 1 8 * * 1 + ( 2) * 1 + ( 1) * 0 = 2. ١٣ The 2421 and the excess 3 codes are examples of self complementing codes. Such codes have the property that the 9 s complement of a decimal number is obtained directly by changing 1 s to 0 s and 0 s to 1 s = ( ) excess 3 2 s complement excess 3 = ١٤ Gray Code The output data of many physical systems are quantities that are continuous. Continuous or analog information is converted into digital form by means of an analog to digital converter It is sometimes convenient to use the Gray code to represent digital data that have been converted from analog data advantage of the Gray code that only one bit in the code group changes in going from one number to the next going from 7 to 8, the Gray code changes from 0100 to 1100 ١٥ ١٦

5 ASCII Character Code The standard binary code for the alphanumeric characters is the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), which uses seven bits to code 128 characters, The seven bits of the code are designated by b1 through b7, with b7 the most significant bit. The letter A, for example, is represented in ASCII a (column 100, row 0001). ASCII code also contains 94 printed graphic characters and 34 nonprinting characters used for various control functions The graphic characters consist of the 26 uppercase letters (A through Z), the 26 lowercase letters (a through z), the 10 numerals (0 through 9), and 32 special printable characters, such as %, *, and \$. ١٧ ١٨ ١٩ ٢٠

6 An additional 128 eight bit characters with the most significant bit set to 1 are used for other symbols, such as the Greek alphabet or italic type font. Error Detecting Code To detect errors in data communication and processing, an eighth bit is sometimes added to the ASCII character to indicate its parity A parity bit is an extra bit included with a message to make the total number of 1 s either even or odd. ٢١ ٢٢ Binary Storage and Registers binary information must have a physical existence in some medium for storing binary cell is capable of storing one bit (0 or 1) of information. The information stored in a cell is 1 when the cell is in one stable state and 0 when the cell is in the other stable state. Registers A register is a group of binary cells A register with n cells can store any discrete quantity of information that contains n bits A register with n cells can store any discrete quantity of information that contains n bits ٢٣ A register with 16 cells can be in one of 2 16 possible states, register can store any binary number from 0 to assumes that the register stores alphanumeric characters of an eight bit code, then the content of the register is any two meaningful characters. Register Transfer register transfer operation is a basic operation that consists of a transfer of binary information from one set of registers into another set of registers. The transfer may be direct, from one register to another, or may pass through data processing circuits to perform an ٢٤ operation

7 transfer of binary information from a keyboard into a register in the memory unit. The input unit is assumed to have a keyboard, a control circuit, and an input register. Each time a key is struck, the control circuit enters an equivalent eight bit alphanumeric character code into the input register The information from the input register is transferred into the eight least significant cells of a processor register. After every transfer, the input register is cleared to enable the control to insert a new eight bit code when the keyboard is struck again. ٢٥ ٢٦ Each eight bit character transferred to the processor register is preceded by a shift of the previous character to the next eight cells on its left. When a transfer of four characters is completed, the processor register is full, and its contents are transferred into a memory register. The devices that hold the data to be processed and with circuit elements called registers. Binary variables are manipulated by means of digital logic circuits. ٢٧ ٢٨

8 processor unit shown consists of three registers R1, R2, and R3 Memory registers store information and are incapable of processing the two operands. The information stored in memory can be transferred to processor registers, and the results obtained in processor registers can be transferred back into a memory register ٢٩ for storage until needed again. diagram shows the contents of two operands transferred from two memory registers into R1 and R2. digital logic circuits produce the sum, which is transferred to register R3. The contents of R3 can now be transferred back to one of the memory register ٣٠ Binary Logic Binary logic deals with variables that take on two discrete values (True, False) or bits (values 1 and 0) and with operations that assume logical meaning. Binary logic operations equivalent to an algebra called Boolean algebra Definition of Binary Logic There are three basic logical operations: AND, OR, and NOT. 1. AND represented by a dot or by the absence of an operator Definition: z = 1 if and only if x = 1 and y = 1; otherwise z = 0. equivalent to multiplication ٣١ ٣٢

9 2. OR: represented by a plus sign 3. NOT: represented by a (sometimes by an overbar). Definition: z = 1 if x = 1 or if y = 1 or if both x = 1 and y = 1. If both x = 0 and y = 0, then z = 0 equivalent to addition Definition: if x = 1, then z = 0, but if x = 0, then z = 1 ٣٣ ٣٤ Logic Gates Logic gates are electronic circuits that operate on one or more input signals to produce an output signal. Voltage operated logic circuits respond to two separate voltage levels that represent a binary variable equal to logic 1 or logic 0. For example, a particular digital system may define logic 0 as a signal equal to 0 V and logic 1 as a signal equal to 3 V. Page 31 ٣٥ ٣٦

10 The input terminals of digital circuits accept binary signals within the allowable range and respond at the output terminals with binary signals that fall within the specified range. The intermediate region between the allowed regions is crossed only during a state transition. The input signals x and y in the AND and OR gates may exist in one of four possible states: 00, 10, 11, or 01. The horizontal axis of the timing diagram represents the time, and the vertical axis shows the signal as it changes between the two possible voltage levels. ٣٧ ٣٨ ٣٩ ٤٠

11 AND and OR gates may have more than two inputs. ٤١ The NOT gate is commonly referred to as an inverter The three input AND gate responds with logic 1 output if all three inputs are logic 1, the output produces logic 0 if any input is logic 0. The four input OR gate responds with logic 1 if any input is logic 1; its output becomes logic 0 only when all inputs are logic 0. ٤٢ ٤٣ ٤٤

12 ٤٥ ٤٦ From electronics to logic gate Inverter a 0 b 1 b 1 0 a ٤٧ ٤٨

13 Practical Inverter Nand ٤٩ ٥٠ Practical Nand And gate c e d ٥١ ٥٢

14 Practical And NOR ٥٣ ٥٤ Practical NOR OR ٥٥ ٥٦

15 Practical OR Thanks,.. See you next week (ISA), ٥٧ ٥٨

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