# Control Structures. Lecture 4 COP 3014 Fall September 18, 2017

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1 Control Structures Lecture 4 COP 3014 Fall 2017 September 18, 2017

2 Control Flow Control flow refers to the specification of the order in which the individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated

3 Types of Control Flow Flow of control through any given function is implemented with three basic types of control structures: Sequential: Default mode. Statements are executed line by line. Selection: Used for decisions, branching choosing between 2 or more alternative paths. if if - else switch conditional statements Repetition: Used for looping repeating a piece of code multiple times in a row. while do - while for The function construct, itself, forms another way to affect flow of control through a whole program. This will be discussed later in the course.

4 True and False Selection and repetition statements typically involve decision steps. These steps rely on conditions that are evaluated as true or false C++ has a boolean data type (called bool) that has values true and false. Improves readability. Most functions that answer a yes/no question (or a true/false situation) will return a boolean answer (or in the case of user-defined functions, they should be coded that way) Important: ANY C++ expression that evaluates to a value (i.e. any R-value) can be interpreted as a true/false condition. The rule is: If an expression evaluates to 0, its truth value is false If an expression evaluates to non-zero, its truth value is true

5 Logical Operators

6 Logical Operators The comparison operators in C++ work much like the symbols we use in mathematics. Each of these operators returns a Boolean value: a true or a false. x == y x!= y x <y x <= y x >y x >= y // x is equal to y // x is not equal to y // x is less than y // x is less than or equal to y // x is greater than y // x is greater than or equal to y

7 Logical Operators C++ has operators for combining expressions. Each of these operators returns a boolean value: a true or a false.!x // the NOT operator (negation) //true if x is false x && y // the AND operator //true if both x and y are true x y // the OR operator //true if either x or y or both are true These operators will be commonly used as test expressions in selection statements or repetition statements (loops).

8 Examples of Expressions (x >0 && y >0 && z >0) // all three of (x, y, z) are positive (x <0 y <0 z <0) // at least one of the three variables is negative ( numstudents >= 20 &&!(classavg <70)) // there are at least 20 students and the class average is at least 70 ( numstudents >= 20 && classavg >= 70) // means the same thing as the previous expression

9 Short Circuit Evaluation The && and operators also have a feature known as short-circuit evaluation. In the Boolean AND expression (X && Y), if X is false, there is no need to evaluate Y (so the evaluation stops). Example: (d!= 0 && n / d >0) Notice that the short circuit is crucial in this one. If d is 0, then evaluating (n / d) would result in division by 0 (illegal). But the short-circuit prevents it in this case. If d is 0, the first operand (d!= 0) is false. So the whole && is false. Similarly, for the Boolean OR operation (X Y), if the first part is true, the whole thing is true, so there is no need to continue the evaluation. The computer only evaluates as much of the expression as it needs. This can allow the programmer to write faster executing code.

10 The if/else Selection Statement The most common selection statement is the if/else statement. Basic syntax: if (expression) { statement(s) } else { statement(s) } The else clause is optional, so this format is also legal: if (expression) { statement(s) }

11 The if/else Selection Statement The expression part can be any expression that evaluates a value (an R-value), and it must be enclosed in parentheses ( ). The best use is to make the expression a Boolean expression, which is an operation that evaluates to true or false For other expressions (like (x + y), for instance): an expression that evaluates to 0 is considered false an expression that evaluates to anything else (non-zero) is considered true The statement parts are the bodies of the if-clause and the else-clause. The statement after the if or else clause must be either: an empty statement a statement a block Appropriate indentation of the bodies of the if-clause and else-clause is a very good idea (for human readability), but irrelevant to the compiler

12 Examples if (grade >= 68) cout <<"Passing"; If grade is below 68, we just move on. if (x == 0) cout <<"Nothing here"; else cout <<"There is a value"; This example contains an else clause. The bodies are single statements.

13 Examples if (y!= 4) { cout <<"Wrong number"; y = y * 2; counter++; } else { cout <<"That s it!"; success = true; } Multiple statements are to be executed as a result of the condition being true or false. In this case, notice the compound statement to delineate the bodies of the if and else clauses.

14 Examples Be careful with ifs and elses. If you don t use { }, you may think that you ve included more under an if condition than you really have. if (val <5) cout <<"True"; else cout <<"False"; cout <<"Too bad!"; Indentation is only for people! It improves readability, but means nothing to the compiler.

15 Some Common Errors What s wrong with these if-statements? Which ones are syntax errors and which ones are logic errors? if (x == 1 2 3) cout <<"x is in the range 1-3"; if (x >5) && (y <10) cout <<"Yahoo!"; if (response!= Y response!= N ) cout <<"You must type Y or N (for yes or no)";

16 The switch Statement A switch statement is often convenient for occasions in which there are multiple cases to choose from. The syntax format is: switch (expression) { case constant: statements case constant: statements...(as many case labels as needed) } default: statements // optional label

17 The switch Statement The switch statement evaluates the expression, and then compares it to the values in the case labels. If it finds a match, execution of code jumps to that case label. The values in case labels must be constants, and may only be integer types, which means that you This means only integer types, type char, or enumerations (not yet discussed) This also means the case label must be a literal or a variable declared to be const Note: You may not have case labels with regular variables, strings, floating point literals, operations, or function calls If you want to execute code only in the case that you jump to, end the case with a break statement, otherwise execution of code will fall through to the next case

18 The Conditional Operator There is a special operator known as the conditional operator that can be used to create short expressions that work like if/else statements. Format: test expr? true expr : false expr How it works: The text expression is evaluated for true/false value. This is like the test expression of an if-statement. If the expression is true, the operator returns the true expression value. If the test expression is false, the operator returns the false expression value. Note that this operator takes three operands. It is the one ternary operator in the C++ language

19 Some Examples cout <<(x >y)? "x is greater than y" : "x is less than or equal to y"); // Note that this expression gives the same result as the following if (x >y) cout <<"x is greater than y"; else cout <<"x is less than or equal to y");

20 Some Examples (x <0? value = 10 : value = 20); // this gives the same result as: value = (x <0? 10 : 20); // and also gives the same result as: if (x <0) value = 10; else value = 20;

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