# CS429: Computer Organization and Architecture

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1 CS429: Computer Organization and Architecture Dr. Bill Young Department of Computer Sciences University of Texas at Austin Last updated: September 18, 2017 at 12:48 CS429 Slideset 4: 1

2 Topics of this Slideset IEEE Standard Rounding Floating point operations Mathematical properties CS429 Slideset 4: 2

3 Puzzles int x =... ; float f =... ; double d =... ; For each of the following, either: argue that it is true for all argument values, or explain why it is not true. Assume neither d nor f is NaN. x == (int)(float) x x == (int)(double) x f == (float)(double) f d == (float) d f == -(-f) 2/3 == 2/3.0 d < 0.0 ((d*2) < 0.0) d > f -f > -d d*d >= 0.0 (d+f)-d == f CS429 Slideset 4: 3

4 IEEE Standard IEEE Standard 754 Established in 1985 as a uniform standard for floating point arithmetic It is supported by all major CPUs. Before 1985 there were many idiosyncratic formats. Driven by Numerical Concerns Nice standards for rounding, overflow, underflow Hard to make go fast: numerical analysts predominated over hardware types in defining the standard Now all (add, subtract, multiply) operations are fast except divide. CS429 Slideset 4: 4

5 Fractional Binary Numbers The binary number b i b i 1 b 2 b 1...b 0.b 1 b 2 b 3...b j represents a particular (positive) sum. Each digit is multiplied by a power of two according to the following chart: Bit: b i b i 1... b 2 b 1 b 0 b 1 b 2 b 3... b j Weight: 2 i 2 i /2 1/4 1/ j Representation: Bits to the right of the binary point represent fractional powers of 2. This represents the rational number: The sign is treated separately. i k= j b k 2 k CS429 Slideset 4: 5

6 Fractional Binary Numbers: Examples Value Representation 5+3/ / / Observations Divide by 2 by shifting right Multiply by 2 by shifting left Numbers of the form are just below 1.0 1/2+1/4+1/ /2 i 1.0 We use the notation 1.0 ǫ. CS429 Slideset 4: 6

7 Representable Numbers Limitation You can only represent numbers of the form y +x/2 i. Other fractions have repeating bit representations Value Representation 1/ [01] / [0011] / [0011]... 2 CS429 Slideset 4: 7

8 Aside: Converting Decimal Fractions to Binary If you want to convert a decimal fraction to binary, it s easy if you use a simple iterative procedure. 1 Start with the decimal fraction (> 1) and multiply by 2. 2 Stop if the result is 0 (terminated binary) or a result you ve seen before (repeating binary). 3 Record the whole number part of the result. 4 Repeat from step 1 with the fractional part of the result = = = The result (following the binary point) is the series of whole numbers components of the answers read from the top, i.e., CS429 Slideset 4: 8

9 Aside: Converting Decimal Fractions to Binary (2) Let s try another one, 0.1 or 1/ = = = = = = 0.4 We could continue, but we see that it s going to repeat forever (since 0.2 repeats our multiplicand from the second line). Reading the integer parts from the top gives 0[0011], since we ll repeat the last 4 bits forever. CS429 Slideset 4: 9

10 Representation Numerical Form 1 s M 2 E Sign bit s determines whether number is negative or positive. Significand M is normally a fractional value in the range [ ) Exponent E weights value by power of two. Floats (32-bit floating point numbers) CS429 Slideset 4: 10

11 Representation Encoding s exp frac The most significant bit is the sign bit. The exp field encodes E. The frac field encodes M. Float format: CS429 Slideset 4: 11

12 Precisions Encoding s exp frac Sizes The most significant bit is the sign bit. The exp field encodes E. The frac field encodes M. Single precision: 8 exp bits, 23 frac bits, for 32 bits total Double precision: 11 exp bits, 52 frac bits, for 64 bits total Extended precision: 15 exp bits, 63 frac bits Only found in Intel-compatible machines Stored in 80 bits: an explicit 1 bit appears in the format, except when exp is 0. CS429 Slideset 4: 12

13 Normalized Numeric Values Condition: exp and exp Exponent is coded as a biased value E = Exp Bias Exp: unsigned value denoted by exp. Bias: Bias value Single precision: 127 (Exp: , E : ) Double precision: 1023 (Exp: , E : ) In general: Bias = 2 e 1 1, where e is the number of exponent bits Significand coded with implied leading 1 M = 1.xxx...x 2 xxx...x: bits of frac Minimum when (M = 1.0) Maximum when (M = 2.0 ǫ) We get the extra leading bit for free. CS429 Slideset 4: 13

14 Normalized Encoding Example Value: float F = ; = = Significand M = frac = Exponent E = 13 Bias = 127 Exp = 140 = CS429 Slideset 4: 14

15 Normalized Encoding Example Representation Hex: 466DB400 Binary: : : CS429 Slideset 4: 15

16 Normalized Example Given the bit string 0x , what floating point number does it represent? CS429 Slideset 4: 16

17 Normalized Example Given the bit string 0x , what floating point number does it represent? Writing this as a bit string gives us: We see that this is a positive, normalized number. So, this number is: exp = = = = CS429 Slideset 4: 17

18 Denormalized Values Condition: exp = Value Exponent values: E = -Bias + 1 Why this value? Significand value: M = 0.xxx...x 2, where xxx...x are the bits of frac. Cases exp = and frac = represents values of 0 notice that we have distinct +0 and -0 exp = and frac These are numbers very close to 0.0 Lose precision as they get smaller Experience gradual underflow CS429 Slideset 4: 18

19 Denormalized Example Given the bit string 0x , what floating point number does it represent? CS429 Slideset 4: 19

20 Denormalized Example Given the bit string 0x , what floating point number does it represent? Writing this as a bit string gives us: We see that this is a negative, denormalized number with value: = CS429 Slideset 4: 20

21 Why That Exponent The exponent (it s not a bias) for denormalized floats is 126. Why that number? The smallest positive normalized float is Where did I get that number? All positive normalized floats are bigger. The largest positive denormalized float is Why? All positive denorms are between this number and 0. Note that the smallest norm and the largest denorm are incredibly close together. Thus, the normalized range flows naturally into the denormalized range because of this choice of exponent for denorms. CS429 Slideset 4: 21

22 Special Values Condition: exp = Cases exp = and frac = Represents value of infinity ( ) Result returned for operations that overflow Sign indicates positive or negative E.g., 1.0/0.0 = 1.0/ 0.0 = +, 1.0/ 0.0 = exp = and frac Not-a-Number (NaN) Represents the case when no numeric value can be determined E.g., sqrt( 1), How many 32-bit NaN s are there? CS429 Slideset 4: 22

23 Tiny Example 8-bit Representation The sign bit is in the most significant bit. The next four bits are the exponent with a bias of 7. The last three bits are the frac. This has the general form of the IEEE Format Has both normalized and denormalized values. Has representations of 0, NaN, infinity s exp frac CS429 Slideset 4: 23

24 Values Related to the Exponent Exp exp E 2 E comment /64 (denorms) / / / / / / n/a (inf, NaN) CS429 Slideset 4: 24

25 Dynamic Range s exp frac E Value /8 1/64 = 1/512 closest to zero Denormalized /8 1/64 = 2/512 numbers /8 1/64 = 6/ /8 1/64 = 7/512 largest denorm /8 1/64 = 8/512 smallest norm /8 1/64 = 9/ /8 1/2 = 14/16 Normalized /8 1/2 = 15/16 closest to 1 below numbers /8 1 = /8 1 = 9/8 closest to 1 above /8 1 = 10/ /8 128 = /8 128 = 240 largest norm n/a CS429 Slideset 4: 25

26 Simple Float System Notice that the floating point numbers are not distributed evenly on the number line. Suppose M is the largest possible exponent, m is the smallest, 1 8 is the smallest positive number representable, and 7 4 the largest positive number representable. What is the format? CS429 Slideset 4: 26

27 Interesting FP Numbers Description exp frac Numeric value Zero Smallest Pos. Denorm { 23, 52} 2 { 126, 1022} Single Double Largest Denorm (1.0 ǫ) 2 { 126, 1022} Single Double Smallest Pos. Norm { 126, 1022} Just larger than the largest denomalized. One Largest Norm (2.0 ǫ) 2 {127,1023} Single Double CS429 Slideset 4: 27

28 Special Properties of Encoding FP Zero is the Same as Integer Zero: All bits are 0. Can (Almost) Use Unsigned Integer Comparison Must first compare sign bits. Must consider 0 = 0. NaNs are problematic: Will be greater than any other values. What should the comparison yield? Otherwise, it s OK. Denorm vs. normalized works. Normalized vs. infinity works. CS429 Slideset 4: 28

29 Operations Conceptual View First compute the exact result. Make it fit into the desired precision. Possibly overflows if exponent is too large. Possibly round to fit into frac. Rounding Modes (illustrated with \$ rounding) \$1.40 \$1.60 \$1.50 \$2.50 -\$1.50 Toward Zero \$1 \$1 \$1 \$2 -\$1 Round down ( ) \$1 \$1 \$1 \$2 -\$2 Round up (+ ) \$2 \$2 \$2 \$3 -\$1 Nearest even (default) \$1 \$2 \$2 \$2 -\$2 1 Round down: rounded result is close to but no greater than true result. 2 Round up: rounded result is close to but no less than true result. CS429 Slideset 4: 29

30 Closer Look at Round to Even Default Rounding Mode Hard to get any other kind without dropping into assembly. All others are statistically biased; the sum of a set of integers will consistently be under- or over-estimated. Applying to Other Decimal Places / Bit Positions When exactly halfway between two possible values, round so that the least significant digit is even. E.g., round to the nearest hundredth: Less than half way Greater than half way Half way, round up Half way, round down CS429 Slideset 4: 30

31 Rounding Binary Numbers Binary Fractional Numbers Even when least significant bit is 0. Half way when bits to the right of rounding position = Examples E.g., Round to nearest 1/4 (2 bits to right of binary point). Value Binary Rounded Action Rounded Value 2 3/ (< 1/2: down) 2 2 3/ (> 1/2: up) 2 1/4 2 7/ (1/2: up) 3 2 5/ (1/2: down) 2 1/2 CS429 Slideset 4: 31

32 Round to Even When rounding to even, consider the two possible choices and choose the one with a 0 in the final position. Example: round to even at the 1/4 position: /2 1 5/8 1 3/ /4 1 7/8 2.0 CS429 Slideset 4: 32

33 FP Multiplication Operands: ( 1) S 1 M 1 2 E 1,( 1) S 2 M 2 2 E 2 Exact Result: ( 1) S M 2 E Sign S: S 1 xor S 2 Significand M: M 1 M 2 Exponent E: E 1 +E 2 Fixing If M 2, shift M right, increment E E is out of range, overflow Round M to fit frac precision Implementation Biggest chore is multiplying significands. CS429 Slideset 4: 33

34 Multiplication Examples Decimal Example ( )( ) = ( )( ) = = adjust exponent = round Binary Example ( )( ) = ( )( ) = = round to even = adjust exponent CS429 Slideset 4: 34

35 Multiplication Warning Binary Example ( )( ) = ( )( ) = = round to even = adjust exponent Be careful if you try to do this in the floating point format, rather than in scientific notation. Since the exponents are biased in FP format, adding them would give you: (2 + bias) + (4 + bias) = 6 + 2*bias To adjust you have to subtract the bias. CS429 Slideset 4: 35

36 FP Addition Operands: ( 1) S 1 M 1 2 E 1,( 1) S 2 M 2 2 E 2 Assume E 1 > E 2 Exact Result: ( 1) S M 2 E Fixing Sign S, Significand M; result of signed align and add. Exponent E: E 1 If M 2, shift M right, increment E If M < 1, shift M left k positions, decrement E by k if E is out of range, overflow Round M to fit frac precision If you try to do this in the FP form, recall that both exponents are biased. CS429 Slideset 4: 36

37 Addition Examples Decimal Example ( )+( ) = ( )+( ) align exponents = ( ) 10 2 = = fix exponent = round Binary Example ( )+( ) = ( )+( ) align exponents = ( ) 2 2 = = fix exponent = round CS429 Slideset 4: 37

38 Mathematical Properties of FP Add Compare to those of Abelian Group Closed under addition? Yes, but may generate infinity or NaN. Commutative? Yes. Associative? No, because of overflow and inexactness of rounding. O is additive identity? Yes. Every element has additive inverse? Almost, except for infinities and NaNs. Monotonicity a b = a+c b +c? Almost, except for infinities and NaNs. CS429 Slideset 4: 38

39 Mathematical Properties of FP Mult Compare to those of Commutative Ring Closed under multiplication? Yes, but may generate infinity or NaN. Multiplication Commutative? Yes. Multiplication is Associative? No, because of possible overflow and inexactness of rounding. 1 is multiplicative identity? Yes. Multiplication distributes over addition? No, because of possible overflow and inexactness of rounding. Monotonicity a b & c 0 = a c b c? Almost, except for infinities and NaNs. CS429 Slideset 4: 39

40 in C C guarantees two levels float: single precision double: double precision Conversions Casting among int, float, and double changes numeric values Double or float to int: truncates fractional part like rounding toward zero not defined when out of range: generally saturates to TMin or TMax int to double: exact conversion as long as int has 53-bit word size int to float: will round according to rounding mode. CS429 Slideset 4: 40

41 Answers to FP Puzzles int x =... ; float f =... ; double d =... ; Assume neither d nor f is NaN. x == (int)(float) x No: 24 bit significand x == (int)(double) x Yes: 53 bit significand f == (float)(double) f Yes: increases precision d == (float) d No: loses precision f == -(-f) Yes: just change sign bit 2/3 == 2/3.0 No: 2/3 == 0 d < 0.0 ((d*2) < 0.0) Yes d > f -f > -d Yes d*d >= 0.0 Yes (d+f)-d == f No: not associative CS429 Slideset 4: 41

42 Ariane 5 On June 4, 1996 an unmanned Ariane 5 rocket launched by the European Space Agency exploded just forty seconds after its lift-off from Kourou, French Guiana. The rocket was on its first voyage, after a decade of development costing \$7 billion. The destroyed rocket and its cargo were valued at \$500 million. CS429 Slideset 4: 42

43 Ariane 5 The cause of the failure was a software error in the inertial reference system. Specifically a 64-bit floating point number relating to the horizontal velocity of the rocket with respect to the platform was converted to a 16-bit signed integer. The number was larger than 32,767, the largest integer storeable in a 16-bit signed integer, and thus the conversion failed. CS429 Slideset 4: 43

44 Summary IEEE has Clear Mathematical Properties Represents numbers of the form M 2 E. Can reason about operations independent of implementation: as if computed with perfect precision and then rounded. Not the same as real arithmetic. Violates associativity and distributivity. Makes life difficult for compilers and serious numerical application programmers. CS429 Slideset 4: 44

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