# Data Storage. Slides derived from those available on the web site of the book: Computer Science: An Overview, 11 th Edition, by J.

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1 Data Storage Slides derived from those available on the web site of the book: Computer Science: An Overview, 11 th Edition, by J. Glenn Brookshear Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

2 Data Storage Bits and Their Storage Main Memory Mass Storage Representing Information as Bit Patterns The Binary System Data Compression Communications Errors

3 Bits and Bit Patterns Bit: Binary Digit (0 or 1) Bit Patterns are used to represent information. Numbers Text characters Images Sound And others

4 Boolean Operations Boolean Operation: An operation that manipulates one or more true/false values Specific operations AND OR XOR (exclusive or) NOT

5 The Boolean operations AND, OR, and XOR (exclusive or)

6 Gates Gate: A device that computes a Boolean operation Often implemented as (small) electronic circuits Provide the building blocks from which computers are constructed VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration)

7 A pictorial representation of AND, OR, XOR, and NOT gates

8 Flip-flops Flip-flop: A circuit built from gates that can store one bit. One input line is used to set its stored value to 1 One input line is used to set its stored value to 0 While both input lines are 0, the most recently stored value is preserved

9 A simple flip-flop circuit

10 Setting the output of a flip-flop to 1

11 Setting the output of a flip-flop to 1 (continued)

12 Setting the output of a flip-flop to 1 (continued)

13 Another way of constructing a flip-flop

14 Hexadecimal Notation Hexadecimal notation: A shorthand notation for long bit patterns Divides a pattern into groups of four bits each Represents each group by a single symbol Example: becomes A3

15 The hexadecimal coding system

16 Data Storage Bits and Their Storage Main Memory Mass Storage Representing Information as Bit Patterns The Binary System Data Compression Communications Errors

17 Main Memory Cells Cell: A unit of main memory (typically 8 bits which is one byte) Most significant bit: the bit at the left (highorder) end of the conceptual row of bits in a memory cell Least significant bit: the bit at the right (loworder) end of the conceptual row of bits in a memory cell

18 The organization of a byte-size memory cell

19 Main Memory Addresses Address: A name that uniquely identifies one cell in the computer s main memory The names are actually numbers. These numbers are assigned consecutively starting at zero. Numbering the cells in this manner associates an order with the memory cells.

20 Memory cells arranged by address

21 Memory Terminology Random Access Memory (RAM): Memory in which individual cells can be easily accessed in any order Dynamic Memory (DRAM): RAM composed of volatile memory

22 Measuring Memory Capacity Kilobyte: 2 10 bytes = 1024 bytes Example: 3 KB = 3 times1024 bytes Megabyte: 2 20 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes Example: 3 MB = 3 times 1,048,576 bytes Gigabyte: 2 30 bytes = 1,073,741,824 bytes Example: 3 GB = 3 times 1,073,741,824 bytes

23 Data Storage Bits and Their Storage Main Memory Mass Storage Representing Information as Bit Patterns The Binary System Data Compression Communications Errors

24 Mass Storage On-line versus off-line Typically larger than main memory Typically less volatile than main memory Typically slower than main memory

25 Mass Storage Systems Magnetic Systems Disk Tape Optical Systems CD DVD Flash Technology Flash Drives Secure Digital (SD) Memory Card

26 Data Storage Bits and Their Storage Main Memory Mass Storage Representing Information as Bit Patterns The Binary System Data Compression Communications Errors

27 Representing Text Each character (letter, punctuation, etc.) is assigned a unique bit pattern. ASCII: Uses patterns of 7-bits to represent most symbols used in written English text (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) ISO developed a number of 8 bit extensions to ASCII, each designed to accommodate a major language group (International Organization for Standardization) Unicode: Uses patterns of 16-bits to represent the major symbols used in languages world wide

28 Appendix A: Samples from ASCII Symbol ASCII Hex Symbol ASCII Hex A B C a # b E c line feed A

29 The message Hello. in ASCII

30 Representing Numeric Values Binary notation: Uses bits to represent a number in base two Limitations of computer representations of numeric values Overflow: occurs when a value is too big to be represented Truncation: occurs when a value cannot be represented accurately

31 Representing Images Bit map techniques Pixel: short for picture element RGB Luminance and chrominance Vector techniques Scalable TrueType and PostScript

32 Representing Sound Sampling techniques Used for high quality recordings Records actual audio MIDI Used in music synthesizers Records musical score

33 The sound wave represented by the sequence 0, 1.5, 2.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 3.0, 0

34 Data Storage Bits and Their Storage Main Memory Mass Storage Representing Information as Bit Patterns The Binary System Data Compression Communications Errors

35 The Binary System The traditional decimal system is based on powers of ten. The Binary system is based on powers of two.

36 The base ten and binary systems

37 Decoding the binary representation

38 An algorithm for finding the binary representation of a positive integer

39 Applying the algorithm to obtain the binary representation of thirteen

40 The binary addition facts

41 Decoding the binary representation

42 Storing Integers Two s complement notation: The most popular means of representing integer values Excess notation: Another means of representing integer values Both can suffer from overflow errors.

43 Two s complement notation systems

44 Coding the value -6 in two s complement notation using four bits

45 Addition problems converted to two s complement notation

46 Data Storage Bits and Their Storage Main Memory Mass Storage Representing Information as Bit Patterns The Binary System Data Compression Communications Errors

47 Data Compression Lossy versus lossless Run-length encoding [250 ones, followed by 200 zeros, followed by 80 ones] Frequency-dependent encoding (e.g.huffman codes) [More frequent use of item less length for the code ] Relative encoding [Record only the differences] Dictionary encoding (Includes adaptive dictionary encoding such as LZW encoding. [Lempel-Ziv- Welsh])

48 Lempel-Ziv-Welsh (example) Encoding message: xyx xyx xyx xyx 1:x 2:y 3: Space 4:xyx (Do not need to be sent to decoder) Encoded Message: Decoding: by (1:x,2:y,3: Space ) xyx (add 4 to dictionary)xyx xyx xyx

49 Compressing Images GIF [Graphic Interchange Format]: Good for cartoons JPEG [Joint Photographic Experts Group]: Good for photographs TIFF [Tagged Image File Format]: Good for image archiving

50 Compressing Audio and Video MPEG [Motion Picture Experts Group] High definition television broadcast Video conferencing MP3 [MPEG Layer 3] Temporal masking Frequency masking

51 Data Storage Bits and Their Storage Main Memory Mass Storage Representing Information as Bit Patterns The Binary System Data Compression Communications Errors

52 Communication Errors Parity bits (even versus odd) Checkbytes (To detect burst of bit errors) Error correcting codes

53 The ASCII codes for the letters A and F adjusted for odd parity

54 An error-correcting code

55 Decoding the pattern using the code in previous slide (Hamming Distance)

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About the Tutorial Computer Logical Organization refers to the level of abstraction above the digital logic level, but below the operating system level. At this level, the major components are functional