# CS/COE 0447 Example Problems for Exam 2 Spring 2011

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1 CS/COE 0447 Example Problems for Exam 2 Spring ) Show the steps to multiply the 4-bit numbers 3 and 5 with the fast shift-add multipler. Use the table below. List the multiplicand (M) and product (P) in binary. In the field step, write ADD when the multiplicand is added. Write SHIFT to indicate when the product is shifted. In the iteration Start write the initial values for the mutiplicand and product. You may not need all steps (rows) in the table. Iter. Multiplicand (M) Product (P) Step Start set product=0s:r lsb=1 => +M shift right 1 lsb=0 => +0 shift right 1 lsb=1 => +M shift right 1 lsb=0 => +0 shift right 1 5 NOT NEEDED 6 NOT NEEDED 7 NOT NEEDED 1 of 9

2 2) Show the steps to multiply an 6-bit number 17 and 3 with Booth s algorithm. Use the table below. List the multiplicand and product in binary. In the field step, write ADD, SUB, or NO OP to indicate which operation is done on each iteration. Iter. Multiplicand (M) Product (P) Step Start (negation is ) set P, with pad bit NOT NEEDED Final answer is: lsbs=10: -M lsbs=11: +0 lsbs=01: +M lsbs=00: +0 lsbs=00: +0 lsbs=00: +0 N/A 3) Explain how the fast shift-add multiply improves over the original slow shift-add multiply. Be sure to indicate what hardware changes make the fast version faster than the slow version. combines registers, reduces size of ALU & does 3-steps in paralle. last two make it fast. 2 of 9

3 4) Consider restoring division with hardware design #3 (the design with a 32-bit divisor and a 64-bit remainder register that holds the remainder and quotient). Assume the quotient and divisor are 5 bit unsigned numbers. Fill in the table below for 17 / 3. For each step, indicate what shift, subtraction, and addition operations are done in the Step Notes column. Iteration Divisor (D) Remainder (R) Notes Init Initial values R<0: +D, left shift 0 into lsb R<0: +D, left shift 0 into lsb R<0: +D, left shift 0 into lsb R>0: left shift 1 into lsb R<0: +D, left shift 0 into lsb R>0: left shift 1 into lsb Done Right shift the left half of R by 1 Result = 5, Remainder = 2 5) Suppose we want to do the computation S = A + B. A and B are positive 2 s complement 8- bit binary numbers. Give a boolean expression that indicates whether there was an overflow when these numbers are added. To represent a certain bit i in A, B or S, use A i, B i or S i. E.g., bit position 3 in A is A 3. Assume the bits are numbered 0 to 7 (right to left). overflow happens when input values have same sign but output has different one Overflow = (A 7 B 7 S 7 ) OR ( A 7 B 7 S7) 6) Give the negation in one s complement binary representation (5 bit numbers) for the decimal numbers: 5d Negation (in one s complement binary) d Negation (in one s complement binary) d Negation (in one s complement binary) of 9

4 7) Give the negation in two s complement binary representation (5 bits) for the decimal numbers: 11d Negation (in two s complement binary) d Negation (in two s complement binary) d Negation (in two s complement binary) ) Give Booth s encoding for the 8-bit numbers: -19d Booth s encoding in two s comp: in two s comp with 0 pad: Booth s encoding: check yourself: = =-19 27d Booth s encoding in two s comp: in two s comp with 0 pad: Booth s encoding: check yourself: = = 27 62d Booth s encoding in two s comp: in two s comp with 0 pad: Booth s encoding: check yourself: = 62 9) Give two reasons to use Booth s algorithm (encoding) to improve the multiplication hardware. 1. it can reduce the number of addition operations 2. it handles signed multiplication 10) Floating-point numbers represent a richer set of values than integer numbers. Nevertheless, processors support integer numbers and programs frequently use them. What primary advantage does integer numbers and operations offer over floating point numbers and operations? integer operations are significantly faster, programs frequently use discrete values thus, using integer for common operations/values offers a big performance benefit. 4 of 9

5 11) Using 1-bit adders, draw the circuit for a 4-bit ripple-carry addition unit. See book / class lecture slides. 12) Using 1-bit adders and 1-bit inverters (i.e., the not of a bit), draw a circuit for a 4-bit ripplecarry subtract unit. See book / class lecture slides (drawn on the board during class). 13) Consider the sum of products boolean equation: A BC + ABC + A B C. Give the truth table representation for this boolean equation. (A is NOT A and + is OR) This truth table has eight rows with three input values (A, B, C) and one output. Label the rows by counting in binary from 0 to 7. Row 011 (i.e., where A=0, B=1, C=1) has a 1 in the output, row 111 has a 1 in the output, and 001 has a 1 in the output. All other output values are 0. 14) Suppose you want to design a hardware circuit that has two inputs A and B, and one output O. The output O has the value 1 when exactly one input (A/B) is a 1. Give the truth table for this circuit design. INPUTS OUTPUT A B O (this is exclusive-or!) 15) For question 15, what is the boolean equation for the truth table? O = A B + AB 16) Here is a truth table. What is the boolean equation for O? INPUTS OUTPUT A B C O O=A B C + A BC + AB C 5 of 9

6 17) Let s consider a 4-bit adder. If each 1-bit adder takes 2ns to compute an output (1-bit result and carry-out), how long does it take to compute the full 4-bit result? it takes 4 * 2ns = 8ns (Note: We ll have more to say about this soon.) 18) Consider problem 17 again. This time, let s compute the time for subtraction (A-B). Suppose the 1-bit inverter (used to complement the B input of each 1-bit adder) takes 1ns. How long does it take to compute an answer with this subtraction unit? (Be careful: Think about whether the invert operations can be done simultaneously.) it takes 1ns additional for the first invert (9ns total); the rest are done in parallel. the first choice is actually faster, so I d pick this one, assuming costs are the same. 19) Consider the logic function: F = A BC + A BC + AB C + ABC. Draw a K-map for this function, circle the minimum terms (1s), and give the simplified Boolean equation. AB C Simplified form: F = A B + AC 20) Given the K-map below, what is the simplified Boolean equation? CD AB F = AD 6 of 9

7 21) Given the K-map below, what is the simplified Boolean equation? CD AB F = A B C + BC 22) Consider the ALU below. Note this ALU has some minor wiring differences than the one described in class. Answer the questions below for this ALU. To perform addition, how should Ainvert, Binvert, CarryIn and Oper be set (if the input doesn t matter, use an X )? 7 of 9

8 Ainvert=0, Binvert=1, CarryIn=0, Oper=10 To perform an OR operation, how should Ainvert, Binvert, CarryIn and Oper be set (if the input doesn t matter, use an X )? Ainvert=0, Binvert=1, CarryIn=X, Oper=00 To perform a NAND operation, how should Ainvert, Binvert, CarryIn and Oper be set (if the input doesn t matter, use an X )? Ainvert=1, Binvert=0, CarryIn=X, Oper=00 To perform a NOR operation, how should Ainvert, Binvert, CarryIn and Oper be set (if the input doesn t matter, use an X )? Ainvert=1, Binvert=0, CarryIn=X, Oper=01 8 of 9

9 23) Consider the 4-bit ALU made with the 1-bit ALU from the previous questions. Suppose, Ainvert=0, Binvert=0, CarryIn=1, A=0100, B=0011, and Oper=10. What is Result? Result = 0001 (this is subtract) 24) Now, suppose, Ainvert=0, Binvert=0, CarryIn=1, A=0101, B=0011, and Oper=00. What is the result? Result = 1101 (Binvert causes B to be inverted to 1100, which is OR ed with A) 9 of 9

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