# Chapter 3 - Functions

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1 Chapter 3 - Functions 1 Outline 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Program Components in C Math Library Functions 3.4 Functions 3.5 Function Definitions 3.6 Function Prototypes 3.7 Header Files 3.8 Random Number Generation 3.11 Scope Rules 3.12 Recursion 3.13 Example Using Recursion: The Fibonacci Series 3.17 References and Reference Parameters 3.18 Default Arguments 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 2 3.1 Introduction Divide and conquer Construct a program from smaller pieces or components Each piece more manageable than the original program 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 3 3.2 Program Components in C++ Modules: functions and classes Programs use new and prepackaged modules New: programmer-defined functions, classes Prepackaged: from the standard library Functions invoked by function call Function name and information (arguments) it needs Function definitions Only written once Hidden from other functions 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 4 3.2 Program Components in C++ Boss to worker analogy A boss (the calling function or caller) asks a worker (the called function) to perform a task and return (i.e., report back) the results when the task is done Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

5 5 3.3 Math Library Functions Perform common mathematical calculations Include the header file <cmath> Functions called by writing functionname (argument); or functionname(argument1, argument2, ); Example cout << sqrt( ); sqrt (square root) function The preceding statement would print 30 All functions in math library return a double 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

6 6 3.3 Math Library Functions Function arguments can be Constants sqrt( 4 ); Variables sqrt( x ); Expressions sqrt( sqrt( x ) ) ; sqrt( 3-6x ); 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

7 7 M ethod Description Exam ple ceil( x ) rounds x to the sm allest integer not less than x ceil( 9.2 ) is 10.0 ceil( -9.8 ) is -9.0 cos( x ) trigonometric cosine of x cos( 0.0 ) is 1.0 (x in radians) exp( x ) exponential function ex exp( 1.0 ) is exp( 2.0 ) is fabs( x ) absolute value of x fabs( 5.1 ) is 5.1 fabs( 0.0 ) is 0.0 fabs( ) is 8.76 floor( x ) rounds x to the largest integer not greater than x floor( 9.2 ) is 9.0 floor( -9.8 ) is fmod( x, y ) rem ainder of x/y as a floatingpoint fmod( , ) is num ber log( x ) natural logarithm of x (base e) log( ) is 1.0 log( ) is 2.0 log10( x ) logarithm of x (base 10) log10( 10.0 ) is 1.0 log10( ) is 2.0 pow( x, y ) x raised to power y (xy) pow( 2, 7 ) is 128 pow( 9,.5 ) is 3 sin( x ) trigonometric sine of x sin( 0.0 ) is 0 (x in radians) sqrt( x ) square root of x sqrt( ) is 30.0 sqrt( 9.0 ) is 3.0 tan( x ) trigonometric tangent of x (x in radians) tan( 0.0 ) is 0 Fig. 3.2 M ath library functions Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

8 8 Functions Modularize a program Software reusability 3.4 Functions Call function multiple times Local variables Known only in the function in which they are defined All variables declared in function definitions are local variables Parameters Local variables passed to function when called Provide outside information 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 9 Function prototype 3.5 Function Definitions Tells compiler argument type and return type of function int square( int ); Function takes an int and returns an int Explained in more detail later Calling/invoking a function square(x); Parentheses an operator used to call function Pass argument x Function gets its own copy of arguments After finished, passes back result 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

10 Function Definitions Format for function definition return-value-type function-name( parameter-list ) { declarations and statements } Parameter list Comma separated list of arguments Data type needed for each argument If no arguments, use void or leave blank Return-value-type Data type of result returned (use void if nothing returned) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 11 Example function int square( int y ) { return y * y; } return keyword 3.5 Function Definitions Returns data, and control goes to function s caller If no data to return, use return; Function ends when reaches right brace Control goes to caller Functions cannot be defined inside other functions Next: program examples 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

12 1 // Fig. 3.3: fig03_03.cpp 2 // Creating and using a programmer-defined function. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 int square( int ); // function prototype 9 10 int main() 11 { 12 // loop 10 times and calculate and output 13 // square of x each time 14 for ( int x = 1; x <= 10; x++ ) 15 cout << square( x ) << " "; // function call cout << endl; return 0; // indicates successful termination } // end main 22 Function prototype: specifies data types of arguments and return values. square expects and int, and returns an int. Parentheses () cause function to be called. When done, it returns the result. Outline 12 fig03_03.cpp (1 of 2) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 23 // square function definition returns square of an integer 24 int square( int y ) // y is a copy of argument to function 25 { 26 return y * y; // returns square of y as an int } // end function square Definition of square. y is a copy of the argument passed. Returns y * y, or y squared. Outline 13 fig03_03.cpp (2 of 2) fig03_03.cpp output (1 of 1) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 1 // Fig. 3.4: fig03_04.cpp 2 // Finding the maximum of three floating-point numbers. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::cin; 7 using std::endl; 8 9 double maximum( double, double, double ); // function prototype int main() 12 { 13 double number1; 14 double number2; 15 double number3; Function maximum takes 3 arguments (all double) and returns a double cout << "Enter three floating-point numbers: "; 18 cin >> number1 >> number2 >> number3; // number1, number2 and number3 are arguments to 21 // the maximum function call 22 cout << "Maximum is: " 23 << maximum( number1, number2, number3 ) << endl; return 0; // indicates successful termination Outline 14 fig03_04.cpp (1 of 2) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

15 26 27 } // end main // function maximum definition; 30 // x, y and z are parameters 31 double maximum( double x, double y, double z ) 32 { 33 double max = x; // assume x is largest if ( y > max ) // if y is larger, 36 max = y; // assign y to max if ( z > max ) // if z is larger, 39 max = z; // assign z to max return max; // max is largest value } // end function maximum Comma separated list for multiple parameters. Outline 15 fig03_04.cpp (2 of 2) fig03_04.cpp output (1 of 1) Enter three floating-point numbers: Maximum is: Enter three floating-point numbers: Maximum is: Enter three floating-point numbers: Maximum is: Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 Function Prototypes Function prototype contains Function name Parameters (number and data type) Return type (void if returns nothing) Only needed if function definition after function call Prototype must match function definition Function prototype double maximum( double, double, double ); Definition double maximum( double x, double y, double z ) { } 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 3.6 Function Prototypes 17 Function signature Part of prototype with name and parameters double maximum( double, double, double ); Function signature Argument Coercion Force arguments to be of proper type Converting int (4) to double (4.0) cout << sqrt(4) Conversion rules Arguments usually converted automatically Changing from double to int can truncate data 3.4 to 3 Mixed type goes to highest type (promotion) int * double 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

18 3.6 Function Prototypes 18 Data types long double double float unsigned long int long int unsigned int int unsigned short int (synonymous with unsigned long) (synonymous with long) (synonymous with unsigned) (synonymous with unsigned short) short int (synonymous with short) unsigned char char bool (false becomes 0, true becomes 1) Fig. 3.5 Promotion hierarchy for built-in data types Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

20 Random Number Generation rand function (<cstdlib>) i = rand(); Generates unsigned integer between 0 and RAND_MAX (usually 32767) Scaling and shifting Modulus (remainder) operator: % 10 % 3 is 1 x % y is between 0 and y 1 Example i = rand() % 6 + 1; Rand() % 6 generates a number between 0 and 5 (scaling) + 1 makes the range 1 to 6 (shift) Next: program to roll dice 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

21 1 // Fig. 3.7: fig03_07.cpp 2 // Shifted, scaled integers produced by 1 + rand() % 6. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 #include <iomanip> 9 10 using std::setw; #include <cstdlib> // contains function prototype for rand int main() 15 { 16 // loop 20 times 17 for ( int counter = 1; counter <= 20; counter++ ) { // pick random number from 1 to 6 and output it 20 cout << setw( 10 ) << ( 1 + rand() % 6 ); // if counter divisible by 5, begin new line of output 23 if ( counter % 5 == 0 ) 24 cout << endl; } // end for structure Outline 21 fig03_07.cpp (1 of 2) Output of rand() scaled and shifted to be a number between 1 and Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

22 27 28 return 0; // indicates successful termination } // end main Outline 22 fig03_07.cpp (2 of 2) fig03_07.cpp output (1 of 1) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 Random Number Generation Next Program to show distribution of rand() Simulate 6000 rolls of a die Print number of 1 s, 2 s, 3 s, etc. rolled Should be roughly 1000 of each 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 1 // Fig. 3.8: fig03_08.cpp 2 // Roll a six-sided die 6000 times. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 #include <iomanip> 9 10 using std::setw; #include <cstdlib> // contains function prototype for rand int main() 15 { 16 int frequency1 = 0; 17 int frequency2 = 0; 18 int frequency3 = 0; 19 int frequency4 = 0; 20 int frequency5 = 0; 21 int frequency6 = 0; 22 int face; // represents one roll of the die 23 Outline 24 fig03_08.cpp (1 of 3) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 24 // loop 6000 times and summarize results 25 for ( int roll = 1; roll <= 6000; roll++ ) { 26 face = 1 + rand() % 6; // random number from 1 to // determine face value and increment appropriate counter 29 switch ( face ) { case 1: // rolled frequency1; 33 break; case 2: // rolled frequency2; 37 break; case 3: // rolled frequency3; 41 break; case 4: // rolled frequency4; 45 break; case 5: // rolled frequency5; 49 break; Outline 25 fig03_08.cpp (2 of 3) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

26 50 51 case 6: // rolled frequency6; 53 break; default: // invalid value 56 cout << "Program should never get here!"; } // end switch } // end for // display results in tabular good format coding style 63 cout << "Face" << setw( 13 ) << "Frequency" 64 << "\n 1" << setw( 13 ) << frequency1 65 << "\n 2" << setw( 13 ) << frequency2 66 << "\n 3" << setw( 13 ) << frequency3 67 << "\n 4" << setw( 13 ) << frequency4 68 << "\n 5" << setw( 13 ) << frequency5 69 << "\n 6" << setw( 13 ) << frequency6 << endl; return 0; // indicates successful termination } // end main Default case included even though it should never be reached. This is a matter of Outline 26 fig03_08.cpp (3 of 3) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

27 Face Frequency Outline 27 fig03_08.cpp output (1 of 1) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

28 Random Number Generation Calling rand() repeatedly Gives the same sequence of numbers Pseudorandom numbers Preset sequence of "random" numbers Same sequence generated whenever program run To get different random sequences Provide a seed value Like a random starting point in the sequence The same seed will give the same sequence srand(seed); <cstdlib> Used before rand() to set the seed 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

29 1 // Fig. 3.9: fig03_09.cpp 2 // Randomizing die-rolling program. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::cin; 7 using std::endl; 8 9 #include <iomanip> using std::setw; // contains prototypes for functions srand and rand 14 #include <cstdlib> // main function begins program execution 17 int main() 18 { 19 unsigned seed; cout << "Enter seed: "; 22 cin >> seed; 23 srand( seed ); // seed random number generator 24 Setting the seed with srand(). Outline 29 fig03_09.cpp (1 of 2) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

30 25 // loop 10 times 26 for ( int counter = 1; counter <= 10; counter++ ) { // pick random number from 1 to 6 and output it 29 cout << setw( 10 ) << ( 1 + rand() % 6 ); // if counter divisible by 5, begin new line of output 32 if ( counter % 5 == 0 ) 33 cout << endl; } // end for return 0; // indicates successful termination } // end main rand() gives the same sequence if it has the same initial seed. Enter seed: Outline 30 fig03_09.cpp (2 of 2) fig03_09.cpp output (1 of 1) Enter seed: Enter seed: Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

31 Random Number Generation Can use the current time to set the seed No need to explicitly set seed every time srand( time( 0 ) ); time( 0 ); <ctime> Returns current time in seconds General shifting and scaling Number = shiftingvalue + rand() % scalingfactor shiftingvalue = first number in desired range scalingfactor = width of desired range 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

32 32 Scope 3.11 Scope Rules Portion of program where identifier can be used File scope Defined outside a function, known in all functions Global variables, function definitions and prototypes Function scope Can only be referenced inside defining function Only labels, e.g., identifiers with a colon (case:) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

33 Scope Rules Block scope Begins at declaration, ends at right brace } Can only be referenced in this range Local variables, function parameters static variables still have block scope Storage class separate from scope Function-prototype scope Parameter list of prototype Names in prototype optional Compiler ignores In a single prototype, name can be used once 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

34 1 // Fig. 3.12: fig03_12.cpp 2 // A scoping example. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 void uselocal( void ); // function prototype 9 void usestaticlocal( void ); // function prototype 10 void useglobal( void ); global // function variable with prototype file int x = 1; // global variable int main() 15 { 16 int x = 5; // local variable to main cout << "local x in main's outer scope is " << x << endl; { // start new scope int x = 7; 23 Declared outside of function; scope. Local variable with function scope. Create a new block, giving x block scope. When the block ends, this x is destroyed. 24 cout << "local x in main's inner scope is " << x << endl; } // end new scope Outline 34 fig03_12.cpp (1 of 5) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

35 27 28 cout << "local x in main's outer scope is " << x << endl; uselocal(); // uselocal has local x 31 usestaticlocal(); // usestaticlocal has static local x 32 useglobal(); // useglobal uses global x 33 uselocal(); // uselocal reinitializes its local x 34 usestaticlocal(); // static local x retains its prior value 35 useglobal(); // global x also retains its value cout << "\nlocal x in main is " << x << endl; return 0; // indicates successful termination } // end main 42 Outline 35 fig03_12.cpp (2 of 5) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

36 43 // uselocal reinitializes local variable x during each call 44 void uselocal( void ) 45 { 46 int x = 25; // initialized each time uselocal is called cout << endl << "local x is " << x 49 << " on entering uselocal" << endl; 50 ++x; 51 cout << "local x is " << x 52 << " on exiting uselocal" << endl; } // end function uselocal 55 Automatic variable (local variable of function). This is destroyed when the function exits, and reinitialized when the function begins. Outline 36 fig03_12.cpp (3 of 5) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

37 56 // usestaticlocal initializes static local variable x only the 57 // first time the function is called; value of x is saved 58 // between calls to this function 59 void usestaticlocal( void ) 60 { 61 // initialized only first time usestaticlocal is called 62 static int x = 50; cout << endl << "local static x is " << x 65 << " on entering usestaticlocal" << endl; 66 ++x; 67 cout << "local static x is " << x 68 << " on exiting usestaticlocal" << endl; } // end function usestaticlocal 71 Static local variable of function; it is initialized only once, and retains its value between function calls. Outline 37 fig03_12.cpp (4 of 5) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

38 72 // useglobal modifies global variable x during each call 73 void useglobal( void ) 74 { 75 cout << endl << "global x is " << x 76 << " on entering useglobal" << endl; 77 x *= 10; 78 cout << "global x is " << x 79 << " on exiting useglobal" << endl; } // end function useglobal This function does not declare any variables. It uses the global x declared in the beginning of the program. Outline 38 fig03_12.cpp (5 of 5) fig03_12.cpp output (1 of 2) local x in main's outer scope is 5 local x in main's inner scope is 7 local x in main's outer scope is 5 local x is 25 on entering uselocal local x is 26 on exiting uselocal local static x is 50 on entering usestaticlocal local static x is 51 on exiting usestaticlocal global x is 1 on entering useglobal global x is 10 on exiting useglobal 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

39 local x is 25 on entering uselocal local x is 26 on exiting uselocal local static x is 51 on entering usestaticlocal local static x is 52 on exiting usestaticlocal Outline 39 fig03_12.cpp output (2 of 2) global x is 10 on entering useglobal global x is 100 on exiting useglobal local x in main is Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

40 40 Recursive functions 3.12 Recursion Functions that call themselves Can only solve a base case If not base case Break problem into smaller problem(s) Launch new copy of function to work on the smaller problem (recursive call/recursive step) Slowly converges towards base case Function makes call to itself inside the return statement Eventually base case gets solved Answer works way back up, solves entire problem 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

41 Recursion Example: factorial n! = n * ( n 1 ) * ( n 2 ) * * 1 Recursive relationship ( n! = n * ( n 1 )! ) 5! = 5 * 4! 4! = 4 * 3! Base case (1! = 0! = 1) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

42 1 // Fig. 3.14: fig03_14.cpp 2 // Recursive factorial function. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 #include <iomanip> 9 10 using std::setw; unsigned long factorial( unsigned long ); // function prototype int main() 15 { 16 // Loop 10 times. During each iteration, calculate 17 // factorial( i ) and display result. 18 for ( int i = 0; i <= 10; i++ ) 19 cout << setw( 2 ) << i << "! = " 20 << factorial( i ) << endl; return 0; // indicates successful termination } // end main Data type unsigned long can hold an integer from 0 to 4 billion. Outline 42 fig03_14.cpp (1 of 2) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

43 25 26 // recursive definition of function factorial 27 unsigned long factorial( unsigned long number ) 28 { 29 // base case 30 if ( number <= 1 ) 31 return 1; // recursive step 34 else 35 return number * factorial( number - 1 ); } // end function factorial The base case occurs when we have 0! or 1!. All other cases must be split up (recursive step). Outline 43 fig03_14.cpp (2 of 2) fig03_14.cpp output (1 of 1) 0! = 1 1! = 1 2! = 2 3! = 6 4! = 24 5! = 120 6! = 720 7! = ! = ! = ! = Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

44 3.13 Example Using Recursion: Fibonacci Series 44 Fibonacci series: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8... Each number sum of two previous ones Example of a recursive formula: fib(n) = fib(n-1) + fib(n-2) C++ code for Fibonacci function long fibonacci( long n ) { } if ( n == 0 n == 1 ) // base case else return n; return fibonacci( n - 1 ) + fibonacci( n 2 ); 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

45 3.13 Example Using Recursion: Fibonacci Series 45 f( 3 ) return f( 2 ) + f( 1 ) return f( 1 ) + f( 0 ) return 1 return 1 return Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

46 3.13 Example Using Recursion: Fibonacci Series 46 Order of operations return fibonacci( n - 1 ) + fibonacci( n - 2 ); Do not know which one executed first C++ does not specify Only &&, and?: guaranteed left-to-right evaluation Recursive function calls Each level of recursion doubles the number of function calls 30 th number = 2^30 ~ 4 billion function calls Exponential complexity 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

47 1 // Fig. 3.15: fig03_15.cpp 2 // Recursive fibonacci function. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::cin; 7 using std::endl; 8 9 unsigned long fibonacci( unsigned long ); // function prototype int main() 12 { 13 unsigned long result, number; // obtain integer from user 16 cout << "Enter an integer: "; 17 cin >> number; // calculate fibonacci value for number input by user 20 result = fibonacci( number ); // display result 23 cout << "Fibonacci(" << number << ") = " << result << endl; return 0; // indicates successful termination fig03_15.cpp The Fibonacci numbers get (1 of 2) large very quickly, and are all non-negative integers. Thus, we use the unsigned long data type. Outline Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

48 26 27 } // end main // recursive definition of function fibonacci 30 unsigned long fibonacci( unsigned long n ) 31 { 32 // base case 33 if ( n == 0 n == 1 ) 34 return n; // recursive step 37 else 38 return fibonacci( n - 1 ) + fibonacci( n - 2 ); } // end function fibonacci Outline 48 fig03_15.cpp (2 of 2) fig03_15.cpp output (1 of 2) Enter an integer: 0 Fibonacci(0) = 0 Enter an integer: 1 Fibonacci(1) = 1 Enter an integer: 2 Fibonacci(2) = 1 Enter an integer: 3 Fibonacci(3) = Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

49 Enter an integer: 4 Fibonacci(4) = 3 Enter an integer: 5 Fibonacci(5) = 5 Outline 49 fig03_15.cpp output (2 of 2) Enter an integer: 6 Fibonacci(6) = 8 Enter an integer: 10 Fibonacci(10) = 55 Enter an integer: 20 Fibonacci(20) = 6765 Enter an integer: 30 Fibonacci(30) = Enter an integer: 35 Fibonacci(35) = Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

50 References and Reference Parameters Call by value Copy of data passed to function Changes to copy do not change original Prevent unwanted side effects Call by reference Function can directly access data Changes affect original 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

51 References and Reference Parameters Reference parameter Alias for argument in function call Passes parameter by reference Use & after data type in prototype void myfunction( int &data ) Read data is a reference to an int Function call format the same However, original can now be changed 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

52 1 // Fig. 3.20: fig03_20.cpp 2 // Comparing pass-by-value and pass-by-reference 3 // with references. 4 #include <iostream> 5 6 using std::cout; 7 using std::endl; 8 9 int squarebyvalue( int ); // function prototype 10 void squarebyreference( int & ); // function prototype int main() 13 { 14 int x = 2; 15 int z = 4; // demonstrate squarebyvalue 18 cout << "x = " << x << " before squarebyvalue\n"; 19 cout << "Value returned by squarebyvalue: " 20 << squarebyvalue( x ) << endl; 21 cout << "x = " << x << " after squarebyvalue\n" << endl; 22 Notice the & operator, indicating pass-by-reference. Outline 52 fig03_20.cpp (1 of 2) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

53 23 // demonstrate squarebyreference 24 cout << "z = " << z << " before squarebyreference" << endl; 25 squarebyreference( z ); 26 cout << "z = " << z << " after squarebyreference" << endl; return 0; // indicates successful termination 29 } // end main // squarebyvalue multiplies number by itself, stores the 32 // result in number and returns the new value modified. of number 33 int squarebyvalue( int number ) 34 { 35 return number *= number; // caller's argument not modified } // end function squarebyvalue // squarebyreference multiplies numberref by itself and 40 // stores the result in the variable to which numberref 41 // refers in function main 42 void squarebyreference( int &numberref ) 43 { Changes number, but original parameter (x) is not 44 numberref *= numberref; // caller's argument modified } // end function squarebyreference Changes numberref, an alias for the original parameter. Thus, z is changed. Outline 53 fig03_20.cpp (2 of 2) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

54 x = 2 before squarebyvalue Value returned by squarebyvalue: 4 x = 2 after squarebyvalue z = 4 before squarebyreference z = 16 after squarebyreference Outline 54 fig03_20.cpp output (1 of 1) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

55 References and Reference Parameters Pointers (chapter 5) Another way to pass-by-refernce References as aliases to other variables Refer to same variable Can be used within a function int count = 1; // declare integer variable count Int &cref = count; // create cref as an alias for count ++cref; // increment count (using its alias) References must be initialized when declared Otherwise, compiler error Dangling reference Reference to undefined variable 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

56 1 // Fig. 3.21: fig03_21.cpp 2 // References must be initialized. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 int main() 9 { 10 int x = 3; // y refers to (is an alias for) x 13 int &y = x; cout << "x = " << x << endl << "y = " << y << endl; 16 y = 7; 17 cout << "x = " << x << endl << "y = " << y << endl; return 0; // indicates successful termination } // end main y declared as a reference to x. Outline 56 fig03_21.cpp (1 of 1) fig03_21.cpp output (1 of 1) x = 3 y = 3 x = 7 y = Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

57 1 // Fig. 3.22: fig03_22.cpp 2 // References must be initialized. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 int main() 9 { 10 int x = 3; 11 int &y; // Error: y must be initialized cout << "x = " << x << endl << "y = " << y << endl; 14 y = 7; 15 cout << "x = " << x << endl << "y = " << y << endl; return 0; // indicates successful termination } // end main Uninitialized reference compiler error. Outline 57 fig03_22.cpp (1 of 1) fig03_22.cpp output (1 of 1) Borland C++ command-line compiler error message: Error E2304 Fig03_22.cpp 11: Reference variable 'y' must be initialized- in function main() Microsoft Visual C++ compiler error message: D:\cpphtp4_examples\ch03\Fig03_22.cpp(11) : error C2530: 'y' : references must be initialized 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

58 Default Arguments Function call with omitted parameters If not enough parameters, rightmost go to their defaults Default values Can be constants, global variables, or function calls Set defaults in function prototype int myfunction( int x = 1, int y = 2, int z = 3 ); myfunction(3) x = 3, y and z get defaults (rightmost) myfunction(3, 5) x = 3, y = 5 and z gets default 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

59 1 // Fig. 3.23: fig03_23.cpp 2 // Using default arguments. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; Set defaults in function prototype. 7 8 // function prototype that specifies default arguments 9 int boxvolume( int length = 1, int width = 1, int height = 1 ); int main() 12 { 13 // no arguments--use default values for all dimensions 14 cout << "The default box volume is: " << boxvolume(); // specify length; default width and height 17 cout << "\n\nthe volume of a box with length 10,\n" 18 << "width 1 and height 1 is: " << boxvolume( 10 ); // specify length and width; default height 21 cout << "\n\nthe volume of a box with length 10,\n" 22 << "width 5 and height 1 is: " << boxvolume( 10, 5 ); 23 Outline 59 fig03_23.cpp (1 of 2) Function calls with some parameters missing the rightmost parameters get their defaults Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

60 24 // specify all arguments 25 cout << "\n\nthe volume of a box with length 10,\n" 26 << "width 5 and height 2 is: " << boxvolume( 10, 5, 2 ) 27 << endl; return 0; // indicates successful termination } // end main // function boxvolume calculates the volume of a box 34 int boxvolume( int length, int width, int height ) 35 { 36 return length * width * height; } // end function boxvolume Outline 60 fig03_23.cpp (2 of 2) fig03_23.cpp output (1 of 1) The default box volume is: 1 The volume of a box with length 10, width 1 and height 1 is: 10 The volume of a box with length 10, width 5 and height 1 is: 50 The volume of a box with length 10, width 5 and height 2 is: Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

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