# Chapter 2 Part 2 Edited by JJ Shepherd, James O Reilly

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1 Basic Computation Chapter 2 Part 2 Edited by JJ Shepherd, James O Reilly

2 Parentheses and Precedence Parentheses can communicate the order in which arithmetic operations are performed examples: (cost + tax) * discount (cost + (tax * discount) Without parentheses, an expressions is evaluated according to the rules of precedence.

3 Precedence Rules Figure 2.2 Precedence Rules

4 Precedence Rules The binary arithmetic operators *, /, and %, have lower precedence than the unary operators +, -, ++, --, and!, but have higher precedence than the binary arithmetic operators + and -. When binary operators have equal precedence, the operator on the left acts before the operator(s) on the right.

5 Precedence Rules When unary operators have equal precedence, the operator on the right acts before the operation(s) on the left. Even when parentheses are not needed, they can be used to make the code clearer. balance + (interestrate * balance) Spaces also make code clearer balance + interestrate*balance but spaces do not dictate precedence.

6 Sample Expressions Figure 2.3 Some Arithmetic Expressions in Java

7 Specialized Assignment Operators Assignment operators can be combined with arithmetic operators (including -, *, /, and %, discussed later). amount = amount + 5; can be written as amount += 5; yielding the same results.

8 Case Study:Vending Machine Change Requirements The user enters an amount between 1 cent and 99 cents. The program determines a combination of coins equal to that amount. For example, 55 cents can be two quarters and one nickel.

9 Increment and Decrement Operators Used to increase (or decrease) the value of a variable by 1 Easy to use, important to recognize The increment operator count++ or ++count The decrement operator count-- or --count

10 Increment and Decrement Operators equivalent operations count++; ++count; count = count + 1; count--; --count; count = count - 1;

11 Increment and Decrement Operators in Expressions after executing int m = 4; int result = 3 * (++m) result has a value of 15 and m has a value of 5 after executing int m = 4; int result = 3 * (m++) result has a value of 12 and m has a value of 5

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13 The Class String We've used constants of type String already. "Enter a whole number from 1 to 99." A value of type String is a Sequence of characters Treated as a single item.

14 String Constants and Variables Declaring String greeting; greeting = "Hello!"; or String greeting = "Hello!"; or String greeting = new String("Hello!"); Printing System.out.println(greeting);

15 Concatenation of Strings Two strings are concatenated using the + operator. String greeting = "Hello"; String sentence; sentence = greeting + " officer"; System.out.println(sentence); Any number of strings can be concatenated using the + operator.

16 Concatenating Strings and Integers String solution; solution = "The answer is " + 42; System.out.println (solution); The temperature is 72 The answer is 42

17 String Methods An object of the String class stores data consisting of a sequence of characters. Objects have methods as well as data The length() method returns the number of characters in a particular String object. String greeting = "Hello"; int n = greeting.length();

18 The Method length() The method length() returns an int. You can use a call to method length() anywhere an int can be used. int count = command.length(); System.out.println("Length is " + command.length()); count = command.length() + 3;

19 Figure 2.4 String Indices Positions start with 0, not 1. The 'J' in "Java is fun." is in position 0 A position is referred to an an index. The 'f' in "Java is fun." is at index 8.

20 FIGURE 2.5 Some Methods in the Class String Method charat (index) compareto (a_string) concat (a_string) equals (a_string) equals IgnoreCase (a_string) indexof (a_string) Return Type char int String Example for String s = "Java"; c = s.charat(2); // c='v' i = s.compareto("c++"); // i is positive s2 = s.concat("rocks"); // s2 = "Javarocks" boolean b = s.equals("java"); // b = true boolean b = s.equals("java"); // b = true int i = s.indexof("va"); // i = 2 Description Returns the character at index in the string. Index numbers begin at 0. Compares this string with a_string to see which comes first in lexicographic (alphabetic, with upper before lower case) ordering. Returns a negative integer if this string is first, zero if the two strings are equal, and a positive integer if a_string is first. Returns a new string with this string concatenated with a_string. You can use the + operator instead. Returns true if this string and a_string are equal. Otherwise returns false. Returns true if this string and a_string are equal, considering upper and lower case versions of a letter to be the same. Otherwise returns false. Returns the index of the first occurrence of the substring a_string within this string or -1 if a_string is not found. Index numbers begin at 0.

21 lastindexof (a_string) int i = s.lastindexof("a"); // i = 3 length() int i = s.length(); // i = 4 tolower String s2 = s.tolowercase(); Case() // s = "java" toupper Case() replace (oldchar, newchar) substring (start) substring (start,end) String s2 = s.touppercase(); // s2 = "JAVA" String s2 = s.replace('a','o'); // s2 = "Jovo"; String s2 = s.substring(2); // s2 = "va"; String s2 = s.substring(1,3); // s2 = "av"; trim( ) String s = " Java "; s2 = s.trim(); // s2 = "Java Returns the index of the last occurrence of the substring a_string within this string or -1 if a_string is not found. Index numbers begin at 0. Returns the length of this string. Returns a new string having the same characters as this string, but with any uppercase letters converted to lowercase. This string is unchanged. Returns a new string having the same characters as this string, but with any lowercase letters converted to uppercase. This string is unchanged. Returns a new string having the same characters as this string, but with each occurrence of oldchar replaced by newchar. Returns a new string having the same characters as the substring that begins at index start through to the end of the string. Index numbers begin at 0. Returns a new string having the same characters as the substring that begins at index start through to but not including the character at index end. Index numbers begin at 0. Returns a new string having the same characters as this string, but with leading and trailing whitespace removed.

22

23 Example in more detail input = B O B Current Line of Code String input = keyboard.nextline();

24 Example in more detail input = B O B copyinput = B O B Current Line of Code String copyinput = input;

25 Example in more detail input = B O B copyinput = B O B workingindex = 3 Current Line of Code int workingindex = copyinput.indexof(" ");

26 Example in more detail input = B O B copyinput = B O B workingindex = 3 name = B O B Current Line of Code String name = copyinput.substring(0,workingindex);

27 Example in more detail input = B O B copyinput = B O B workingindex = 3 copyinput = Current Line of Code copyinput = copyinput.substring(workingindex+1);

28 Example in more detail input = B O B copyinput = workingindex = 3 Current Line of Code copyinput = copyinput.substring(workingindex+1);

29 Escape Characters How would you print "Java" refers to a language.? The compiler needs to be told that the quotation marks (") do not signal the start or end of a string, but instead are to be printed. System.out.println( "\"Java\" refers to a language.");

30 Escape Characters Figure 2.6 Each escape sequence is a single character even though it is written with two symbols.

31 Examples System.out.println("abc\\def"); abc\def System.out.println("new\nline"); new line char singlequote = '\''; System.out.println (singlequote); '

32 The Unicode Character Set Most programming languages use the ASCII character set. Java uses the Unicode character set which includes the ASCII character set. The Unicode character set includes characters from many different alphabets (but you probably won't use them).

33 Keyboard and Screen I/O: Outline Screen Output Keyboard Input

34 Screen Output We've seen several examples of screen output already. System.out is an object that is part of Java. println() is one of the methods available to the System.out object.

35 Screen Output The concatenation operator (+) is useful when everything does not fit on one line. System.out.println("Lucky number = " "Secret number = " + number); Do not break the line except immediately before or after the concatenation operator (+).

36 Screen Output Alternatively, use print() System.out.print("One, two,"); System.out.print(" buckle my shoe."); System.out.println(" Three, four,"); System.out.println(" shut the door."); ending with a println().

37 Keyboard Input Java has reasonable facilities for handling keyboard input. These facilities are provided by the Scanner class in the java.util package. A package is a library of classes.

38 Using the Scanner Class Near the beginning of your program, insert import java.util.scanner; Create an object of the Scanner class Scanner keyboard = new Scanner (System.in) Read data (an int or a double, for example) int n1 = keyboard.nextint(); double d1 = keyboard,nextdouble();

39 Some Scanner Class Methods Figure 2.7a

40 Some Scanner Class Methods Figure 2.7b

41 nextline()method Caution The nextline() method reads The remainder of the current line, Even if it is empty.

42 nextline()method Caution Example given following declaration. int n; String s1, s2; n = keyboard.nextint(); s1 = keyboard.nextline(); s2 = keyboard.nextline(); Assume input shown n is set to 42 but s1 is set to the empty string. 42 and don't you forget it.

43 The Empty String A string can have any number of characters, including zero. The string with zero characters is called the empty string. The empty string is useful and can be created in many ways including String s3 = "";

44 Other Input Delimiters (optional) Almost any combination of characters and strings can be used to separate keyboard input. to change the delimiter to "##" keyboard2.usedelimiter("##"); whitespace will no longer be a delimiter for keyboard2 input

45

46 Documentation and Style: Outline Meaningful Names Comments Indentation Named Constants

47 Documentation and Style Most programs are modified over time to respond to new requirements. Programs which are easy to read and understand are easy to modify. Even if it will be used only once, you have to read it in order to debug it.

48 Meaningful Variable Names A variable's name should suggest its use. Observe conventions in choosing names for variables. Use only letters and digits. "Punctuate" using uppercase letters at word boundaries (e.g. taxrate) called Camel Case or camelcase or Start variables with lowercase letters. Start class names with uppercase letters.

49 Comments The best programs are self-documenting. Clean style Well-chosen names Comments are written into a program as needed explain the program. They are useful to the programmer, but they are ignored by the compiler.

50 Comments A comment can begin with //. Everything after these symbols and to the end of the line is treated as a comment and is ignored by the compiler. double radius; //in centimeters

51 Comments A comment can begin with /* and end with */ Everything between these symbols is treated as a comment and is ignored by the compiler. /** This program should only be used on alternate Thursdays, except during leap years, when it should only be used on alternate Tuesdays. */

52 Comments A javadoc comment, begins with /** and ends with */. It can be extracted automatically from Java software. /** method change requires the number of coins to be nonnegative */

53 When to Use Comments Begin each program file with an explanatory comment What the program does The name of the author Contact information for the author Date of the last modification. Provide only those comments which the expected reader of the program file will need in order to understand it.

54 Indentation Indentation should communicate nesting clearly. A good choice is four spaces for each level of indentation. Indentation should be consistent. Indentation should be used for second and subsequent lines of statements which do not fit on a single line.

55 Indentation Indentation does not change the behavior of the program (not true in all languages, e.g. Python) Proper indentation helps communicate to the human reader the nested structures of the program

56 Summary You have become familiar with Java primitive types (numbers, characters, etc.). You have learned about assignment statements and expressions. You have learned about stings. You have become familiar with classes, methods, and objects.

57 Summary You have learned about simple keyboard input and screen output.

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