# Chapter7 Expression and Assignment Statement. Introduction

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1 Chapter7 Expression and Assignment Statement Arithmetic Expressions Overloaded Operators Boolean Expressions Short-Circuit Evaluation Assignment Statements Mixed-Mode Assignment Introduction Fundamental means of specifying computations in a programming language Arithmetic expressions consist of operators, operands, parentheses, and function calls 1

2 Arithmetic Expressions: Operators A unary operator has one operand! expression * expression ++ expression -- expression A binary operator has two operands A ternary operator has three operands // average = (count ==0)? 0 : sum/count; using System; /*Learning C# */ public class ThreeInputValues { static void Main() { int valueone = 10; int valuetwo = 20; int maxvalue = valueone > valuetwo? valueone : valuetwo; Console.WriteLine(valueOne, valuetwo, maxvalue); } } 2

3 Precedence of Operators w - x / y - z or w / x - y / z 4*3**2 Typical precedence levels parentheses unary operators ** (exponentiation) *, /, % +, - 3

4 Arithmetic Expressions: Operator Associativity Rule Determines the order of operation between operators of the same precedence In most cases, left to right x - y - z or x / y / z b = 9; c = 5; a = b = c; 5 is assigned to both a and b because of the right-to-left associativity of the = operator. 4

5 In Fortran, the exponentiation is right asssociative. 2**3**4 In Ada, The exponentiation operator is non-associative. If you wish to do more than one exponentiation in an expression, you must use parentheses. (2^3)^4; or 2^(3^4); APL is different; all operators have equal precedence and all operators associate right to left A*B+C 5

6 /* demonstrate various operator precedence and associativity #include <stdio.h> int fun( int * ); int main() { int a, b, c, d; int n[5] = {0,2,4,6,8}; int *ip = &n[0]; printf ("%p %d \n", ip, *(ip + 1) ); printf ("%p %d \n", ip, *ip + 1 ); a = 7; b=3; c = a % b * 4; int count = 5; int count1= - count ++; //-5 printf ("%d \n", count1); int count1= - ++count; //-6 printf ("%d \n", count1);} 6

7 Functional side effects: A side effect of a function occurs when the function changes parameters or a global variable. a + fun(a) If fun does not have the side effect of changing a, then no effect on the value of the expression. However if fun changes a, there is an effect. 7

8 (1) Function changes parameters int f1(int *x) { (*x)++; return *x; } int f2(int *x) { (*x) *= (*x); return *x;} int main() { int a = 1; printf("%d\n",f2(&a) + f1(&a)); } left-to-right: right-to-left: &a 1 f2: set a to 1; f1: set a to 2 return 1 return 2 x f1: set a to 2 f2: set a to 4 return 2; return 4 print 3 print 6 8

9 (2) Function changes global variables public class OperandOrder { public static int x; public static int f(int y) { x++; return y; } public static void main (String[] args) { int result; x = 3; result = x + f(5); System.out.println("First evaluation = " + result); x = 3; result = f(5) + x; System.out.println("Second evaluation = " + result); } // end of main () }// OperandOrder First evaluation = 8 Second evaluation = 9 9

10 Possible solutions to the problem Write the language definition to demand that operand evaluation order be fixed Java guarantees that the operands of operators appear to be evaluated from left to right. Overloaded Operators An operator is used for more than one purpose + is compiled into one prodecure for ints, another for floats, and another for Strings. C++ and Ada allow user-defined overloaded operators 10

11 #include <iostream> using namespace std; class complx { double real, imag; public: complx( double real = 0., double imag = 0.); // constructor complx operator+(const complx&) const; // operator+() }; complx::complx( double r, double i ){ real = r; imag = i;} // define overloaded + (plus) operator complx complx::operator+ (const complx& c) const { complx result; result.real = (this->real + c.real); result.imag = (this->imag + c.imag); return result; } int main() { complx x(4,4); complx y(6,6); complx z = x + y; // calls complx::operator+()} Potential problems: Users can define nonsense operations Readability may suffer, even when the operators make sense 11

12 Boolean Expressions FORTRAN 77 FORTRAN 90 C Ada.AND. and && and.or. or or.not. not! not No Boolean Type in C C has no Boolean type--it uses int type with 0 for false and nonzero for true One odd result of C s design is that the expression is legal. a>b>c 12

13 Short Circuit Evaluation The result of an expression is determined without evaluating all of the operands and/or operators To evaluate X && Y, first evaluate X. If X is false then stop: the whole expression is false. Otherwise, evaluate Y then AND the two values. - goal: efficiency int a = 0; if (a && myfunc(b)) { do_something(); } - In C-based languages: && and are short-circuited. 13

14 Assignment Statements The assignment operator = FORTRAN, BASIC, PL/I, C, C++, Java := ALGOLs, Pascal, Ada Assignment Statements: Compound Operators A shorthand method of specifying a commonly needed form of assignment Introduced in ALGOL; adopted by C a = a + b is written as a += b 14

15 Unary Assignment Operators If the operator is used as a prefix operator Sum = ++ count; This operation could also be stated as: Count = count +1; Sum = count; If the operator is used as a postfix operator Sum = count++; This operation could also be stated as: Sum = count; Count = count +1; sum += ++count sum += count++ 15

16 Assignment as an Expression - makes it possible to write compact loops: In C, C++, and Java, the assignment statement produces a result and can be used as operands while ((ch = getchar())!= EOF){ } void strcpy(char *q, char *p) { // copies a string into another while (*q++ = *p++); } 16

17 Mixed-Mode Assignment Assignment statements can also be mixed-mode, for example int a, b; float c; c = a / b; In Pascal, integer variables can be assigned to real variables, but real variables cannot be assigned to integers. In c-based languages, only widening assignment coercions are done. In Ada, there is no assignment coercion. 17

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