# Data Conversion & Scanner Class

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1 Data Conversion & Scanner Class Quick review of last lecture August 29, 2007 ComS 207: Programming I (in Java) Iowa State University, FALL 2007 Instructor: Alexander Stoytchev Numeric Primitive Data Storing Information The difference between the various numeric primitive types is their size, and therefore the values they can store: Type byte short int long float double Storage 8 bits 16 bits 32 bits 64 bits 32 bits 64 bits Min Value ,768-2,147,483,648 < -9 x Max Value ,767 2,147,483,647 > 9 x /- 3.4 x with 7 significant digits +/- 1.7 x with 15 significant digits Each memory cell stores a set number of bits (usually 8 bits, or one byte) Large values are stored in consecutive memory locations Storing a short Storing a double short (16 bits = 2 bytes) double (64 bits = 8 bytes) 1

2 Operator Precedence Assignment Revisited The assignment operator has a lower precedence than the arithmetic operators First the expression on the right hand side of the = operator is evaluated answer = sum / 4 + MAX * lowest; Then the result is stored in the variable on the left hand side Assignment Revisited The right and left hand sides of an assignment statement can contain the same variable Other material from Sec 2.4 First, one is added to the original value of count count = count + 1; Then the result is stored back into count (overwriting the original value) Increment and Decrement The increment and decrement operators use only one operand The increment operator (++) adds one to its operand The decrement operator (--) subtracts one from its operand The statement count++; is functionally equivalent to count = count + 1; Increment and Decrement The increment and decrement operators can be applied in postfix form: or prefix form: count++ ++count When used as part of a larger expression, the two forms can have different effects Because of their subtleties, the increment and decrement operators should be used with care 2

3 Assignment Operators Often we perform an operation on a variable, and then store the result back into that variable Assignment Operators There are many assignment operators in Java, including the following: Java provides assignment operators to simplify that process For example, the statement is equivalent to num += count; Operator += -= *= /= %= Example x += y x -= y x *= y x /= y x %= y Equivalent To x = x + y x = x - y x = x * y x = x / y x = x % y num = num + count; Assignment Operators The right hand side of an assignment operator can be a complex expression The entire right-hand expression is evaluated first, then the result is combined with the original variable Therefore result /= (total-min) % num; is equivalent to result = result / ((total-min) % num); Assignment Operators The behavior of some assignment operators depends on the types of the operands If the operands to the += operator are strings, the assignment operator performs string concatenation The behavior of an assignment operator (+=) is always consistent with the behavior of the corresponding operator (+) Chapter 2 Sections 2.5 & Data Conversion 3

4 Widening Conversions Narrowing Conversions Conversion Techniques 1) Assignment conversion Value of one type is assigned to a variable of another type during which the value is converted to the new type. 2) Promotion Occurs automatically when certain operators need to modify their operands. 3) Casting (a.k.a. type casting) Specified explicitly by the programmer Assignment conversion float money; int dollars; dollars=5; money = dollars; // OK, money is now equal to 5.0 dollars= money; //Compile error (automatic) promotion (automatic) promotion float sum, result; int count; sum= 12.0; count=5; // the number 5 is first promoted to a string and then // the two strings are concatenated System.out.println( Five is equal to + 5); result = sum/count; // count promoted to float // before the division 4

5 Type Casting The programmer explicitly asks the compiler to change the type of a variable or a temporary result before the next operation will take place. Without the cast Java typically will refuse to compile the program Type Casting float money; int dollars; dollars=5; money = dollars; // OK, money is now equal to 5.0 dollars= (int) money; //Compile error OK Type Casting + Promotion Type Casting + Promotion float result; int total, count; total= 12; count=5; result = (float) total / count; // result = 2.4 // 1. total is cast to float // 2. count is promoted to float // 3. the division is performed float result; int total, count; total= 12; count=5; result = (float) (total / count); // result = 2.0 // 1. total and count a divided using integer division // 2. the intermediary result is cast to a float // 3. this float value is assigned to result Interactive Programs Programs generally need input on which to operate Casting Example The Scanner class provides convenient methods for reading input values of various types A Scanner object can be set up to read input from various sources, including the user typing values on the keyboard Keyboard input is represented by the System.in object 5

6 Reading Input The following line creates a Scanner object that reads from the keyboard: Scanner scan = new Scanner (System.in); The new operator creates the Scanner object Once created, the Scanner object can be used to invoke various input methods, such as: answer = scan.nextline(); In order to use the Scanner object you must put this line at the top of your Java program import java.util.scanner; Reading Input The Scanner class is part of the java.util class library, and must be imported into a program to be used See Echo.java (page 91) The nextline method reads all of the input until the end of the line is found The details of object creation and class libraries are discussed further in Chapter 3 Input Tokens Unless specified otherwise, white space is used to separate the elements (called tokens) of the input Scanner Class White space includes space characters, tabs, new line characters The next method of the Scanner class reads the next input token and returns it as a string Methods such as nextint and nextdouble read data of particular types See GasMileage.java (page 92) More Scanner Examples THE END 6

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