# ESCI 386 IDL Programming for Advanced Earth Science Applications Lesson 1 IDL Operators

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1 ESCI 386 IDL Programming for Advanced Earth Science Applications Lesson 1 IDL Operators ARITHMATIC OPERATORS The assignment operator in IDL is the equals sign, =. IDL uses all the familiar arithmetic operators (+,, *, /) in the same manner that they are used in other programming languages. The exponent or power operator in IDL is the ^ symbol. Example: a 3 is represented as a^3 in IDL. INCREMENT AND DECREMENT OPERATORS Latter versions of IDL (6 and higher) include the increment and decrement operators (++ and ). The ++ operator adds 1 to it s operand. Example a = 3 a++ print, a => 4 The operator subtracts 1 to it s operand. Example a = 3 a print, a => 2 The increment and decrement operators ALWAYS change the value of the operand, regardless of where they occur, although it may change after it performs other operations. For example a = 3 print, a++ => 3 ;first prints value of a, then increments print, a => 4 Only one increment operator can be used at a time per variable. o Can t do (a++)++

2 COMPOUND OPERATORS IDL also has compound operator of the form [operator]= A statement such as b = b [operator] expression can be written equivalently as b [operator]= expression Examples of this are: a = a + b a += b a = a b a = b a = a*b a *= b a = a/b a /= b a = a^2 a ^= 2 Compound operators are just a short-hand way to write longer expressions. You don t have to use them, as you can always write out the longer version of the expressions. 2

3 MODULO OPERATOR To find the modulus (remainder) of two numbers, use the MOD operator, print, 5 mod 3 => 2 print, 6 mod 3 => 0 print, 3.45 mod 2 => 1.45 The modulo operator is handy for determining if one number is evenly divisible by another. If a mod b is equal to zero, then either a is zero, or a is evenly divisible by b. TRUE AND FALSE VALUES IDL doesn t have specific logical variable for true and false. Instead, it uses the following rules: Data Type True False Byte, integer, and long Odd integers Zero or even integers Floating point and complex Non-zero values Zero String Any string with non-zero length Null string ( ) RELATIONAL OPERATORS In IDL the relational operators are: eq equal to ne not equal to gt greater than ge greater than or equal to lt less than le less than or equal to 3

4 The relational operators return a BYTE value of 0 if they evaluate as false and a BYTE value of 1 if they evaluate as true. Examples: print, 2 eq 3 => 0 print, 2 ne 3 => 1 print, 3 lt 2 => 0 print, 3 ge 2 => 1 print, 2 ge 2 => 1 BOOLIAN (LOGICAL) OPERATORS IDL also has Boolean (logical) operators for and, or, and not. o These are && is Boolian and is Boolian or ~ is Boolian not Examples: a = 2 b = 3 print, (a eq 4) (b eq 3) => 1 print, (a eq 3) (b eq 4) => 0 print, (a eq 2) && (b eq 3) => 1 print, ~(a eq 2) => 0 IDL also has operators AND, OR, and NOT that are bit-wise operators as opposed to logical operators. The difference between the logical operators and bit-wise operators is esoteric for our purposes. You can use either, though I recommend using the &&,, and ~ forms. PRECEDENCE OF OPERATORS Operators are executed in order of priority, from highest to lowest. If two operators have the same priority, then they are executed from left to right. The table below is copied from Table 12-9 of the IDL online help. 4

5 Priority First (highest) Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth Operator ( ) (parentheses, to group expressions) [ ] (brackets, to concatenate arrays). (structure field dereference) [ ] (brackets, to subscript an array) ( ) (parentheses, used in a function call) * (pointer dereference) ^ (exponentiation) ++ (increment) -- (decrement) * (multiplication) # and ## (matrix multiplication) /(division) MOD (modulus) + (addition) - (subtraction and negation) < (minimum) > (maximum) NOT (bitwise negation) ~ (logical negation) EQ (equality) NE (not equal) LE (less than or equal) LT (less than) GE (greater than or equal) GT (greater than) AND (bitwise AND) OR (bitwise OR) XOR (bitwise exclusive OR) && (logical AND) (logical OR)?: (conditional expression) Taken from Table 12-9 of IDL Online Help ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS DON T GO OVERBOARD ON PARENTHESES! o If you understand the precedence of operators, there is no need to make your expressions difficult to read by using a bunch of parentheses. Example: Write y = 2.0*x^2.5*exp(-a*b/x) instead of y = (2.0*(x^(2.5)))*exp((-a*b)/x) 5

6 o Expressions such as y = x/(a*b) can be written without parentheses as y = x/a/b o The second expression actually executes faster on the computer, too! Whenever you are doing division, make sure at least one expression is a floating-point number. This will help you avoid the dreaded integer division problem. Write y = x*y/2.0 ; This is safe. instead of y = x*y/2 ; This is dangerous. May have integer division problem. DON T USE FLOATING POINTS FOR EXPONENTS unless you have to. Write y = x^2 instead of y = x^2.0 6

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