Nano RK And Zigduino. wnfa ta course hikaru4

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1 Nano RK And Zigduino wnfa ta course hikaru4

2 Today's outline Zigduino v.s. Firefly Atmel processor and the program chip I/O Interface on the board Atmega128rfa1, FTDI chip... GPIO, ADC, UART, SPI, I2C... Nano RK Nano RK OS Architecture Nano RK HOW TOs Tips and Tricks Lab2 announcement.

3 Zigduino

4 History Firefly CMU Firefly1.0 Firefly2.2 Firefly2.3 Zigduino logos electro.com Arduino compatible no longer manufacture Firefly3.0 Not release yet atmega128rfa1 Arduino is an open source electronics prototyping platform. Atmega128rfa1 The same one as firefly3's

5 Zigduino Atmega128rfa1 FTDI Clock Speed 16 MHz Flash Memory 128 KB SRAM 16 KB EEPROM 4 KB Radio (zigbee)

6 I/O interface GPIO(pin2~10) ADC(analog in 0~6) UART(RX, TX pin0,1) SPI(11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK)) I2C(I2C SDA, SCL)

7 GPIO General Purpose Input/Output Pin2~10 Digital input Digital output Control direction by some selector

8 GPIO Tri state Buffer Port Memory Mapped IO Control Registers Data Direction Register (DDR, TRIS) Internal Pull Up Register (PLP) Reading / Writing to the Port

9 GPIO Example LED, buzzer, 7 segment display Switch, button

10 ADC Analog to Digital Converter ANALOG IN 0~6 Analog input Converts an Analog Signal to a Digital One 10 bit Resolution

11 ADC Example Sensor: Light sensor, temperature sensor...

12 UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver / Transmitter RX, TX (pin0,1) Serial port communication

13 UART RX >TX TX >RX Baud rate

14 UART Example Open log, T07AW, GPS module...

15 SPI and I2C SPI(11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK)) I2C(I2C SDA, SCL) Serial bus protocol

16 SPI(Serial Peripheral Interface) 4 Wire Serial Bus from Motorola MISO/MOSI <=> RX/TX SCLK => baud rate SS => slave select

17 I2C(Inter Integrated Circuit) Multi drop 2 wire serial bus protocol from Philips SCL: Serial Clock SDA:Serial Data Line Two Bi directional Open Drain Lines Data transfer is initiated with the START bit (S) when SDA is pulled low while SCL stays high. Then, SDA sets the transferred bit while SCL is low (blue) and the data is sampled (received) when SCL rises (green). When the transfer is complete, a STOP bit (P) is sent by releasing the data line to allow it to be pulled up while SCL is constantly high.

18 Nano RK

19 What is nano RK? A Real time Operating System for sensor nodes for use in wireless sensor networks Priority Based Preemptive Multitasking Resource Reservations

20 Nano RK feature C GNU tool chain Classical Preemptive Operating System Multitasking Abstractions Real Time Priority Based Scheduling Built in Fault Handling Energy Efficient Scheduling based on a prior task set knowledge Tickless Timer Small Footprint (<2K RAM, 16K ROM, including link layer)

21 Nano RK Motivation Why Priority based scheduling? Period Execution Time Network Radio Sporadic 10ms Audio Sensor 200 hz 10us Smart Camera 1 hz 300ms Global Positioning 5 hz 10ms Time triggered task interleaving can become daunting...

22 Nano RK Reservations CPU Utilization For example, a task can run for 10ms of time every 250ms Network Utilization Time Allowed Per Period Packets In and Out Per Period Sensors & Actuators Usage Sensor Readings Per Period

23 Nano RK Architecture

24 Nano RK Time Management ~1ms OS Tick Resolution Variable Tick Timer (interrupts occur as required, not every quantum) wait_until_xxx() functions Suspend task until the event or timeout happens If there is no wait_until_xxx() call, then your reserve will be violated If reserves are disabled, then this can starve low priority tasks and will waste battery power

25 Creating a Nano RK Task NRK_STK TaskOne_Stack[NRK_APP_STACKSIZE]; nrk_task_type TaskOne; void Task1(void);... TaskOne.task = Task1; nrk_task_set_stk( &TaskOne, TaskOne_Stack, NRK_APP_STACKSIZE); TaskOne.prio = 2; TaskOne.FirstActivation = TRUE; TaskOne.Type = BASIC_TASK; TaskOne.SchType = PREEMPTIVE; TaskOne.period.secs = 0; TaskOne.period.nano_secs = 100*NANOS_PER_MS; TaskOne.cpu_reserve.secs = 0; TaskOne.cpu_reserve.nano_secs = 10*NANOS_PER_MS; TaskOne.offset.secs = 0; TaskOne.offset.nano_secs= 0; nrk_activate_task (&TaskOne);

26 Nano RK Fault Handling Task Time Violations Canary Stack Check Check if user specified stack has been overflowed Not 100%, but incurs low overhead and better than nothing Unexpected Restarts OS will enforce time bounds given to a task Capture restart that occurs without power down Resource Over use Manage sensors / actuators Low Voltage Detection Watchdog Timer

27 Configure Nano RK (nrk_cfg.h) #define NRK_REPORT_ERRORS #define NRK_HALT_ON_ERROR #define NRK_STACK_CHECK // print error over serial // stop the kernel on error // Enable Canary Stack Check #define NRK_NO_POWER_DOWN // zigduino need this define #define NRK_MAX_TASKS 2 // Max number of tasks in your application #define NRK_MAX_RESOURCE_CNT 1 // The number of semaphores in the system. #define NRK_TASK_IDLE_STK_SIZE 64 // Idle task stack size min=32 #define NRK_APP_STACKSIZE 128 #define NRK_KERNEL_STACKSIZE 128

28 Take a break Next coming: Soldering Nano RK how tos API, debug tips Nano RK learning by doing

29 Soldering Some tutorial xlugphzk

30 Nano RK API Quick Guide How to find the API you need? Take a look of sample code Go official API document Trace the source code In folder: nano RK/project/ RK/HTML/ Write one!!! (you will need the datasheet)

31 Nano RK API Quick Guide Example: svn://mvnl.csie.ntu.edu.tw/wn11fall/lab/examples/ led_blink nrk_gpio_direction() nrk_gpio_set(), nrk_gpio_clr(), nrk_gpio_toggle() basic_tasks nrk_task_type

32 Nano RK Debug? printf() is your good friend You will need a serial console. Unix like: minicom Windows: teraterm, putty, hyperterm... Remember printf is slow. LED is your good friend pin13 = L, RFRX, RFTX plug more LEDs on GPIO much faster then printf()

33 Nano RK Tips and Tricks Tip 1. NO MORE UP arrow!!! $ make clean && make && make program make program Save your time from typing and typing again during debugging. (Or press UP arrow again and again).

34 Nano RK Tips and Tricks Tip 2. NO MORE vim makefile!!!! $ make clean ROOT_DIR=~/nano RK $ make ROOT_DIR=~/nano RK $ make program ROOT_DIR=~/nano Rk/nano RK PROGRAMMING_PORT=/dev/ttyUSB0 Don't waste your time to edit the makefile anymore.

35 Nano RK Tips and Tricks Tip 3. No MORE ctrl+a o!!!!! $ LANG=C ;minicom o D /dev/ttyusb0 Don't waste your time to setup the minicom anymore.

36 Nano RK Tips and Tricks Tip 4. Where is my warning/error?????? $ make 2>&1 grep main.c: $ make 2>&1 egrep 'main.c: myinclude.c' Get your warning/error messages only.

37 Lab2 Zigbee RSSI localization

38 Lab2: zigbee RSSI localization Path loss exponent : step by step Get distance from RSSI Localization The nodes we set at CSIE 2F What you need to do Path loss exponent Localization algorithm

39 Path loss exponent Free space: 2 Pr = P t 4 d 2, 1 Pr d 10log P r = 2 10log d c Pr dbm = 2 d dbunit c

40 Path loss exponent Log distance path loss model: n 1 Pr d 10log P r = n 10log d c Pr dbm = n d dbunit c

41 Receive power v.s. Path loss Path loss: Pt n PL = d Pr 10log PL = n 10log d c PLdB = n d dbunit c

42 Path loss exponent n 1 Pr d Pr dbm = n d dbunit c

43 RSSI to distance n 1 Pr d Pr dbm = n d dbunit c

44 localization

45 The node we set at CSIE 2F

46 What you need to do? Path loss analysis Measurement the RSSI with different distance Take log scale Draw the regression line of path loss

47 What you need to do? Design the localization algorithm Base on RSSI Real time localization Demo We will announce the free time slots of the TAs.

48 Q&A Any questions?

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