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1 Advantages of writing algorithm Effective communication: Algorithm is written using English like language,algorithm is better way of communicating the logic to the concerned people Effective Analysis: with the help of algorithm, problems can be analyzed effectively, There can be number of algorithms for solving given problem Proper Documentation: The selected algorithm has to be documented. The algorithm serves as a good documentation which is required to identify the logical errors Easy and Efficient Coding: The algorithm act as blueprint during program development Program Debugging: Debugging is nothing but identifying the logical errors in algorithm /program. Algorithms help in debugging so that we can identify the logical errors easily Program maintenance: Maintaining the software becomes much easier

2 Advantages of writing algorithm Effective communication: Flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic to the concerned people i.e. programmers and business people Effective Analysis: with the help of Flowchart, problems can be analyzed effectively Proper Documentation: Flowcharts play an important role in understanding the logic of complicated and lengthy problems. Hence it is very much required to document the flowcharts along with the algorithms Easy and Efficient Coding: By looking the flowchart, writing programs is a straight forward method. Program Debugging: Flowcharts help in debugging process Program maintenance: Maintaining the software becomes much easier

3 Disadvantages/Drawbacks of writing algorithm Complex Logic: For complicated logic,the flowcharts becomes complex. Alteratations and Modifications: If there is a change in the logic, the flowchart has to be completely rewritten and requires lot of time. Reproduction: In case of any problem, reproduction of flowchart becomes problem since the flowchart symbols cannot be typed

4 Examples: 1.Write a algorithm & flowchart to Check whether the given number is odd or even 2.Write a algorithm & flowchart to Check Whether the number is positive or negative or zero 3.Write a algorithm & flowchart to find the larger of two numbers 4.Write a algorithm & flowchart to find the larger of 3 numbers 5.Write a algorithm & flowchart to Solve a quadratic equation

5 1. Write a algorithm & flowchart to Check whether the given number is odd or even star t Read num False If num %2==0 True Print even Print odd stop

6 1. Write a algorithm & flowchart to find the larger of two numbers star t Read a,b False If a>b True Print a is big Print b is big stop

7 5. QUADRATIC EQUATION START read a, b, c disc=b*b 4*a*c If disc==0? TRUE x1= b/(2*a) x2= b/(2*a) Print x1, x2 FALSE If disc>0? TRUE x1=( b+sqrt(disc))/(2*a) x2=( b sqrt(disc))/(2*a) Print x1, x2 FALSE real= b/(2*a) imag=sqrt(fabs(disc))/(2*a) x1=real+i(imag) x1=real+i(imag) Print x1, x2 STOP

8 Divide and conquer Strategy The divide and conquer strategy involves three steps 1.Divide the problem into a number of subproblems 2.Conquer(solve) the subproblem. If the subproblem sizes are small enough,solve them in a straight forward manner. If the subproblems are large,divide them into still number of subproblems 3.Combine the solutions of various subproblems into a single solution

9 Problem of size N Sub Problem A of size N/2 Sub Problem B of size N/2 Sub Problem 1 of size N/4 Sub Problem 2 of size N/4 Sub Problem 3 of size N/4 Sub Problem 4 of size N/4 Solution 1 Solution 2 Solution 3 Solution 4 Solution 1 Solution 1 Solution 1

10 Advantages 1.Difficult and complex problems can be solved easily 2.This Technique simple and very efficient algorithm 3.Since problems are divided into smaller sub problems of same type as the original problem, all the sub problems can be solved in parallel thus increasing the efficiency DisAdvantages 1. Since many problems can be solved using recursion they are slightly slower in execution speed 2. These problems tend to occupy more memory 3. For simple problems,this technique may become more complicated than the straightforward iterative technique

11 What are the difference between algorithms and flowcharts Flowchart 1.It is a graphical representation along with instructions 2.For complex problems,flowchart become complex 3.Modifications is difficult 4.We can easily understand the logic for a given problem Algorithms 1.Algorithms are not represented graphically. Instead expressed in English like language along with mathematical expressions 2.Algorithms can be used for simple or complex problems 3.Modified easily 4.Understanding may be slightly difficult

12 Constants, Variables and Data types Objective: To learn about keywords available in C language, 1.keywords, identifiers and constants with example, 2.variables, conventions used to write variables, local and global scope of variables and character set.

13 Why C Language Computers can understand machine language written in 0 s and 1 s Computers have to be instructed or programmed using 0 s and 1 s is called machine language

14 Characters set 1. The set of characters is called character set 2. The Characters that can be used to form words, numbers 3. The characters in C are grouped in to 1. Letters 2.Digits 3.Special characters 4.White spaces

15 letter A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z digit Special Symbols! " # % & ' ( ) * +, -. / : ; < = >? [ \ ] ^ { } ~ White Spaces

16 C TOKENS Individual words are called tokens In C Program the smallest individual units are known as C Tokens C has 6 tokens C TOKENS Keywor ds Identifie rs Constan ts Strings Spl Symb operato rs Float int Main amoun t abc year [] {} + - * /

17 KEYWORDS 1. All Keywords have fixed meaning and these meanings cannot be changed 2. All Keywords must be written in small letters 3. Total 32 Keywords Auto double int struct Break else long switch Case enum register typedef Char extern return union Const float short unsigned Continue for signed void Default goto sizeof volatile do if static while

18 CONSTANTS 1. Fixed Values that do not change during the execution of a program 2. Types of Constants CONSTANTS Numeric Constants Character Constants Integer Constants Real Constants Single Char Constants String Constants

19 VARIABLES 1. A Variable is a data name that may be used to store a data value 2. A variable may take different values at different times during execution 3. A Variable name can be chosen by the programmer In a meaningful way 4. Each Variable has a Type

20 Rules / Conditions 1.They Must begin with a letter and also permit underscore as the first character 2.It recognizes a length of 31 characters. However,length should not be normally more than 8 characters 3.Uppercase and lowercase are significant 4.It should not be a keyword 5.White space is not allowed

21 Some examples of valid variable John value T_raise Delhi X1 Ph_Value _sum Some examples of Invalid variable names 123 (area) % 25th

22 DATA TYPES 1. Storage representation and machine instructions to handle constant differ from machine to machine 2. ANSI C Supports 3 types classes datatypes 1.Fundamental data types 2.Derived data types 3.User-defined data types

23 1.Fundamental data types 1.Int 2.Float 3.Double 4.Char 5.Void

24 Integer Types (int) 1.Integers are whole numbers with range of values supported by particular machine 2.Integers occupy one(1) word of storage and word size of machines vary the size of an integer that can be stored depending on computer 3.If its 16 bit word length Size of the integer value is limited to the range to Signed integers uses one bit for sign and 15 bits for magnitude

25 Floating point types 1.Floating point numbers are stored in 32bits with 6 digits of precision 2.Float 1.Double 1.more accuracy 2.64 bit and 14 bits precision 1.Long double 80 bits Examples: float money; money = 0.12;

26 Void Types 1.Void type has no values 2.Used to specify the type of functions 3.The type of function is said to be void when it does not return any value to the calling functions

27 Char type 1. A single character 2. Characters are usually stored in 8bits 3. Range : unsigned characters : 0 to 255 signed characters : -128 to Example char letter; letter = A ;

28 3. C operators can be classified into a number of categories 1.Arithmetic operators 2.Relational operators 3.Logical operators 4.assignment operators 5.Increment or decrement operators 6.Conditional operators 7.Bitwise operators 8.Special operators OPERATORS AND EXPRESSIONS 1. An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform certain mathematical or logical manipulations 2. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data and variables

29 EXPRESSION 1. Expression is a sequence of operands and operators that reduces to single value Ex: Arithmetic operators + Addition or unary plus - Subtraction or unary minus * Multiplication / Division % Modulo division 1.Integer arithmetic 2.Real arithmetic 3.Mixed mode arithmetic

30 2.Relational Operators Operator Meaning < is less than <= is less than or equal to > Is greater than >= is greater than or equal to == is equal to!= is not equal to

31 3.Logical operators Operator && Meaning meaning logical AND meaning logical OR! Meaning logical NOT

32 4.Assignment operators == equal operator 1.Shorthand assignment operator Syntax: v op=exp; Where V is variable op is arithmetic operator

33 Shorthand Assignment operators Statement with simple Assignment operator 1.a= a +1 2.a= a -1 3.A=a*(n+1) Statement with shorthand operator a+=1 a-=1 a*=n+1 Advantages 1.What appears on the left hand side need not be repeated and therefore it becomes easier to write 2.The statement is more easier to read 3.The statement is more efficient

34 5.Increment or decrement operators ++ Increment operator -- Decrement operator The operator ++ adds 1 to the operand and subtracts 1 Both are unary operators it can take the following form ++m; or m++ --m ; or m--

35 Rules for ++ and -- operators 1. Increment or decrement operators are unary operators and they require variable as their operands 2. When postfix ++(or --) is used with a variable in an expression,the expression is evaluated first using the original value of the variable and then variable is incremented or decremented by one 3. When prefix ++(or --) is used in an expression,the variable is incremented or decremented first then expression is evaluated using new value of the variable 4. The precedence and associatively of ++ and operators are same as those of unary + and unary -

36 6.Conditional Operator /Ternary operator Syntax: exp1? exp2: exp3 Where exp1,exp2,exp3 are expressions Example: a=10; B=15; X=(a>b)?a:b;

37 7.Bitwise operators 1.All data items are stored in the computers memory as a sequence of bits(0 s & 1 s) 2.Manipulation of individual bits is carried out in machine language or assembly language 3.C provides six operators

38 Operator Symbol Name Meaning & Ampersand Bitwise AND Pipeline Bitwise OR ^ Caret Exclusive OR ~ Tilde 1 s complement << Double less than >> Double greater than Left shifting of bits Right shifting of bits

39 SPECIAL OPERATORS 1. Comma operator 2. Sizeof operator 3. Pointer operator 4. Member selection operator(. and ->)

40 Comma operator 1.It can be used to link the related expressions together 2.Comma linked list of expressions are evaluated from left to right and the value of right most expression is the value of the combined expression Ex: Value=(x=10,y=5,x+y); for(n=1,m=10,n<=m ; n++,m++)

41 The Sizeof operator 1.The sizeof operator is a compile time operator 2.When used with an operand,it returns the number of bytes the operand occupies 3.The operand may be a variable, a constant or a data type Example: m=sizeof(sum); N=sizeof(int) Its also used to allocate memory space dynamically to variable during execution of a program

42 Arithmetic Expressions 1. Arithmetic expression is a combination of variables, constants and operators 2. It takes one or more operands and connects them by an arithmetic operators Mathematical Expression 1.(2x+1)(3y+z) C Equivalent (2*x+1)(3*y+z)

43 Evaluation of arithmetic expression 1. Arithmetic expressions are evaluated from left to right 2. Expressions involving high priority operators evaluated first 3. Expressions are evaluated using an assignment statement of the form Variable=expressions

44 Precedence of Arithmetic operators 1.High priority * / % 2.Low priority + -

45 Rules for evaluation of expression 1. First,parenthesized sub expression from left to right are evaluated 2. If parentheses are nested, the evaluation begins with the innermost sub expression 3. The precedence rule is applied in determining the order of application of operators is evaluating sub expression 4. The associativity rule is applied when two or more operators of the same precedence level appear in a sub expression 5. Arithmetic expressions are evaluated from left to right using the rules of precedence 6. When parentheses are used the expressions within parenthesis assume highest priority

46 Type conversions in expressions 1.Implicit type conversion 2.Explicit type conversion

47 Implicit type conversion 1. C permits mixing of constants and variables of different types in an expression 2. C automatically converts any intermediate values to the proper type so that the expression can be evaluated without loosing any significance this is called as implicit type conversion

48 Rules that are applied while evaluating expressions 1. If one of the operands is long double,the other will be converted to long double and the result will be long double 2. Else,if one of the operands is double,the other will be converted to double and result will be double 3. Else,if one of the operands is float,the other will be converted to float and result will be float 4. Else,if one of the operands is unsigned long int,the other will be converted to unsigned long int and result will be unsigned long int

49 5. Else,if one of the operands is long int and other is unsigned int,then a)if unsigned int can be converted to long int,unsigned int operand will be converted as such and result will be long int b)else both operands will be converted to unsigned long int and result will be unsigned long int 6. Else, if one of the operands is long int,the other will be converted to long int and the result will be long int 7. Else if one of the operands is unsigned int,the other will be converted to unsigned int,the other will be converted to unsigned int and result will be unsigned int

50 Explicit conversion Syntax: (type-name)expression Where Type-name: is one of the any standard data type Expression: it may be a constant variable or an expression

51 Examples: 1) X=(int)7.5; 2) A=(int)21.3/(int)4.5; 3) B=(double)sum/n 4) Y=(int)(a+b)

52 Operator precedence and associativity 1. The precedence is used determine how an expression involving more than one operator is evaluated 2. The operator at the higher level precedence are evaluated first 3. The operator of the same precedence are evaluated either from right to left or from left to right depending on the level This is called as associativity property of an operator

53 Control string consists of 3 types of items 1.Characters that will be printed on the screen as they appear 2.Format specifications that define the output format for display of each item 3.Escape sequence characters such as \n,\t UNIT-V Managing input & output operations Formatted Output C Provides the printf() function to display the data on the monitor The printf() is included in stdio.h header file Syntax: printf( control string,arg1,arg2.argn);

54 1. The control string indicates how many arguments follow and what their types are 2. The arguments arg1,arg2,.,argn are the variables whose values are formatted and printed according the the specifications of the control string 3. The arguments should match in number, order and type with the format specifications

55 Format specification has the following form % w. p type-specifier Where 1.W is an integer number that specifies the total number of columns for the output value 2.P is another integer number that specifies the number of digits to the right of the decimal point or number of character to be printed from the string

56 Examples: printf( programming is an art\n ); Printf( %d,number); Printf( %f%f,p,q); Printf( sum=%d,sum); Printf( \n\n );

57 1. Output of integer numbers 2. Output of real numbers 3. Printing of a single character 4. Mixed data output 5. Enhancing the readability of output

58 1. Output of integer numbers Syntax: The format specification for printing an integer number is Where % W d W = minimum field width for the output. d = value to be printed is an integer The number is written right-justified in the given field width

59 Format output Printf( %d,9876); 9876 printf

60 READING A CHARACTER 1. Reading a character from the standard input unit and writing it to the standard output unit 2. Reading a single character can be done by using the function getchar() Syntax: Variable_name=getchar(); Where: Variable name is a valid c name that has to be declared a char type When this statement is encountered,the computer waits until a key is pressed and assigns this character as a value to getchar()

61 Example: main() { char letter; letter=getchar(); }

62 Program 2. /*Shows the use of getchar() in an interactive environment.*/ main() { char letter; printf( would you like to know my name\n ); printf(( type Y for YES and N for NO\n); letter=getchar(); If(letter== Y letter== y ) printf( \n My name is Nagaraj\n ); else printf( \n you are good for nothing\n );

63 The getchar() may be called successively to read the characters contained in a line of text. char character; character= ; while(character!= \n ) { character=getchar(); }

64 /*Write a c pgm to enter a character and displays a message on the screen telling the user whether the character is an alphabet or digit,or any spl character.*/ #include<stdio.h> main() { char character; printf( press any key\n ); character=getchar(); If(isalpha(character)>0) printf( the character is a letter ); else If(isdigit(character)>0) printf( the character is a digit ); else printf( the character is not alphanumeric ); }

65 WRITING A CHARACTER Writing character one at a time to the terminal Syntax: putchar(variable-name); Example: char letter=n; putchar(letter);

66 /* write a c program that reads a character from keyboard and then prints it in reverse case */ #include<stdio.h> main() { char alp; printf( enter an alphabet\n ); //putchar( \n ); alp=getchar(); if(islower(alp)) putchar(toupper(alp)); else putchar(tolower(alp)); }

67 FORMATTED INPUT scanf().. Scan formatted Syntax: scanf( control string,arg1,arg2, argn); 1.The control string specifies the field format in which the data is to be entered 2.Arguments arg1,arg2,..argn specify the address of locations where the data is stored 3.Control string and arguments Are separated by commas

68 Control string (format string) contains field specifications It may include 1.Field specifications, consisting of the conversion character %,a data type character,and optional number,specifying field width 2.Blanks, tabs, or newlines

69 1. Inputting integer numbers 2. Inputting real numbers 3. Inputting character strings 4. Reading mixed data types 5. Detection of errors in input

70 Un-conditional branch statements 1.Transfer the control from one point to other 2.Control can be transferred from one statement to the specified statement without condition Syntax: goto label; Label is an identifier Labels need not be declared label: statement;

71 Ex: main() { double x, y; read: scanf( %f,&x); If(x<0) goto read Y=sqrt(x); Printf( %f%f\n,x,y); goto read; }

72 Assignment 1. What is a control statement? 2. Explain various types of control statements in C 3. Write the syntax of nested if with flow chart. 4. Write the general syntax of switch statement. 5. What is goto statement? when it can be used 6. Write a C program to check whether given year is leap year or not. 7. Write a C program to check given number is odd or even using Bitwise operator. 8. Write a C program to check given number is positive or negative using Bitwise operator. 9. Write a C program to design a simple calculator using switch of type character.

73 Decision making and looping Program loop consists of 2 segments, 1.body of the loop 2.control statements

74 1. Statements that enable the programmer to execute a set of statements repeatedly till the required activity is completed is called looping constructs or looping control statements Types of looping 1. for loop 2. while loop 3. do-while loop

75 for loop Syntax: for(initialization; test-condition; increment) { Body of the loop; }

76 Explanation: 1.Initialization of the control variables is done first, using assignment statement such as i=1 and count=0.the variables i and count are known as loop control variables 2.The value of the control variables is tested using the test condition. i<10 that determines when the loop will exit. if the condition is true, the body of the loop is executed; otherwise the loop is terminated and execution continues with the statements that immediately follows the loop 3. when the body of the loop is executed, the control is transferred back to for statement after evaluating last statement in the loop.now the control variable is

77 Ex: for(x=0;x<=9;x++) { printf( %d,x); }

78 Additional features of for loop: 1.More that one variable can be initialized at a time in the for statement for(n=0,p=1;n<17;++n) 2.Increment section may also have more than one part for(n=1,m=50;n<=m;n=n+1,m=m-1) { p=m/n; printf( %d%d%d\n,n,m,p); } 3.Test condition may have any compound relation and testing need not to be limited only to loop

79 4.In the for loop one or more sections can be omitted m=5; for(;m!=100;) { printf( %d\n,m); m=m+5; }

80 #include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.h> int n,i,a[10],key; void input() { printf("enter the elements\n"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) scanf("%d",&a[i]); }

81 void linear_search() { for(i=0;i<n;i++) { if(a[i]==key) { printf("found at pos=%d\n",i+1); exit(0); } } printf("element not found \n"); }

82 void main() { } printf("enter the size of an array\n"); scanf("%d",&n); input(); printf("enter the element to be searched \n"); scanf("%d",&key); linear_search(); getch();

83 Nesting of for loops One for statement is within another for statement Example: for(i=1;i<10;i++) {.... For(j=1;j!=5;j++) {..... } }

84 Jumps in loop Jumping out of a loop: 1. When a break statement is encountered inside a loop,the loop is immediately exited and the program continues with the statement immediately following the loop 2. When the loops are nested the break would only exit from the loop containing it 3. Break will exit only a single loop

85 While( ) {.. If(condition) break;.. }. for(..) { If(error) break; }.

86 do {.. If(condition) break;.. } While( ); for(.) { } for(.) {.. if(condition) break;.. }

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