# Review. Primitive Data Types & Variables. String Mathematical operators: + - * / % Comparison: < > <= >= == int, long float, double boolean char

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1 Review Primitive Data Types & Variables int, long float, double boolean char String Mathematical operators: + - * / % Comparison: < > <= >= == 1

2 1.3 Conditionals and Loops Introduction to Programming in Java: An Interdisciplinary Approach Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne Copyright /5/ :10:10 PM

3 Control Flow Programs execute one statement after another Conditionals and loops allow us to control the flow statement 1 boolean 1 true false statement 2 statement 3 statement 1 boolean 2 true statement 2 false statement 4 statement 3 straight-line control flow control flow with conditionals and loops 3

4 Conditionals 4

5 If Statement The if statement: A common branching structure Evaluate a boolean expression If true, execute some statements If false, execute other statements boolean expression if (boolean expression) { //statement T; else { //statement F; can be any sequence of statements true statement T false statement F 5

6 A program to check if a number is even or odd? How do we provide a number to java? Command-line arguments Later in the course reading input from the user 6

7 Command line arguments To run programs you have written so far java MyHouse java HelloWorld We d like to e a le to provide i for atio at the command line java HelloWorld Arvind want the program say Hello Arvind as opposed Hello World. 7

8 Command line arguments public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { String name = args[0]; System.out.println("Hello there " + name); 8

9 Command line arguments args[0] will be a String How to convert a String to an integer? Integer.parseInt 9

10 Back to even or odd detection Live odi g. 10

11 Relational Expressions < less than > is greater than <= is less than or equal to >= is greater than or equal to == is equivalent!= is not equivalent 11

12 Relational Expressions: Examples 1. if ( true ) { 2. if ( 10 > 10 ) { 3. if ( 10 >= 10 ) { 4. if ( 'a' == 'a' ) { 5. if ( 'a'!= 'a' ) { 6. if ( Penn!= penn ) { 12

13 Logical Expressions && logical conjunction (and) both expressions must be true for conjunction to be true logical disjunction (or) either expression must be true for disjunction to be true! logical negation (not) true false, false true 13

14 Logical Expression Examples 1. if ( (2 > 1) && (3 > 4) ) { 2. if ( ( b == b ) && (1 + 2 == 3) ) { 3. if (!false ) { 4. if (!(1 < -1) ) { 5. if (!(10 < 20) false ) { 6. if (!(10 > 20) && (10 < 20) ) { 7. if ( (true false) && true ) { 8. if ( (true && false) true ) ) { 9. 14

15 If Statement The if statement: A common branching structure Evaluate a boolean expression If true, execute some statements If false, execute other statements 15

16 If Statement Ex. Take different actions depending on the value of a variable public class Flip { public static void main(string[] args) { if (Math.random() < 0.5) { System.out.println("Heads"); else { System.out.println("Tails"); % java Flip Heads % java Flip Heads % java Flip Tails % java Flip Heads 16

17 If Statement Examples 17

18 Conditionals: if-else-if-statement if ( boolean_expression_1 ) { statements; else if ( boolean_expression_2 ) { statements; else if ( boolean_expression_3 ) { statements; else { statements; 18

19 Example: Graduated Income Tax Pay a certain income tax rate depending on income: Income Rate 0-47,450 22% 47, ,650 25% 114, ,700 28% 174, ,950 33% 311,950-35% 5 mutually exclusive alternatives 19

20 Nested If Statements Use nested if statements to handle multiple alternatives if (income < 47450) rate = 0.22; else { if (income < ) rate = 0.25; else { if (income < ) rate = 0.28; else { if (income < ) rate = 0.33; else rate = 0.35; Income Rate 0-47,450 22% 47, ,650 25% 114, ,700 28% 174, ,950 33% 311,950-35% 20

21 Nested If Statements Income Rate 0-47,450 22% 47, ,650 25% 114, ,700 28% 174, ,950 33% 311,950-35% 5 mutually exclusive alternatives Alternative shortened version: double rate; if (income < 47450) rate = 0.22; else if (income < ) rate = 0.25; else if (income < ) rate = 0.28; else if (income < ) rate = 0.33; else rate = 0.35; 21

22 Nested If Statements What is wrong with the following implementation? Income Rate 0-47,450 22% 47, ,650 25% 114, ,700 28% 174, ,950 33% 311,950-35% double rate = 0.35; if (income < 47450) rate = 0.22; if (income < ) rate = 0.25; if (income < ) rate = 0.28; if (income < ) rate = 0.33; 5 mutually exclusive alternatives 22

23 +, -, *, / a d A aside Operators i++; equivalent to i = i + 1; i += 2; equivalent to i = i + 2; i--; equivalent to i = i 1; i -= 3; equivalent to i = i - 3; i *= 2; equivalent to i = i * 2; i /= 4; equivalent to i = i / 4; i % 3; remainder after i is divided by 3 (modulo) 27

24 Iteration 28

25 Iteration Repetition of a program block Iterate when a block of code is to repeated multiple times. Options The for-loop The while-loop 29

26 The For Loop Copyright 2004, FoxTrot by Bill Amend 30

27 For Loops Handles details of the counter-controlled loop automatically The for loop structure includes: the initialization of the the loop control variable, the termination condition test, and control variable modification for (int i = 1; i < 101; i = i + 1) { initialization test modification 31

28 A for loop When Does a for Loop Initialize, Test and Modify? initializes the loop control variable before beginning the first loop iteration performs the loop termination test before each iteration of the loop modifies the loop control variable at the very end of each iteration of the loop 32

29 For Loop: Powers of Two Example: Print powers of 2 that are 2 N Increment i from 0 to N Double v each time int v = 1; for (int i = 0; i <= N; i++) { System.out.println(i + " " + v); v = 2 * v; v 1 Output: N = 4 i 0 i <= N true 2 1 true 4 2 true 8 3 true 16 4 true 32 5 false 33

30 For Loop Examples A for loop that counts from 0 to 9: // modify part can be simply i++ for ( i = 0; i < 10; i = i + 1 ) { System.out.println( i ) ; or we can count backwards by 2 s : // modify part can be i -= 2 for ( i = 10; i > 0; i = i - 2 ) { System.out.println( i ) ; 34

31 public class CrazyEllipses { public static void main(string[] args) { StdDraw.setCanvasSize(500, 500); for (double dia = 0.5; dia > 0.002; dia -= 0.02){ StdDraw.ellipse(0.5, 0.5, dia, dia); What does this code draw? 35

32 For loop examples compute a finite sum ( N) int sum = 0; for (int i =0; i<=n; i++) sum += i; System.out.println(sum); print largest power of two less than or equal to N int v = 0 ; for (v = 1; v <= N/2; v *= 2); System.out.println(v); 36

33 While Loop The while loop: A common repetition structure Evaluate a boolean expression If true, execute some statements Repeat loop continuation condition statement 2 while (boolean expression) { statement 1; statement 2; loop body boolean expression false true statement 1 37

34 What will this do? System.out.print( Program running ); while (true) { System.out.print(. ); System.out.println(); System.out.println( Program Exiting ); 38

35 While Loop: Powers of Two Example: Print powers of 2 that are 2 N Increment i from 0 to N Double v each time int i = 0; int v = 1; while (i <= N) { System.out.println(i + " " + v); i++; v = 2 * v; i v Output: N = 4 i <= N true true true true true false 39

36 While Loop Challenge Q: Is there anything wrong with the following code for printing powers of 2? int i = 0; int v = 1; while (i <= N) System.out.println(i + " " + v); i = i + 1; v = 2 * v; 41

37 While Loop Challenge Q: Is there anything wrong with the following code for printing powers of 2? int i = 0; int v = 1; while (i <= N) System.out.println(i + " " + v); i = i + 1; v = 2 * v; A: Need curly braces around statements in while loop otherwise it enters an infinite loop, printing "0 42

38 The 3 Parts of a Loop int i = 1 ; initialization of loop control variable // count from 1 to 100 while ( i < 101 ) { test of loop termination condition System.out.println( i ) ; i = i + 1 ; modification of loop control variable 43

39 Example: Factorial int factorial = 1; while (mynumber > 0) { factorial *= mynumber; --mynumber; System.out.println(factorial); 44

40 Keyboard input StdDraw.hasNextKeyTyped() check to see if the user has pressed key If the user presses a key, StdDraw.hasNextKeyTyped() is true until and unless you write a line that processes the input c = StdDraw.nextKeyTyped(); 46

41 public class KeyBoardInput { public static void main(string[] args) { char c = 0; double radius = 1 / 500.0; StdDraw.setCanvasSize(600, 600); while (c!= 'q') { if (StdDraw.hasNextKeyTyped()) { c = StdDraw.nextKeyTyped(); StdDraw.circle(0.5, 0.5, radius); radius = radius + 1 / 500.0; StdDraw.show(10); 47

42 Using StdDraw.show for animation StdDraw.show() Display on-screen and turn off animation mode: subsequent calls to drawing methods such as line(), circle(), and square() will be displayed on screen when called StdDraw.show(t) Display on screen, pause for t milliseconds, and turn on animation mode: subsequent calls to drawing methods such as line(), circle(), and square() will not be displayed on screen until the next call to show(). 48

43 The break & continue Statements The break & continue statements can be used in while and for loops to skip the remaining statements in the loop body: break causes the looping itself to abort continue causes the next turn of the loop to start In a for loop, the modification step will still be executed 49

44 Example: Break in a For-Loop int i; OUTPUT: for (i = 1; i < 10; i = i + 1) { if (i == 5) { break; System.out.println(i); System.out.println( \nbroke out of loop at i = + i); Broke out of loop at i = 5 50

45 Example: Continue in a For-Loop int i; for (i = 1; i < 10; i = i + 1) { if (i == 5) { continue; System.out.println(i); System.out.println( Done ); OUTPUT: Done 51

46 Problem: Continue in While-Loop // This seems equivalent to for loop // in previous slide but is it?? int i = 1; while (i < 10) { if (i == 5) { continue; System.out.println(i); i = i + 1; System.out.println( Done ); OUTPUT:??? 52

47 Variable Scope Variable scope: That set of code statements in which the variable is known to the compiler Where it can be referenced in your program Limited to the code block in which it is defined A code block is a set of code enclosed in braces ({ ) One interesting application of this principle allowed in Java involves the for loop construct 53

48 Scoping and the For-Loop Index Can declare and initialize variables in the heading of a for loop These variables are local to the for-loop They may be reused in other loops int count = 1; for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++){ count *= 2; //using 'i' here generates a compiler error 54 54

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