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2 Chapter 1: Data Storage 1.1 Bits and Their Storage 1.2 Main Memory 1.3 Mass Storage 1.4 Representing Information as Bit Patterns 1.5 The Binary System 1.6 Storing Integers 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-2

4 Bits and Bit Patterns Bit: Binary Digit (0 or 1) Bit Patterns are used to represent information. Numbers Text characters Images Sound And others 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-4

5 Boolean Operations Boolean Operation: An operation that manipulates one or more true/false values Specific operations AND OR XOR (exclusive or) NOT 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-5

7 Gates Gate: A device that computes a Boolean operation Often implemented as (small) electronic circuits Provide the building blocks from which computers are constructed 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-7

8 Figure 1.2 A pictorial representation of AND, OR, XOR, and NOT gates as well as their input and output values 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-8

9 Flip-flops Flip-flop: A circuit built from gates that can store one bit. Has an input line which sets its stored value to 1 Has an input line which sets its stored value to 0 While both input lines are 0, the most recently stored value is preserved 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-9

15 Hexadecimal Notation Hexadecimal notation: A shorthand notation for long bit patterns Divides a pattern into groups of four bits each Represents each group by a single symbol Example: becomes A Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-15

17 Main Memory Cells Cell: A unit of main memory (typically 8 bits which is one byte) Most significant bit: the bit at the left (high-order) end of the conceptual row of bits in a memory cell Least significant bit: the bit at the right (loworder) end of the conceptual row of bits in a memory cell 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-17

19 Main Memory Addresses Address: A name that uniquely identifies one cell in the computer s main memory The names are actually numbers. These numbers are assigned consecutively starting at zero. Numbering the cells in this manner associates an order with the memory cells Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-19

21 Memory Terminology Random Access Memory (RAM): Memory in which individual cells can be easily accessed in any order Dynamic Memory (DRAM): RAM composed of volatile memory 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-21

22 Measuring Memory Capacity Kilobyte: 2 10 bytes = 1024 bytes Example: 3 KB = bytes Sometimes kibi rather than kilo Megabyte: 2 20 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes Example: 3 MB = 3 1,048,576 bytes Sometimes megi rather than mega Gigabyte: 2 30 bytes = 1,073,741,824 bytes Example: 3 GB = 3 1,073,741,824 bytes Sometimes gigi rather than giga 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-22

23 Mass Storage On-line versus off-line Typically larger than main memory Typically less volatile than main memory Typically slower than main memory 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-23

28 Files File: A unit of data stored in mass storage system Fields and keyfields Physical record versus Logical record Buffer: A memory area used for the temporary storage of data (usually as a step in transferring the data) 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-28

30 Representing Text Each character (letter, punctuation, etc.) is assigned a unique bit pattern. ASCII: Uses patterns of 7-bits to represent most symbols used in written English text Unicode: Uses patterns of 16-bits to represent the major symbols used in languages world side ISO standard: Uses patterns of 32-bits to represent most symbols used in languages world wide 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-30

32 Representing Numeric Values Binary notation: Uses bits to represent a number in base two Limitations of computer representations of numeric values Overflow happens when a value is too big to be represented Truncation happens when a value is between two representable values 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-32

33 Representing Images Bit map techniques Pixel: short for picture element RGB Luminance and chrominance Vector techniques Scalable TrueType and PostScript 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-33

34 Representing Sound Sampling techniques Used for high quality recordings Records actual audio MIDI Used in music synthesizers Records musical score 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-34

35 Figure 1.14 The sound wave represented by the sequence 0, 1.5, 2.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 3.0, Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-35

36 The Binary System The traditional decimal system is based on powers of ten. The Binary system is based on powers of two Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-36

40 Figure 1.18 Applying the algorithm in Figure 1.15 to obtain the binary representation of thirteen 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-40

43 Storing Integers Two s complement notation: The most popular means of representing integer values Excess notation: Another means of representing integer values Both can suffer from overflow errors Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-43

49 Storing Fractions Floating-point Notation: Consists of a sign bit, a mantissa field, and an exponent field. Related topics include Normalized form Truncation errors 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-49

52 Data Compression Lossy versus lossless Run-length encoding Frequency-dependent encoding (Huffman codes) Relative encoding Dictionary encoding (Includes adaptive dictionary encoding such as LZW encoding.) 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-52

53 Compressing Images GIF: Good for cartoons JPEG: Good for photographs TIFF: Good for image archiving 2007 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 0-53

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