# EE 109 Unit 6 Binary Arithmetic

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1 EE 109 Unit 6 Binary Arithmetic 1

2 2 Semester Transition Point At this point we are going to start to transition in our class to look more at the hardware organization and the low-level software that is produced by compilers This is where HW really meets SW We need to finish off some topics of how the HW carries out operations on numbers

3 ARITHMETIC 3

4 4 Binary Arithmetic Can perform all arithmetic operations (+,-,*, ) on binary numbers Can use same methods as in decimal Still use carries and borrows, etc. Only now we carry when sum is 2 or more rather than 10 or more (decimal) We borrow 2 s not 10 s from other columns Easiest method is to add bits in your head in decimal (1+1 = 2) then convert the answer to binary (2 10 = 10 2 )

5 5 Binary Addition In decimal addition we carry when the sum is 10 or more In binary addition we carry when the sum is 2 or more Add bits in binary to produce a sum bit and a carry bit no need to carry sum bit no need to carry sum bit no need to carry sum bit carry 1 into next column of bits sum bit

6 6 Binary Addition & Subtraction (7) (3) (10) (10) (5) (5)

7 7 Binary Addition (6) (7) 1101 (13)

8 8 Binary Addition (6) (7) 1101 (13) carry bit sum bit

9 9 Binary Addition (6) (7) (13) 10 carry bit sum bit

10 10 Binary Addition (6) (7) (13) 11 carry bit = 3 10 = 11 2 sum bit

11 11 Binary Addition (6) (7) (13) 01 carry bit sum bit

12 12 Hexadecimal Arithmetic Same style of operations Carry when sum is 16 or more, etc D 16 + B = = = =

13 13 "Taking the 2's complement" SUBTRACTION THE EASY WAY

14 14 Taking the Negative Given a number in signed magnitude or 2 s complement how do we find its negative (i.e. -1 * X) Signed Magnitude: Flip the sign bit 0110 = +6 => 1110 = -6 2 s complement: Take the 2 s complement 0110 = +6 => -6 = 1010 Operation defined as: 1. Flip/invert/not all the bits (1 s complement) 2. Add 1 and drop any carry (i.e. finish with the same # of bits as we start with)

15 15 Taking the 2 s Complement Invert (flip) each bit (take the 1 s complement) 1 s become 0 s 0 s become 1 s Add 1 (drop final carry-out, if any) Original number = +19 Bit flip is called the 1 s complement of a number Resulting number = -19 Important: Taking the 2 s complement is equivalent to taking the negative (negating)

16 16 Taking the 2 s Complement Original number = -22 Take the 2 s complement yields the negative of a number Resulting number = Original # = 0 Take the 2 s complement 2 s comp. of 0 is Taking the 2 s complement again yields the original number (the operation is symmetric) Back to original = Original # = -8 Take the 2 s complement Negative of -8 is -8 (i.e. no positive equivalent, but this is not a huge problem)

17 17 2 s Complement System Facts Normal binary place values but MSB has negative weight MSB determines sign of the number 0 = positive / 1 = negative Special Numbers 0 = All 0 s (00 00) -1 = All 1 s (11 11) Max Positive = 0 followed by all 1 s ( ) Max Negative = 1 followed by all 0 s (100 00) To take the negative of a number (e.g. -7 => +7 or +2 => -2), requires taking the complement 2 s complement of a # is found by flipping bits and adding x = -7 Bit flip (1 s comp.) Add 1 -x = -(-7) = +7

19 19 2 s Complement Addition/Subtraction Addition Sign of the numbers do not matter Add column by column Drop any final carry-out Subtraction Any subtraction (A-B) can be converted to addition (A + -B) by taking the 2 s complement of B (A-B) becomes (A + 1 s comp. of B + 1) Drop any carry-out

20 20 2 s Complement Addition No matter the sign of the operands just add as normal Drop any extra carry out (3) 1101 (-3) (2) 0101 (5) (2) 1111 (-1) Drop final carry-out (3) (-2) 0001 (1) (-3) (-2) 1011 (-5)

21 21 Unsigned and Signed Addition Addition process is the same for both unsigned and signed numbers Add columns right to left Examples: If unsigned If signed (9) (3) (12) (-7) (3) (-4)

22 22 2 s Complement Subtraction Take the 2 s complement of the subtrahend and add to the original minuend Drop any extra carry out 0011 (+3) (+2) 1101 (-3) (-2) Drop final carry-out 1111_ s comp. of +2 Add 1 1_ s comp. of -2 Add 1

23 23 Unsigned and Signed Subtraction Subtraction process is the same for both unsigned and signed numbers Convert A B to A + Comp. of B Drop any final carry out Examples: If unsigned If signed (12) (2) (-4) (2) 11_1_ A 1 s comp. of B Add 1 (10) (-6) If unsigned If signed

24 24 Important Note Almost all computers use 2's complement because The same addition and subtraction algorithm can be used on unsigned and 2's complement (signed) numbers Thus we only need one adder circuit (HW component) to perform operations on both unsigned and signed numbers

25 OVERFLOW 25

26 26 Overflow Overflow occurs when the result of an arithmetic operation is too large to be represented with the given number of bits Conditions and tests to determine overflow depend on sign

27 27 Unsigned Overflow Overflow occurs when you cross this discontinuity = Plus With 4-bit unsigned numbers we can only represent Thus, we say overflow has occurred

28 28 2 s Complement Overflow = = -10 With 4-bit 2 s complement numbers we can only represent -8 to +7. Thus, we say overflow has occurred Overflow occurs when you cross this discontinuity

29 29 Overflow in Addition Overflow occurs when the result of the addition cannot be represented with the given number of bits. Tests for overflow: Unsigned: if Cout = 1 Signed: if p + p = n or n + n = p If unsigned (13) (4) (17) If signed (-3) (4) (+1) If unsigned (6) (5) (11) If signed (6) (5) (-5) Overflow Cout = 1 No Overflow n + p No Overflow Cout = 0 Overflow p + p = n

30 30 Overflow in Subtraction Overflow occurs when the result of the subtraction cannot be represented with the given number of bits. Tests for overflow: Unsigned: if Cout = 0 Signed: if addition is p + p = n or n + n = p If unsigned If signed (7) (8) (-1) (7) (-8) (15) Desired Results 0111_ A 1 s comp. of B Add 1 (15) (-1) If unsigned Overflow Cout = 0 If signed Overflow p + p = n

31 31 TRANSLATING SIGNED OR UNSIGNED HEXADECIMAL

32 32 Translating Hexadecimal Hex place values (16 2, 16 1, 16 0 ) can ONLY be used if the number is positive. If hex represents unsigned binary 1. Apply hex place values B2 hex = 11* *16 0 = If hex represents signed value (2 s comp.) 1. Determine the sign by looking at the underlying MSB 2. If pos., apply hex place values (as if it were unsigned) 3. If neg., take the 16 s complement and apply hex place values to find the neg. number s magnitude Hex Binary Sign 0 = 0000 = Pos. 1 = 0001 = Pos. 2 = 0010 = Pos. 3 = 0011 = Pos. 4 = 0100 = Pos. 5 = 0101 = Pos. 6 = 0110 = Pos. 7 = 0111 = Pos. 8 = 1000 = Neg. 9 = 1001 = Neg. A = 1010 = Neg. B = 1011 = Neg. C = 1100 = Neg. D = 1101 = Neg. E = 1110 = Neg. F = 1111 = Neg.

33 33 Taking the 16 s Complement Taking the 2 s complement of a binary number yields its negative and is accomplished by take the bit flip and adding 1 Taking the 16 s complement of a hex number yields its negative and is accomplished by subtracting each digit from (F 16 ) complement and adding 1 15 s complement is found by subtracting each digit of the hex number from F 16 Original value B2: 16 s comp. of B2: FF - B2 4D + 1 4E Subtract each digit from F Add 1 16 s comp. of B2

34 34 Translating Hexadecimal Given 6C hex If it is unsigned, apply hex place values 6C hex = 6* *16 0 = If it is signed Determine the sign by looking at MSD 0-7 hex has a 0 in the MSB [i.e. positive] 8-F hex has a 1 in the MSB [i.e. negative] Thus, 6C (start with 6 which has a 0 in the MSB is positive) Since it is positive, apply hex place values 6C hex = 6* *16 0 =

35 35 Translating Hexadecimal Given B2 hex If it is unsigned B2 hex = 11* *16 0 = If it is signed Determine the sign: MSD = B thus negative [i.e. (- ) ] Take the 16 s complement and apply hex place values to find the neg. number s magnitude

36 36 Finding the Value of Hex Numbers 8A hex representing a signed (2 s comp.) value Step 1: Determine the sign: Neg. Step 2: Take the 16 s comp. to find magnitude FF - 8A Step 3: Apply hex place values (76 16 = ) Step 4: Final value: B2 hex = C hex representing a signed (2 s comp.) value Step 1: Determine the sign: Pos. Step 2: Apply hex place values (7C 16 = ) 7C hex representing an unsigned value =

37 37 Hex Addition and Overflow Same rules as in binary Add left to right Drop any carry (carry occurs when sum > F 16 ) Same addition overflow rules Unsigned: Check if final Cout = 1 Signed: Check signs of inputs and result 1 1 7AC5 + C18A 3C4F If unsigned Overflow Cout = 1 If signed No Overflow p + n C F C0B1 If unsigned No Overflow Cout = 0 If signed Overflow p + p = n

38 38 Hex Subtraction and Overflow Same rules as in binary Convert A B to A + Comp. of B Drop any final carry out Same subtraction overflow rules Unsigned: Check if final Cout = 0 Signed: Check signs of addition inputs and result B1ED - 76FE 1 B1ED AEF If unsigned No Overflow Cout = 1 If signed Overflow n + n = p FFFD + 1 FFFF If unsigned Overflow Cout = 0 If signed No Overflow p + n

39 NOT COVERED IN FALL

40 40 Unsigned Multiplication Review Same rules as decimal multiplication Multiply each bit of Q by M shifting as you go An m-bit * n-bit mult. produces an m+n bit result Notice each partial product is a shifted copy of M or 0 (zero) 1010 * _ M (Multiplicand) Q (Multiplier) PP(Partial Products) P (Product)

41 41 Signed Multiplication Techniques When multiplying signed (2 s comp.) numbers, some new issues arise Must sign extend partial products (out to 2n bits) Without Sign Extension Wrong Answer! 1001 * _ = -7 = +6 = +54 With Sign Extension Correct Answer! 1001 * _ = -7 = +6 = -42

42 42 Signed Multiplication Techniques Also, must worry about negative multiplier MSB of multiplier has negative weight If MSB=1, multiply by -1 (i.e. take 2 s comp. of multiplicand) With Sign Extension but w/o consideration of MSB Wrong Answer! 1100 * _ = -4 = -6 = -40 Place Value: -8 Multiply by -1 With Sign Extension and w/ consideration of MSB Correct Answer! 1100 * _ Main Point: Signed and Unsigned Multiplication require different techniques Thus different instructions. = -4 = -6 = +24

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