# Functions. Lab 4. Introduction: A function : is a collection of statements that are grouped together to perform an operation.

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1 Lab 4 Functions Introduction: A function : is a collection of statements that are grouped together to perform an operation. The following is its format: type name ( parameter1, parameter2,...) { statements } where: type is the data type specifier of the data returned by the function. name is the identifier by which it will be possible to call the function. parameters (as many as needed): Each parameter consists of a data type specifier followed by an identifier, like any regular variable declaration (for example: int x) and which acts within the function as a regular local variable. They allow to pass arguments to the function when it is called. The different parameters are separated by commas. statements is the function's body. It is a block of statements surrounded by braces { }. Define a function Invoke a funciton return value type method name formal parameters function header function body int max(int num1, int num2) { int result; if (num1 > num2) result = num1; else result = num2; parameter list return value int z = max(x, y); actual parameters (arguments) } return result;

2 Notes: Function signature >> (function name,parameter list). The variables defined in the function header are known as formal parameters. When a function is invoked, you pass a value to the parameter. This value is referred to as actual parameter or argument Void function does not return a value. Scope of variables: The scope of variables declared within a function or any other inner block is only their own function or their own block and cannot be used outside of them. Therefore, the scope of local variables is limited to the same block level in which they are declared. Nevertheless, we also have the possibility to declare global variables; These are visible from any point of the code, inside and outside all functions. In order to declare global variables you simply have to declare the variable outside any function or block; that means, directly in the body of the program.

3 Calling Functions: Exercise 1: Void Functions: We do not need to return any value. In this case we should use the void type specifier for the function. This is a special specifier that indicates absence of type. Exercise 2:

4 Overloaded functions: In C++ two different functions can have the same name if their parameter types or number are different. That means that you can give the same name to more than one function if they have either a different number of parameters or different types in their parameters. Exercise 3A:

5 Exercise 3B: Pass by Value &Pass By Reference: Pass by value: In pass be value mechanism copies of the arguments are created and which are stored in the temporary locations of the memory. The parameters are mapped to the copies of the arguments created. The changes made to the parameter do not affect the arguments. Pass by value mechanism provides security to the calling program.

6 Exercise 4: Pass by reference: Pass by reference is the second way of passing parameters to the function. The address of the argument is copied into the parameter. The changes made to the parameter affect the arguments. The address of the argument is passed to the function and function modifies the values of the arguments in the calling function. Exercise 5:

7 Declaring functions: There is an alternative way to avoid writing the whole code of a function before it can be used in main or in some other function. This can be achieved by declaring just a prototype of the function before it is used, instead of the entire definition. This declaration is shorter than the entire definition, but significant enough for the compiler to determine its return type and the types of its parameters. Its form is: type name ( argument_type1, argument_type2,...); It is identical to a function definition, except that it does not include the body of the function itself (i.e., the function statements that in normal definitions are enclosed in braces { }) and instead of that we end the prototype declaration with a mandatory semicolon (;). The parameter enumeration does not need to include the identifiers, but only the type specifiers. Exercise 6:

8 Lab work: Apply the programming exercises practically on DEV C++ Program, and show the results to your instructor. Enter a number of students to get the average of them,, by a function that receive the grades by a while loop and calculate the average of the grades. Home work: Implement the following integer function : a) Function Celsius return the Celsius equivalent of a Fahrenheit temperature. b) Function Fahrenheit return the Fahrenheit equivalent of a Celsius temperature. c) Use these functions to write a program that prints charts showing the Fahrenheit equivalents of all Celsius temperatures from 0 to 10 degrees, and the Fahrenheit temperatures from 32 to 42 degrees. Print the outputs in a neat tabular format. celsius = (5.0 / 9.0) * (Fahrenheit ) fahrenheit = (9.0/5.0)*( Celsius +32.0) The Fibonacci series 0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,. Begins with the term 0 and 1 and has the property that each succeeding term is sum of the two preceding terms. Write a recursive function Fibonacci(n)that calculates the nth Fibonacci number. Write a function distance that calculates the distance between two points (x1,y1) and (x2,y2). all numbers and return values should be of type float. Then call the function in the main, receive the values from keyboard to calculate the distance.

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