# & Control Flow of Program

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 CS101 Introduction to computing Recap of Floating Point & Control Flow of Program A. Sahu and S. V.Rao Dept of Comp. Sc. & Engg. Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 1

2 Outline Recap Operation on Floating Point Conversions and type casting in C Program flow control If else l Switch case Looping : while, for, do while Problem Solving 2

3 IEEE 754 standard Single precision numbers S E F Double precision numbers S E F

4 Density of int vs float Int : 32 bit Exponent Mantissa Float : 32 bit Number of number can be represented Both the cases (float, int) : 2 32 Range int ( 2 31 to ) float Large ±(2 ( 2 23 ) x Small± 1 x % of float numbers are Small (less then ±1 ) 4

5 Expressible Numbers(int and float) Expressible integers overflow + overflow Expressible Float underflow + underflow overflow ( )x overflow 0 0.5x x2 127 ( )x2 128

6 Density of 32 bit float SP Fraction/mantissa is 23 bit Number of different number can be stored for particular value of exponent Assume for exp=1, 2 23 =8x1024x1024 8x10 6 Between 1 2 we can store 8x10 6 numbers Similarly for exp=2, between 2 4, 8x10 6 number of number can be stored for exp=3, between 4 8, 8x10 6 number of number can be stored for exp=4, between 8 16, 8x10 6 number of number can be stored 6

7 Similarly Density of 32 bit float SP for exp=23, between , 810 8x10 6 number of number can be stored for exp=24, bt between , 810 8x10 6 number of number can be stored OK for exp=25, between , 8x10 6 number of number can be stored >8 x10 6 BAD for exp=127, between , 8x10 6 number of number can be stored WROST 7

8 Density of 32 bit float SP 2 23 =8x1024x1024 8x

9 Floating Point in C C Guarantees Two/Three Levels float single precision double long double double precision quad precision

10 Mathematical Properties of FP Add Compare to those of Abelian Group Closed Cosedunder addition? But may generate infinity or NaN Commutative? Associative? Overflow and inexactness of rounding YES YES NO 0 is additive identity? YES Every y element has additive inverse Except for infinities & NaNs ALMOST Monotonicity a b a+c b+c? ALMOST Except for infinities & NaNs

11 Math. Properties of FP Mult Compare to Commutative Ring Closed under multiplication? But may generate infinity or NaN YES Multiplication Commutative? YES Multiplication M li is Associative? NO Possibility of overflow, inexactness of rounding 11 is multiplicative identity? YES Multiplication distributes over addition? NO Possibility of overflow, inexactness of rounding Monotonicity a b & c 0 a *c b *c? ALMOST Except for infinities & NaNs

12 Type Casting Some languages are strictly type, addition of two different type of object Result an compilation error ( Example ML) You can not add a mango and an apple In C we have : auto up gradation and demotion (Implicit type casting) of type int I; float F; Explicit type casting I=F; //auto demotion F=I; //auto promotion I=(int) I(int) F; //manual demotion F=(float) I; //manual promotion

13 Type Casting Floating Point Casting between int, float, and double changes numeric values double or float to int Truncates fractional part Like rounding toward zero Not defined when out of range Generally saturates to TMin or TMax int to double Exact conversion, as long as int has 53 bit word size int to float Will round according to rounding mode

14 Answers to Floating Point Puzzles int x = ; float f = ; Assume neither d nor f is NAN double d = ; x==(int)(float)x x==(int)(double)x f==(float)(double)f d==(float)d Comparison Result? Comparison Result? Comparison Result? Comparison Result? f==-(-f); f) Comparison Result?

15 Answers to Floating Point Puzzles int x = ; float f = ; Assume neither d nor f is NAN double d = ; x==(int)(float)x No: 24 bit Fraction (1+23) x==(int)(double)x f==(float)(double)f d==(float)d Yes: 53 bit Fraction(1+52) Yes: increases precision No: loses precision f==-(-f); f) Yes: Just change sign bit

16 Answers to Floating Point Puzzles int x = ; float f = ; Assume neither d nor f is NAN double d = ; 2/3 == 2/3.0 Comparison Result? d < 0.0 ((d*2)<0.0) Comparison Result? d > f -f > -d d * d >= 0.0 Comparison Result? Comparison Result? (d+f)-d d == f Comparison Result?

17 Answers to Floating Point Puzzles int x = ; float f = ; Assume neither d nor f is NAN double d = ; 2/3 == 2/3.0 No: 2/3 == 0 d < 0.0 ((d*2) < 0.0) Yes! d > f -f > -d d * d >= 0.0 Yes! Yes! (d+f)-d d == f No: Not associative iti

18 Control Flow of Program if-else else, if-goto goto, switch- case & for, while, do-while 18

19 Structured Programming All programs can be written in terms of only three control structures Sequence, selection and repetition The sequence structure Unless otherwise directed, the statements are executed in the order in which they are written. The selection structure Used to choose among alternative courses of action. The repetition structure Allows an action to be repeated while some condition remains true.

20 Sequential Execution Statement 1 Statement 2... Statement n

21 Compute the resonant frequency of an RLC circuit #include <stdio.h> #include <math.h> h> int main() { double l, c, omega, f; printf("enter inductance in mh: "); //S1 scanf("%lf", &l); //S2 printf("enter capacitance in microf: "); //S4 scanf("%lf", &c); //S5 omega = 1.0/sqrt((l.0/1000)*(c/ )); //S6 f = omega / (2 * M_PI); //S7 printf("resonant freq: %.2f\n", f); //S8 return 0; //S9 }

22 Selective Execution : Flow chart (only if) Boolean Expression true Statement 1 Statement S

23 Selective Execution : Flow chart true Boolean Expr false statement 1 statement 2

24 Selection: the if else statement if ( condition ){ } else { } statement(s)/*if clause */ statement(s) t t( /*else l clause */

25 Nesting of if else Statements if ( condition 1 ) { statement(s) } else if ( condition 2 ) { statement(s) }... /* more else clauses may be here */ else { statement(s) /* the default case */ }

26 Bad Example : 2 if 1 else if ( n > 0 ) if ( a > b ) z=a; if ( n > 0 ) else { z=b; if (a> b) if ( n > 0 ) if ( a > b ) } else z=a; z=a; z=b; else z=b; Indentation will not ensure result : else match with closest if Code of Red box behaves like Code of Green box

27 In Assembly language: No if else Assembly language No support for [if else, No for loop, No while loop] All higher construct get implemented using if and goto statement goto statement uses Label If else get converted to if goto if(a>b) goto L1: if(a> b ) z=b; z=a; else z=b; goto L2: NextStmt; L1: z=a; L2: Next stmt 27

28 In Assembly language: No if else if(a>b) goto L1: z=b; L1: L2: goto L2: z=a; Next stmt 28

29 Multi way if else : switch case If else : two way, if part and else part To make it multi way: nested if else Confusing, lengthy C language provide Switch case Multi way selection Range multi way selection 29

30 The switch Multiple Selection Structure switch Useful when expression is tested for multiple values Consists of a series of case labels and an optional default case break is (almost always) necessary switch (<expression>){ case <Value1> : <Action/Stmts for Value1>; break; case <Value2> : <Action/Stmts for Value2>; break;... default: <Action/Stmts for DefaultValue>; break; }

31 Flowchart of Switch Statement case a true case a action(s) break false case b false true case b action(s) break... case z false true case z action(s) break default action(s)

32 Multiway Switch Selection example int main(){//simple calculator int a=50,b=10, R; char choice; printf( Enter choice ); scanf( %c,&choice); switch (choice){ case a : R=a+b; printf( R=%d,R); break; case s : R=a-b; printf( R=%d,R); break; case m : R=a*b; printf( R=%d,R); break; case d : R=a/b; printf( R=%d,R); break; default : printf( Wrong choice ) ; break; } return 0; }

33 Multiway Switch Selection example int main(){//simple calculator int a=50,b=10, R; char choice; printf( Enter choice ); scanf( %c,&choice); switch (choice){ case a : R=a+b; printf( R=%d,R); break; case s : R=a-b; printf( R=%d,R); break; case m : R=a*b; printf( R=%d,R); break; case d : R=a/b; printf( R=%d,R); break; default : printf( Wrong choice ) ; break; } return 0; }

34 Multiway Switch Selection example switch (choice){ case A : // no break, work for both A & a // next statement automatically // get executed case a : R=a+b; printf( R=%d,R); break; case S : case s : R=a-b; printf( R=%d,R); break; case M : case m : R=a*b; printf( R=%d,R); break; case D : case d : R=a/b; printf( R=%d,R); break; default : printf( Wrong choice ) ; break; }

35 Range Multiway Switch Selection example int x; scanf( %d,&x); switch (x){ case :// 1 space three dots space 20 printf( You entered >=1 and <=20 ); break; case : printf( You entered >=21 and <=30 ); break; default : printf( You entered < 1 and >31 ) ; break; } Syntax = case <low_range>... <high_range> :

36 Thanks 36

### CS101 Introduction to computing Floating Point Numbers

CS101 Introduction to computing Floating Point Numbers A. Sahu and S. V.Rao Dept of Comp. Sc. & Engg. Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 1 Outline Need to floating point number Number representation

### Systems I. Floating Point. Topics IEEE Floating Point Standard Rounding Floating Point Operations Mathematical properties

Systems I Floating Point Topics IEEE Floating Point Standard Rounding Floating Point Operations Mathematical properties IEEE Floating Point IEEE Standard 754 Established in 1985 as uniform standard for

### System Programming CISC 360. Floating Point September 16, 2008

System Programming CISC 360 Floating Point September 16, 2008 Topics IEEE Floating Point Standard Rounding Floating Point Operations Mathematical properties Powerpoint Lecture Notes for Computer Systems:

### Floating Point Puzzles The course that gives CMU its Zip! Floating Point Jan 22, IEEE Floating Point. Fractional Binary Numbers.

class04.ppt 15-213 The course that gives CMU its Zip! Topics Floating Point Jan 22, 2004 IEEE Floating Point Standard Rounding Floating Point Operations Mathematical properties Floating Point Puzzles For

### CS429: Computer Organization and Architecture

CS429: Computer Organization and Architecture Dr. Bill Young Department of Computer Sciences University of Texas at Austin Last updated: September 18, 2017 at 12:48 CS429 Slideset 4: 1 Topics of this Slideset

### Chapter 2 Float Point Arithmetic. Real Numbers in Decimal Notation. Real Numbers in Decimal Notation

Chapter 2 Float Point Arithmetic Topics IEEE Floating Point Standard Fractional Binary Numbers Rounding Floating Point Operations Mathematical properties Real Numbers in Decimal Notation Representation

### Floating point. Today. IEEE Floating Point Standard Rounding Floating Point Operations Mathematical properties Next time.

Floating point Today IEEE Floating Point Standard Rounding Floating Point Operations Mathematical properties Next time The machine model Fabián E. Bustamante, Spring 2010 IEEE Floating point Floating point

### Floating point. Today! IEEE Floating Point Standard! Rounding! Floating Point Operations! Mathematical properties. Next time. !

Floating point Today! IEEE Floating Point Standard! Rounding! Floating Point Operations! Mathematical properties Next time! The machine model Chris Riesbeck, Fall 2011 Checkpoint IEEE Floating point Floating

### Data Representation Floating Point

Data Representation Floating Point CSCI 2400 / ECE 3217: Computer Architecture Instructor: David Ferry Slides adapted from Bryant & O Hallaron s slides via Jason Fritts Today: Floating Point Background:

### Type Conversion. and. Statements

and Statements Type conversion changing a value from one type to another Void Integral Floating Point Derived Boolean Character Integer Real Imaginary Complex no fractional part fractional part 2 tj Suppose

### Data Type Fall 2014 Jinkyu Jeong

Data Type Fall 2014 Jinkyu Jeong (jinkyu@skku.edu) 1 Syntax Rules Recap. keywords break double if sizeof void case else int static... Identifiers not#me scanf 123th printf _id so_am_i gedd007 Constants

### ICS Instructor: Aleksandar Kuzmanovic TA: Ionut Trestian Recitation 2

ICS 2008 Instructor: Aleksandar Kuzmanovic TA: Ionut Trestian Recitation 2 Data Representations Sizes of C Objects (in Bytes) C Data Type Compaq Alpha Typical 32-bit Intel IA32 int 4 4 4 long int 8 4 4

### CSE101-lec#12. Designing Structured Programs Introduction to Functions. Created By: Amanpreet Kaur & Sanjeev Kumar SME (CSE) LPU

CSE101-lec#12 Designing Structured Programs Introduction to Functions Created By: Amanpreet Kaur & Sanjeev Kumar SME (CSE) LPU Outline Designing structured programs in C: Counter-controlled repetition

### ANSI C Programming Simple Programs

ANSI C Programming Simple Programs /* This program computes the distance between two points */ #include #include #include main() { /* Declare and initialize variables */ double

### Dept. of CSE, IIT KGP

Control Flow: Looping CS10001: Programming & Data Structures Pallab Dasgupta Professor, Dept. of Computer Sc. & Engg., Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Types of Repeated Execution Loop: Group of

### CS367 Test 1 Review Guide

CS367 Test 1 Review Guide This guide tries to revisit what topics we've covered, and also to briefly suggest/hint at types of questions that might show up on the test. Anything on slides, assigned reading,

### PDS: CS Computer Sc & Engg: IIT Kharagpur 1. for Statement

PDS: CS 11002 Computer Sc & Engg: IIT Kharagpur 1 for Statement Another iterative construct in C language is the for-statement (loop). The structure or the syntax of this statement is, for (exp 1 ; exp

### Systems 1. Integers. Unsigned & Twoʼs complement. Addition, negation, multiplication

Systems 1 Integers Topics Numeric Encodings Unsigned & Twoʼs complement Programming Implications C promotion rules Basic operations Addition, negation, multiplication Programming Implications Consequences

### 15213 Recitation 2: Floating Point

15213 Recitation 2: Floating Point 1 Introduction This handout will introduce and test your knowledge of the floating point representation of real numbers, as defined by the IEEE standard. This information

### 3.5 Floating Point: Overview

3.5 Floating Point: Overview Floating point (FP) numbers Scientific notation Decimal scientific notation Binary scientific notation IEEE 754 FP Standard Floating point representation inside a computer

### Control Structures. Lecture 4 COP 3014 Fall September 18, 2017

Control Structures Lecture 4 COP 3014 Fall 2017 September 18, 2017 Control Flow Control flow refers to the specification of the order in which the individual statements, instructions or function calls

### Flow Chart. The diagrammatic representation shows a solution to a given problem.

low Charts low Chart A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm or process, showing the steps as various symbols, and their order by connecting them with arrows. he diagrammatic representation

### Control Statements. If Statement if statement tests a particular condition

Control Statements Control Statements Define the way of flow in which the program statements should take place. Implement decisions and repetitions. There are four types of controls in C: Bi-directional

### B.V. Patel Institute of Business Management, Computer & Information Technology, Uka Tarsadia University

Unit 1 Programming Language and Overview of C 1. State whether the following statements are true or false. a. Every line in a C program should end with a semicolon. b. In C language lowercase letters are

### What Every Programmer Should Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic

What Every Programmer Should Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic Last updated: October 15, 2015 Contents 1 Why don t my numbers add up? 3 2 Basic Answers 3 2.1 Why don t my numbers, like 0.1 + 0.2 add

### Bits, Bytes, and Integers Part 2

Bits, Bytes, and Integers Part 2 15-213: Introduction to Computer Systems 3 rd Lecture, Jan. 23, 2018 Instructors: Franz Franchetti, Seth Copen Goldstein, Brian Railing 1 First Assignment: Data Lab Due:

### Systems Programming and Computer Architecture ( )

Systems Group Department of Computer Science ETH Zürich Systems Programming and Computer Architecture (252-0061-00) Timothy Roscoe Herbstsemester 2016 1 3: Integers in C Computer Architecture and Systems

### C Program. Output. Hi everyone. #include <stdio.h> main () { printf ( Hi everyone\n ); }

C Program Output #include main () { printf ( Hi everyone\n ); Hi everyone #include main () { printf ( Hi everyone\n ); #include and main are Keywords (or Reserved Words) Reserved Words

### Data types, variables, constants

Data types, variables, constants Outline 2.1 Introduction 2.2 A Simple C Program: Printing a Line of Text 2.3 Another Simple C Program: Adding Two Integers 2.4 Memory Concepts 2.5 Arithmetic in C 2.6 Decision

### Chapter 3. Fundamental Data Types

Chapter 3. Fundamental Data Types Byoung-Tak Zhang TA: Hanock Kwak Biointelligence Laboratory School of Computer Science and Engineering Seoul National Univertisy http://bi.snu.ac.kr Variable Declaration

### Control Structures in Java if-else and switch

Control Structures in Java if-else and switch Lecture 4 CGS 3416 Spring 2016 February 2, 2016 Control Flow Control flow refers to the specification of the order in which the individual statements, instructions

### C Programming Multiple. Choice

C Programming Multiple Choice Questions 1.) Developer of C language is. a.) Dennis Richie c.) Bill Gates b.) Ken Thompson d.) Peter Norton 2.) C language developed in. a.) 1970 c.) 1976 b.) 1972 d.) 1980

### Fundamentals of Programming

Fundamentals of Programming Lecture 3 - Constants, Variables, Data Types, And Operations Lecturer : Ebrahim Jahandar Borrowed from lecturer notes by Omid Jafarinezhad Outline C Program Data types Variables

### BSM540 Basics of C Language

BSM540 Basics of C Language Chapter 9: Functions I Prof. Manar Mohaisen Department of EEC Engineering Review of the Precedent Lecture Introduce the switch and goto statements Introduce the arrays in C

### Scientific Computing. Error Analysis

ECE257 Numerical Methods and Scientific Computing Error Analysis Today s s class: Introduction to error analysis Approximations Round-Off Errors Introduction Error is the difference between the exact solution

### Programming Language Basics

Programming Language Basics Lecture Outline & Notes Overview 1. History & Background 2. Basic Program structure a. How an operating system runs a program i. Machine code ii. OS- specific commands to setup

### CS101 Introduction to computing Function, Scope Rules and Storage class

CS101 Introduction to computing Function, Scope Rules and Storage class A. Sahu and S. V.Rao Dept of Comp. Sc. & Engg. Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati Outline Functions Modular d l Program Inbuilt

### Selection Statements. Pseudocode

Selection Statements Pseudocode Natural language mixed with programming code Ex: if the radius is negative the program display a message indicating wrong input; the program compute the area and display

### In Fig. 3.5 and Fig. 3.7, we include some completely blank lines in the pseudocode for readability. programs into their various phases.

Formulating Algorithms with Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement Case Study 2: Sentinel-Controlled Repetition In Fig. 3.5 and Fig. 3.7, we include some completely blank lines in the pseudocode for readability.

### More Programming Constructs -- Introduction

More Programming Constructs -- Introduction We can now examine some additional programming concepts and constructs Chapter 5 focuses on: internal data representation conversions between one data type and

### At the end of this module, the student should be able to:

INTRODUCTION One feature of the C language which can t be found in some other languages is the ability to manipulate pointers. Simply stated, pointers are variables that store memory addresses. This is

### Chapter 4: Making Decisions

Chapter 4: Making Decisions 4.1 Relational Operators Relational Operators Used to compare numbers to determine relative order Operators: > Greater than < Less than >= Greater than or equal to

### C: How to Program. Week /Mar/05

1 C: How to Program Week 2 2007/Mar/05 Chapter 2 - Introduction to C Programming 2 Outline 2.1 Introduction 2.2 A Simple C Program: Printing a Line of Text 2.3 Another Simple C Program: Adding Two Integers

### Floating Point Arithmetic

Floating Point Arithmetic CS 365 Floating-Point What can be represented in N bits? Unsigned 0 to 2 N 2s Complement -2 N-1 to 2 N-1-1 But, what about? very large numbers? 9,349,398,989,787,762,244,859,087,678

### Computer Programming: Skills & Concepts (CP) arithmetic, if and booleans (cont)

CP Lect 5 slide 1 Monday 2 October 2017 Computer Programming: Skills & Concepts (CP) arithmetic, if and booleans (cont) Cristina Alexandru Monday 2 October 2017 Last Lecture Arithmetic Quadratic equation

### Inf2C - Computer Systems Lecture 2 Data Representation

Inf2C - Computer Systems Lecture 2 Data Representation Boris Grot School of Informatics University of Edinburgh Last lecture Moore s law Types of computer systems Computer components Computer system stack

### C Language Part 2 Digital Computer Concept and Practice Copyright 2012 by Jaejin Lee

C Language Part 2 (Minor modifications by the instructor) 1 Scope Rules A variable declared inside a function is a local variable Each local variable in a function comes into existence when the function

### Functions. Systems Programming Concepts

Functions Systems Programming Concepts Functions Simple Function Example Function Prototype and Declaration Math Library Functions Function Definition Header Files Random Number Generator Call by Value

### Floating Point Considerations

Chapter 6 Floating Point Considerations In the early days of computing, floating point arithmetic capability was found only in mainframes and supercomputers. Although many microprocessors designed in the

### Integers. Today. Next time. ! Numeric Encodings! Programming Implications! Basic operations. ! Floats

Integers Today! Numeric Encodings! Programming Implications! Basic operations! Programming Implications Next time! Floats Fabián E. Bustamante, 2007 Integers in C! C supports several integral data types

### H192 Midterm 1 Review. Tom Zajdel

H192 Midterm 1 Review Tom Zajdel Declaring variables Need to specify a type when declaring a variable. Can declare multiple variables in one line. int x, y, z; float a, b, c; Can also initialize in same

### Python review. 1 Python basics. References. CS 234 Naomi Nishimura

Python review CS 234 Naomi Nishimura The sections below indicate Python material, the degree to which it will be used in the course, and various resources you can use to review the material. You are not

### Bitwise Operator and Typecasting

Bitwise Operator and Data and File Structures Laboratory http://www.isical.ac.in/~dfslab/2017/index.html Indian Statistical Institute Kolkata August 17, 2017 DFS Lab, ISI Kolkata Bitwise Operator and August

### Functions. Functions are everywhere in C. Pallab Dasgupta Professor, Dept. of Computer Sc & Engg INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KHARAGPUR

1 Functions Functions are everywhere in C Pallab Dasgupta Professor, Dept. of Computer Sc & Engg INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KHARAGPUR Introduction Function A self-contained program segment that carries

### GPU Floating Point Features

CSE 591: GPU Programming Floating Point Considerations Klaus Mueller Computer Science Department Stony Brook University Objective To understand the fundamentals of floating-point representation To know

### Lecture 2: Variables and Operators. AITI Nigeria Summer 2012 University of Lagos.

Lecture 2: Variables and Operators AITI Nigeria Summer 2012 University of Lagos. Agenda Variables Types Naming Assignment Data Types Type casting Operators Declaring Variables in Java type name; Variables

### Arithmetic Expressions in C

Arithmetic Expressions in C Arithmetic Expressions consist of numeric literals, arithmetic operators, and numeric variables. They simplify to a single value, when evaluated. Here is an example of an arithmetic

### 5. Selection: If and Switch Controls

Computer Science I CS 135 5. Selection: If and Switch Controls René Doursat Department of Computer Science & Engineering University of Nevada, Reno Fall 2005 Computer Science I CS 135 0. Course Presentation

### Floating Point Numbers

Floating Point Numbers Summer 8 Fractional numbers Fractional numbers fixed point Floating point numbers the IEEE 7 floating point standard Floating point operations Rounding modes CMPE Summer 8 Slides

### Data Types and Variables in C language

Data Types and Variables in C language Basic structure of C programming To write a C program, we first create functions and then put them together. A C program may contain one or more sections. They are

### Chapter 3 Selection Statements

Chapter 3 Selection Statements 3.1 Introduction Java provides selection statements that let you choose actions with two or more alternative courses. Selection statements use conditions. Conditions are

### Computer arithmetics: integers, binary floating-point, and decimal floating-point

z+1 == z Computer arithmetics: integers, binary floating-point, and decimal floating-point Peter Sestoft 2013-02-18** x+1 < x p == n && 1/p!= 1/n 1 Computer arithmetics Computer numbers are cleverly designed,

### But first, encode deck of cards. Integer Representation. Two possible representations. Two better representations WELLESLEY CS 240 9/8/15

Integer Representation Representation of integers: unsigned and signed Sign extension Arithmetic and shifting Casting But first, encode deck of cards. cards in suits How do we encode suits, face cards?

### Characters, Strings, and Floats

Characters, Strings, and Floats CS 350: Computer Organization & Assembler Language Programming 9/6: pp.8,9; 9/28: Activity Q.6 A. Why? We need to represent textual characters in addition to numbers. Floating-point

### FP_IEEE_DENORM_GET_ Procedure

FP_IEEE_DENORM_GET_ Procedure FP_IEEE_DENORM_GET_ Procedure The FP_IEEE_DENORM_GET_ procedure reads the IEEE floating-point denormalization mode. fp_ieee_denorm FP_IEEE_DENORM_GET_ (void); DeNorm The denormalization

### 18-642: Floating Point Blues

18-642: Floating Point Blues 10/23/2017 1 Floating Point Math Anti-Patterns: Not accounting for roundoff errors Tests for floating point equality Not handling special values Float used if integer does

### CS 251 Intermediate Programming Java Basics

CS 251 Intermediate Programming Java Basics Brooke Chenoweth University of New Mexico Spring 2018 Prerequisites These are the topics that I assume that you have already seen: Variables Boolean expressions

### Multiple Choice Questions ( 1 mark)

Multiple Choice Questions ( 1 mark) Unit-1 1. is a step by step approach to solve any problem.. a) Process b) Programming Language c) Algorithm d) Compiler 2. The process of walking through a program s

### UNIT - I. Introduction to C Programming. BY A. Vijay Bharath

UNIT - I Introduction to C Programming Introduction to C C was originally developed in the year 1970s by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories, Inc. C is a general-purpose programming language. It has been

### Course Outline Introduction to C-Programming

ECE3411 Fall 2015 Lecture 1a. Course Outline Introduction to C-Programming Marten van Dijk, Syed Kamran Haider Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering University of Connecticut Email: {vandijk,

### Chapter 3 Structure of a C Program

Chapter 3 Structure of a C Program Objectives To be able to list and describe the six expression categories To understand the rules of precedence and associativity in evaluating expressions To understand

### Precision and Accuracy

inst.eecs.berkeley.edu/~cs61c UC Berkeley CS61C : Machine Structures Lecture 16 Floating Point II 2010-02-26 TA Michael Greenbaum www.cs.berkeley.edu/~cs61c-tf Research without Google would be like life

### Operators and Expressions in C & C++ Mahesh Jangid Assistant Professor Manipal University, Jaipur

Operators and Expressions in C & C++ Mahesh Jangid Assistant Professor Manipal University, Jaipur Operators and Expressions 8/24/2012 Dept of CS&E 2 Arithmetic operators Relational operators Logical operators

### Floating Point Numbers. Lecture 9 CAP

Floating Point Numbers Lecture 9 CAP 3103 06-16-2014 Review of Numbers Computers are made to deal with numbers What can we represent in N bits? 2 N things, and no more! They could be Unsigned integers:

### l l l l l l l Base 2; each digit is 0 or 1 l Each bit in place i has value 2 i l Binary representation is used in computers

198:211 Computer Architecture Topics: Lecture 8 (W5) Fall 2012 Data representation 2.1 and 2.2 of the book Floating point 2.4 of the book Computer Architecture What do computers do? Manipulate stored information

### CS201- Introduction to Programming Current Quizzes

CS201- Introduction to Programming Current Quizzes Q.1 char name [] = Hello World ; In the above statement, a memory of characters will be allocated 13 11 12 (Ans) Q.2 A function is a block of statements

### Note: If only one statement is to be followed by the if or else condition then there is no need of parenthesis.

Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani Computer Programming (CSF111) Lab-4 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

### Number Systems. Binary Numbers. Appendix. Decimal notation represents numbers as powers of 10, for example

Appendix F Number Systems Binary Numbers Decimal notation represents numbers as powers of 10, for example 1729 1 103 7 102 2 101 9 100 decimal = + + + There is no particular reason for the choice of 10,

### CS-211 Fall 2017 Test 1 Version Practice For Test on Oct. 2, Name:

CS-211 Fall 2017 Test 1 Version Practice For Test on Oct. 2, 2017 True/False Questions... Name: 1. (10 points) For the following, Check T if the statement is true, the F if the statement is false. (a)

### C NUMERIC FORMATS. Overview. IEEE Single-Precision Floating-point Data Format. Figure C-0. Table C-0. Listing C-0.

C NUMERIC FORMATS Figure C-. Table C-. Listing C-. Overview The DSP supports the 32-bit single-precision floating-point data format defined in the IEEE Standard 754/854. In addition, the DSP supports an

### Formatted Input/Output

Chapter 3 Formatted Input/Output 1 The printf Function The printf function must be supplied with a format string ( 格式化字串 ), followed by any values that are to be inserted into the string during printing:

### Computer arithmetics: integers, binary floating-point, and decimal floating-point

n!= 0 && -n == n z+1 == z Computer arithmetics: integers, binary floating-point, and decimal floating-point v+w-w!= v x+1 < x Peter Sestoft 2010-02-16 y!= y p == n && 1/p!= 1/n 1 Computer arithmetics Computer

### FRAC: Language Reference Manual

FRAC: Language Reference Manual Justin Chiang jc4127 Kunal Kamath kak2211 Calvin Li ctl2124 Anne Zhang az2350 1. Introduction FRAC is a domain-specific programming language that enables the programmer

### Objects and Types. COMS W1007 Introduction to Computer Science. Christopher Conway 29 May 2003

Objects and Types COMS W1007 Introduction to Computer Science Christopher Conway 29 May 2003 Java Programs A Java program contains at least one class definition. public class Hello { public static void

### Flow of Control. Selection. if statement. True and False in C False is represented by any zero value. switch

Flow of Control True and False in C Conditional Execution Iteration Nested Code(Nested-ifs, Nested-loops) Jumps 1 True and False in C False is represented by any zero value The int expression having the

### false, import, new 1 class Lecture2 { 2 3 "Data types, Variables, and Operators" 4

1 class Lecture2 { 2 3 "Data types, Variables, and Operators" 4 5 } 6 7 // Keywords: 8 byte, short, int, long, char, float, double, boolean, true, false, import, new Zheng-Liang Lu Java Programming 44

### Problem Solving and 'C' Programming

Problem Solving and 'C' Programming Targeted at: Entry Level Trainees Session 05: Selection and Control Structures 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved. The information contained herein

### Internal representation. Bitwise operators

Computer Programming Internal representation. Bitwise operators Marius Minea marius@cs.upt.ro 23 October 2017 Ideal math and C are not the same! In mathematics: integers Z and reals R have unbounded values

### Numerical Computing in C and C++ Jamie Griffin. Semester A 2017 Lecture 2

Numerical Computing in C and C++ Jamie Griffin Semester A 2017 Lecture 2 Visual Studio in QM PC rooms Microsoft Visual Studio Community 2015. Bancroft Building 1.15a; Queen s W207, EB7; Engineering W128.D.

### Chapter 2 - Introduction to C Programming

Chapter 2 - Introduction to C Programming 2 Outline 2.1 Introduction 2.2 A Simple C Program: Printing a Line of Text 2.3 Another Simple C Program: Adding Two Integers 2.4 Memory Concepts 2.5 Arithmetic

### Chapter 3 Structured Program Development in C Part II

Chapter 3 Structured Program Development in C Part II C How to Program, 8/e, GE 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1 3.7 The while Iteration Statement An iteration statement (also called

### 22c:111 Programming Language Concepts. Fall Types I

22c:111 Programming Language Concepts Fall 2008 Types I Copyright 2007-08, The McGraw-Hill Company and Cesare Tinelli. These notes were originally developed by Allen Tucker, Robert Noonan and modified

### Structured Programming. Jon Macey

Structured Programming Jon Macey Structured Programming Structured programming is an attempt to formalise the process of program development. There are several basis for a theorem of structured programming,

### Course Schedule. CS 221 Computer Architecture. Week 3: Plan. I. Hexadecimals and Character Representations. Hexadecimal Representation

Course Schedule CS 221 Computer Architecture Week 3: Information Representation (2) Fall 2001 W1 Sep 11- Sep 14 Introduction W2 Sep 18- Sep 21 Information Representation (1) (Chapter 3) W3 Sep 25- Sep

### Unit-II Programming and Problem Solving (BE1/4 CSE-2)

Unit-II Programming and Problem Solving (BE1/4 CSE-2) Problem Solving: Algorithm: It is a part of the plan for the computer program. An algorithm is an effective procedure for solving a problem in a finite

### Independent Representation

Independent Representation 1 Integer magnitude + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Float sign sign of exponent mantissa On standard 32 bit machines: INT_MAX = 2147483647 which gives 10 digits of precision, (i.e. the

Introduction to C Programming (Part A) Copyright 2008 W. W. Norton & Company. All rights Reserved Overview (King Ch. 1-7) Introducing C (Ch. 1) C Fundamentals (Ch. 2) Formatted Input/Output (Ch. 3) Expressions

### Decision Making in C

Decision Making in C Decision making structures require that the programmer specify one or more conditions to be evaluated or tested by the program, along with a statement or statements to be executed