# Chapter 3. Numeric Types, Expressions, and Output

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1 Chapter 3 Numeric Types, Expressions, and Output 1

2 Chapter 3 Topics Constants of Type int and float Evaluating Arithmetic Expressions Implicit Type Coercion and Explicit Type Conversion Calling a Value-Returning Function Using Function Arguments 2

3 Chapter 3 Topics Using C++ Library Functions in Expressions Calling a Void Function C++ Manipulators to Format Output String Operations length, find, and substr 3

4 C++ Data Types simple structured integral enum floating array struct union class char short int long bool float double long double address pointer reference 4

5 C++ Simple Data Types simple types integral floating char short int long bool enum float double long double unsigned 5

6 Standard Data Types in C++ Integral Types (or Integer Types) represent whole numbers and their negatives declared as int, short, long, or char Floating Types represent real numbers with a decimal point declared as float or double 6

7 Standard Data Types in C++ Character Type represents single characters such as 'B' declared as char classified as an integral type because C++ allows char to be used for storing integer values with a limited range 7

8 Samples of C++ Data Values int sample values float sample values E-3-95E E2 char sample values B d 4? * 8

9 Scientific Notation 2.7E4 means 2.7 x 10 4 = = E-4 means 2.7 x 10-4 = =

10 More About Floating Point Values Floating point numbers have an integer part and a fractional part, with a decimal point in between. Either the integer part or the fractional part, but not both, may be missing Examples

11 More About Floating Point Values Alternatively, floating point values can have an exponent, as in scientific notation The number preceding the letter E doesn t need to include a decimal point Examples 1.84E1 5E2 8E E3 11

12 Division Operator The result of the division operator depends on the type of its operands If one or both operands has a floating point type, the result is a floating point type. Otherwise, the result is an integer type Examples 11 / 4 has value / 4.0 has value / 4.0 has value

13 Main returns an int value to the operating system //******************************************************* // FreezeBoil program // This program computes the midpoint between // the freezing and boiling points of water //******************************************************* #include < iostream > using namespace std; const float FREEZE_PT = 32.0; // Freezing point of water const float BOIL_PT = 212.0; // Boiling point of water int main() { float avgtemp; // Holds the result of averaging // FREEZE_PT and BOIL_PT 13

14 Function main Continued cout << Water freezes at << FREEZE_PT << endl; cout << and boils at << BOIL_PT << degrees. << endl; avgtemp = FREEZE_PT + BOIL_PT; avgtemp = avgtemp / 2.0; cout << Halfway between is ; cout << avgtemp << degrees. << endl; } return 0; 14

15 Modulus Operator The modulus operator % can only be used with integer type operands and always has an integer type result Its result is the integer type remainder of an integer division Example 11 % 4 has value 3 because ) 4 11 R =? 15

16 More C++ Operators int age; age = 8; 8 age age = age + 1; 9 age 16

17 Prefix Form Increment Operator int age; age = 8; ++age; 8 age 9 age 17

18 Postfix Form Increment Operator int age; age = 8; age++; 8 age 9 age 18

19 Decrement Operator int dogs; dogs = 100; dogs--; 100 dogs 99 dogs 19

20 Which Form to Use When the increment(or decrement) operator is used in a stand alone statement solely to add one(or subtract one) from a variable s value, it can be used in either prefix or postfix form USE EITHER dogs--; --dogs; 20

21 BUT... When the increment (or decrement) operator is used in a statement with other operators, the prefix and postfix forms can yield different results We ll see how later... 21

22 What is an Expression in C++? An expression is a valid arrangement of variables, constants, and operators In C++ each expression can be evaluated to compute a value of a given type The value of the expression 9.3 * 4.5 is

23 Operators can be binary involving 2 operands unary involving 1 operand - 3 ternary involving 3 operands later 23

24 Some C++ Operators Precedence Operator Description Higher ( ) Function call + Positive - Negative * Multiplication / Division % Modulus(remainder) + Addition - Subtraction Lower = Assignment 24

25 Precedence Higher Precedence determines which operator is applied first in an expression having several operators 25

26 Associativity Left to right associativity in an expression having two operators with the same priority, the left operator is applied first Grouping order synonmous w/ associativity In C++ the binary operators *, /, %, +, - are all left associative Expression means (9-5)

27 Evaluate the Expression 7 * 10-5 % 3 * (7 * 10) - 5 % 3 * % 3 * (5 % 3) * * ( 2 * 4) (70-8 )

28 Parentheses Parentheses can be used to change the usual order Parts in() are evaluated first Evaluate (7 *(10-5) % 3) * (7 * 5 % 3 ) * ( 35 % 3) * *

29 Recall Assignment Operator Syntax Variable = Expression First, expression on right is evaluated Then the resulting value is stored in the memory location of variable on left 29

30 Automatic Type Conversion Implict conversion by the compiler of a value from one data type to another is known as automatic type coercion An automatic type coercion occurs after evaluation but before the value is stored if the types differ for expression and variable See examples on Slides 31, 32, and 33 30

31 What value is stored? float a; float b; a = 8.5; b = 9.37; a = b; a b a b?? 31

32 What is stored? float somefloat;? somefloat somefloat = 12; // Causes implicit type conversion 12.0 somefloat 32

33 What is stored? int someint;? someint someint = 4.8; // Causes implicit type conversion 4 someint 33

34 Type Casting is Explicit Conversion of Type Explicit type casting (or type conversion) used to clarify that the mixing of types is intentional, not an oversight Explicit type casting helps make programs clear and error free as possible 34

35 Examples of Explicit Typecasting int(4.8) has value 4 float(5) has value 5.0 float(7/4) has value 1.0 float(7) / float(4) has value

36 Some Expressions int age; Example Value age = age / / float(4 / 8) 0.0 float(4) / cout << How old are you? cout cin >> age cin cout << age cout 36

37 What values are stored? float locost; float hicost; locost = ; hicost = ; locost = float(int(locost * )) / 100.0; hicost = float(int(hicost * )) / 100.0; 37

38 Values were rounded to 2 decimal places locost hicost 38

39 Functions Every C++ program must have a function called main Program execution always begins with function main Any other functions are subprograms and must be called by the main function 39

40 Function Calls One function calls another by using the name of the called function together with() containing an argument list A function call temporarily transfers control from the calling function to the called function 40

41 More About Functions It is not considered good practice for the body block of function main to be long Function calls are used to do subtasks Every C++ function has a return type If the return type is not void, the function returns a value to the calling block 41

42 Where are functions? Functions are subprograms located in libraries, or written by programmers for their use in a particular program 42

43 HEADER FILE FUNCTION EXAMPLE VALUE OF CALL <cstdlib> abs(i) abs(-6) 6 <cmath> pow(x,y) pow(2.0,3.0) 8.0 fabs(x) fabs(-6.4) 6.4 <cmath> sqrt(x) sqrt(100.0) 10.0 sqrt(x) sqrt(2.0) <cmath> log(x) log(2.0) <iomanip> setprecision(n) setprecision(3) 43

44 Write C++ Expressions for The square root of b 2-4ac sqrt(b * b * a * c) The square root of the average of myage and yourage sqrt((myage + yourage) / 2) 44

45 Function Call A function call temporarily transfers control to the called function s code When the function s code has finished executing, control is transferred back to the calling block 45

46 Function Call Syntax Function Name = (Argument List) The argument list is a way for functions to communicate with each other by passing information The argument list can contain zero, one, or more arguments, separated by commas, depending on the function 46

47 A void function call stands alone #include <iostream> void DisplayMessage(int n); // Declares function int main() { DisplayMessage(15); // Function call cout << Good Bye << endl; return 0; } 47

48 A void function does NOT return a value // Header and body here void DisplayMessage(int n) { cout << I have liked math for << n << years << endl; } 48

49 Two Kinds of Functions Value-Returning Always returns a single value to its caller and is called from within an expression Void Never returns a value to its caller and is called as a separate statement 49

50 << is a binary operator << is called the output or insertion operator << is left associative Expression cout << age Has value cout Statement cout << You are << age << years old\n ; 50

51 <iostream> is header file For a library that defines 3 objects An istream object named cin (keyboard) An ostream object named cout (screen) An ostream object named cerr (screen) 51

52 No I/O is built into C++ Instead, a library provides input stream and output stream Keyboard istream executing program ostream Screen 52

53 Manipulators Manipulators are used only in input and output statements endl, fixed, showpoint, setw, and setprecision are manipulators that can be used to control output format endl is use to terminate the current output line and create blank lines in output 53

54 Insertion Operator(<<) The insertion operator << takes 2 operands The left operand is a stream expression, such as cout The right operand is an expression of simple type, a string, or a manipulator 54

55 Output Statements SYNTAX(revised) cout << ExpressionOrManipulator << ExpressionOrManipulator...; 55

56 Output Statements SYNTAX cout << Expression << Expression...; These examples yield the same output cout << The answer is ; cout << 3 * 4; cout << The answer is << 3 * 4; 56

57 Using Manipulators Fixed and Showpoint Use the following statement to specify that (for output sent to the cout stream) decimal format (not scientific notation) be used, and that a decimal point be included (even for floating values with 0 as fractional part) cout << fixed << showpoint; 57

58 setprecision(n) Requires #include <iomanip> and appears in an expression using insertion operator(<<) If fixed has already been specified, argument n determines the number of places displayed after the decimal point for floating point values Remains in effect until explicitly changed by another call to setprecision 58

59 What is exact output? #include <iomanip> // For setw() and setprecision() #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { float mynumber = ; cout << fixed << showpoint; // Use decimal format // Print decimal points cout << Number is << setprecision(3) << mynumber << endl; } return 0; 59

60 OUTPUT Number is Value is rounded if necessary to be displayed with exactly 3 places after the decimal point 60

61 Manipulator setw Set width lets us control how many character positions the next data item should occupy when it is output setw is only for formatting numbers and strings, not char type data 61

62 setw(n) Requires #include <iomanip> and appears in an expression using insertion operator(<<) Argument n is called the fieldwidth specification Argument n determines the number of character positions in which to display a right-justified number or string(not char data) 62

63 setw(n) The number of character positions used is expanded if n is too narrow Set width affects only the very next item displayed and is useful to align columns of output 63

64 A) What is exact output? #include <iomanip> // For setw() #include <iostream> #include <string> using namespace std; 64

65 A) What is exact output?, cont... int main() { int mynumber = 123; int yournumber = 5; cout << setw(10) << Mine << setw(10) << Yours << endl << setw(10) << mynumber << setw(10) << yournumber << endl; return 0; 65

66 Output position Mine Yours Each is displayed right-justified and each is located in a total of 10 positions 66

67 B) What is exact output? #include <iomanip> // For setw() and setprecision() #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { float mynumber = 123.4; float yournumber = ; 67

68 B) What is exact output, continued? cout << fixed << showpoint; // Use decimal format; print decimal points cout << Numbers are: << setprecision(4) << endl << setw(10) << mynumber << endl << setw(10) << yournumber << endl; return 0; 68

69 OUTPUT Numbers are: Each is displayed right-justified and rounded if necessary and each is located in a total of 10 positions with 4 places after the decimal point 69

70 312.0 x float x = 312.0; float y = 4.827; More Examples y OUTPUT cout << fixed << showpoint; cout << setprecision(2) << setw(10) << x << endl << setw(10) << y << endl; 4.83 cout << setprecision(1) << setw(10) << x << endl << setw(10) << y << endl; 4.8 cout << setprecision(5) << setw(7) << x << endl 70 70

71 HEADER MANIPULATOR ARGUMENT EFFECT FILE TYPE <iostream> endl none terminates output line <iostream> showpoint none displays decimal point <iostream> fixed none activates scientific notation <iomanip> setw(n) int sets fieldwidth to n positions <iomanip> setprecision(n) int sets precision to n digits 71

72 length Function Function length returns an unsigned integer value that equals the number of characters currently in the string Function size returns the same value as function length You must use dot notation in the call to function length or size 72

73 find Function Function find returns an unsigned integer value that is the beginning position for the first occurrence of a particular substring within the string The substring argument can be a string constant, a string expression, or a char value If the substring was not found, function find returns the special value string::npos 73

74 substr Function Function substr returns a particular substring of a string The first argument is an unsigned integer that specifies a starting position within the string The second argument is an unsigned integer that specifies the length of the desired substring Positions of characters within a string are numbered starting from 0, not from 1 74

75 Mortgage Payments Problem Your parents are thinking about refinancing their mortgage, and have asked you to help them with the calculations. Now that you're learning C++, you realize that you can save yourself a lot of calculator button-pressing by writing a program to do the calculations automatically. 75

76 Algorithm Define Constants Set LOAN_AMOUNT = Set NUMBER_OF_YEARS = 7 Set YEARLY_INTEREST = Calculate Values Set monthlyinterest to YEARLY_INTEREST divided by 12 Set numberofpayments to NUMBER_OF_YEARS times 12 Set payment to(loan_amount * pow(monthlyinterest+1,numberrofpayments) * monthlyinterest)) /(pow(monthlyinterest+1, numberofpayments) - 1) Output Results Print "For a loan amount of " LOAN_AMOUNT "with an interest rate of " YEARLY_INTEREST " and a " NUMBER_OF_YEARS " year mortgage, " Print "your monthly payments are \$" payment "." 76

77 C++ Program //*************************************************** // Mortgage Payment Calculator program // This program determines the monthly payments on a // mortgage given the loan amount, the yearly interest, // and the number of years. //*************************************************** #include <iostream> // Access cout #include <cmath> // Access power function #include <iomanip> // Access manipulators using namespace std; const float LOAN_AMOUNT = ; // Amount of loan const float YEARLY_INTEREST = ;// Yearly interest const int NUMBER_OF_YEARS = 7; // Number of years 77

78 C++ Program int main() { // Local variables float monthlyinterest; // Monthly interest rate int numberofpayments; // Total number of payments float payment; // Monthly payment // Calculate values monthlyinterest = YEARLY_INTEREST / 12; numberofpayments = NUMBER_OF_YEARS * 12; payment =(LOAN_AMOUNT * pow(monthlyinterest + 1, numberofpayments) * monthlyinterest)/(pow(monthlyinterest + 1, numberofpayments) - 1); 78

79 C++ Program } // Output results cout << fixed << setprecision(2) << "For a loan amount of " << LOAN_AMOUNT << " with an interest rate of " << YEARLY_INTEREST << " and a " << NUMBER_OF_YEARS << " year mortgage, " << endl; cout << " your monthly payments are \$" << payment << "." << endl; return 0; 79

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