# Basic data types. Building blocks of computation

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1 Basic data types Building blocks of computation

2 Goals By the end of this lesson you will be able to: Understand the commonly used basic data types of C++ including Characters Integers Floating-point values Boolean types Understand some basics about modifiers and more complicated data types

3 What are data types? Programming typically involves lots of data manipulation such as calculations At the lowest level, in a computer everything is represented in binary a sequence of 0 s and 1 s It s impractical to use binary all the time, so programming languages implement data types which are more humanfriendly representations of data

4 What are basic data types? Basic data types refer to the core data types that exist in the language without any additions Basic data types may also be called primitives or fundamental data types The common basic data types we will use in C++ are: int for integers such as -288, 0, or double for real numbers such as -30.5, , or char for single characters such as Q, 5, or & boolean for logical truth values such as true or false

5 Understanding ranges Every data type has a possible range of values that restricts the values that can be stored within it These ranges are based on the fact that data takes up memory For example, it takes little memory to represent/store a 3- digit integer, but considerably more for a 10,000 digit integer Data types have a limit on the number of bytes they can take up, and this dictates the range of values

6 Integer encoding Recall that I mentioned that everything is, at the lowest level, represented as 1 s and 0 s Let s think about what an integer actually is, for example contains three digits but what do they mean? 4 is the number of 100 s 1 is the number of 10 s 6 is the number of 1 s We can write 416 as 4 x x x 1 or 4 x x x 10 0

7 Binary encoding What if, instead of using 1, 10, 100, 1000, etc. as our progression, we used 1, 2, 4, 8, etc. Instead of using digits 0 9 and multiplying by 10 (decimal), we will use digits 0 1 and multiply by 2 (binary) The binary number 1101 could thus be converted to decimal as: 1 x x x x 2 0 = = 13 Mathematical operations, such as addition and multiplication, work in the same way (e.g. decimal addition carries when greater than 10, binary addition carries when greater than 2)

8 Integer ranges The smallest element of memory, a single 0 or 1, in computers is referred to as a bit (binary digit) A byte consists of 8 bits, therefore a byte can take on any one of 256 values ( = 0, = 255) Note, as well, 256 = 2 8 each bit can take on one of two possible values (0 or 1) and there are 8 bits Although each implementation may be diferent, in most C++ implementations an integer has a maximum limit of 4 bytes 4 bytes = 2(8 x 4) = 2 32 = 4,294,967,296 possible values

9 Integer ranges An integer in C++ cannot typically take on values from 0 to 4,294,967,295 because we need to think about negative values as well! Instead, the first bit is used to indicate the sign (positive or negative), thus leaving 31 bits to store values Also, note that there is no need for both a positive and negative zero, since +0 and -0 both mean the same thing Therefore, the range of a typical integer, also called an int in C++, is to = -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 Note: Do not write commas in numbers when writing a program For more information about negative integer representation research two s complement

10 Real numbers Real numbers have a decimal part, so it would make sense that if we only have four bytes to represent the number, the range would be much smaller We opt for a tradeof in which precision is sacrificed for range For example, if we wish to store a number like it may be impossible, but if we sacrifice the least significant decimal places the result may still be acceptable

11 Real numbers Note that a real number like can also be written in scientific notation as x 10-6 and we can break this down into three parts: The sign (positive or negative) The mantissa (5.838 in this case) The exponent (if we always use powers of 10, this exponent is simply -6) Likewise, a very large number such as could be written as x Real numbers are also called floating-point because the decimal point floats within the mantissa for various exponents

12 Real number encoding C++ ofers two data types for representing real numbers in the sign/mantissa/exponent format: float (floating-point) 4 bytes (32 bits) 1 sign bit 8 exponent bits 23 mantissa bits double (double precision) 8 bytes (64 bits) 1 sign bit 11 exponent bits 52 mantissa bits

13 float and double ranges The range of a float is ±3.4 x to ±3.4 x with approximately 7-decimal place accuracy The range of a double is ±1.7 x to ±1.7 x with approximately 15- decimal place accuracy We will typically use the double data type because it is more accurate and memory on modern computers is not a huge concern All integer values consisting of 15 digits or fewer can be stored as a double with no loss of accuracy, though for many reasons we will use an int instead of a double when we are using integer values we know to be small

14 Character encoding Characters are most commonly the keys that you can hit on your keyboard and consist of letters, numbers, and symbols Again, since computers use binary, there needs to be some mapping from a characters like Q or \$ to a sequence of bits A very common character encoding standard is known as the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)

15 Character encoding An ASCII table provides a standardized mapping of characters to 7 bits, for example: A is encoded as (65 decimal) a is encoded as (97 decimal) % is encoded as (37 decimal) 4 is encoded as (52 decimal) space is encoded as (32 decimal) 7 bits allows for 2 7 = 128 diferent values No need for positive or negative, so the range can simply be from 0 to 127

16 ASCII math Note that A is a distinct character from a, and each has a diferent encoding Investigation of an ASCII table will also show many interesting things: The beginning of the table consists of control characters which are nonvisible characters to denote things like the end of a file Digits are collated Uppercase letters are collated Lowercase letters are collated Mathematically, if you add the number 1 to the character P, you get the character Q

17 Character encoding The ASCII table uses 7-bit encoding but a byte is typically the smallest addressable part of memory and consists of 8 bits A character, called a char in C++, uses 1 byte and can take on more values than in the ASCII table, so the values outside of the range are implementation-dependent and are very rarely used anyway There is a lot of history behind the ASCII table and other character encoding standards (EBCDIC, Unicode, UTF-8, etc.)

18 char math To distinguish the character 4 (binary ) from the integer 4 (binary 100), and in fact to denote all char values, we enclose them in single quotes: ' (e.g. '4', '\$', 'z') Revisiting our addition idea from before: = 8 '4' + 4 = = 56 = '8' '4' + '4' = = 104 = 'h'

19 Boolean types Boolean data types are used to denote two diferent values: true and false These will be commonly used in programming when we re using logic to decide whether or not to run a portion of a program (e.g. run this portion if the value is true) Because only two values can be represented, we only need a single bit (0 or 1)

20 bool data type C++ utilizes a data type called bool which can take on the values true or false true is encoded as the bit 1 (decimal 1) and false is encoded as the bit 0 (decimal 0) Again, because the byte is the smallest addressable memory, we will still use 1 byte (8 bits) to store a bool As we will see later when examining logical statements, any non-zero value will indicate true

21 Modifiers and other data types Modifiers can be used with many data types to modify their size in bytes and/or their representation: short reduces the # of bytes (e.g. short int) long increase the # of bytes (e.g. long double) unsigned do not use the sign bit (e.g. unsigned long int) There are other data types we will encounter and create that are built on these basic data types, including strings, arrays, structures, classes, and various abstract data types such as stacks

22 Exploration Practice converting decimal to binary and vice versa Examine two s complement and learn more about why it is used Find examples of how floating-point numbers are represented in binary Investigate the ASCII table and the history behind it Learn about data type modifiers and their ranges

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