Advanced Type System Features Tom Schrijvers. Leuven Haskell User Group


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1 Advanced Type System Features Tom Schrijvers Leuven Haskell User Group
2 Data Recursion Genericity Schemes Expression Problem Monads GADTs DSLs Type Type Families Classes Lists and Effect Free Other Handlers Theorems Monoids
3 Data Recursion Genericity Schemes Expression Problem Monads GADTs GADTS DSLs Type Type Families Classes Lists and Effect Free Other Handlers Theorems Monoids
4 Static Type System
5 Static Type System Lightweight specifications Verified / enforced by the type checker
6 Static Type System
7 Static Type System Rules out many invalid programs
8 Static Type System Rules out many invalid programs Rules out some valid programs
9 Advanced Type Systems accept more valid programs accept fewer invalid programs
10 Advanced Type Systems accept more valid programs Java 5 generics Java 4 accept fewer invalid programs
11 A Problem with Expressions
12 Expressions data Exp = ILit Int Add Exp Exp eval :: Exp > Int eval (ILit n) = n eval (Add e1 e2) = eval e1 + eval e2
13 More Expressions data Exp = ILit Int Add Exp Exp BLit Bool
14 Revised Evaluator eval :: Exp > Int eval (ILit n) = n eval (Add e1 e2) = eval e1 + eval e2 eval (BLit b) = b
15 Revised Evaluator eval :: Exp > Int eval (ILit n) = n eval (Add e1 e2) = eval e1 + eval e2 eval (BLit b) = b
16 Revised Evaluator data Val = IVal Int BVal Bool eval :: Exp > Val eval (ILit n) = n eval (Add e1 e2) = eval e1 + eval e2 eval (BLit b) = b
17 Revised Evaluator data Val = IVal Int BVal Bool eval :: Exp > Val eval (ILit n) = n eval (Add e1 e2) = eval e1 + eval e2 eval (BLit b) = b
18 Revised Evaluator data Val = IVal Int BVal Bool eval :: Exp > Val eval (ILit n) = IVal n eval (Add e1 e2) = IVal (eval e1 + eval e2) eval (BLit b) = BVal b
19 Revised Evaluator data Val = IVal Int BVal Bool eval :: Exp > Val eval (ILit n) = IVal n eval (Add e1 e2) = IVal (eval e1 + eval e2) eval (BLit b) = BVal b
20 Revised Evaluator data Val = IVal Int BVal Bool eval :: Exp > Val eval (ILit n) = IVal n eval (Add e1 e2) = case (eval e1, eval e2) of (IVal n1, IVal n2) > IVal (n1+n2) eval (BLit b) = BVal b
21 Revised Evaluator data Val = IVal Int BVal Bool eval :: Exp > Val eval (ILit n) = IVal n eval (Add e1 e2) = case (eval e1, eval e2) of (IVal n1, IVal n2) > IVal (n1+n2) _ >??? eval (BLit b) = BVal b
22 Revised Evaluator data Val = IVal Int BVal Bool eval :: Exp > Maybe Val eval (ILit n) = IVal n eval (Add e1 e2) = case (eval e1, eval e2) of (IVal n1, IVal n2) > IVal (n1+n2) _ > Nothing eval (BLit b) = BVal b
23 Revised Evaluator data Val = IVal Int BVal Bool eval :: Exp > Maybe Val eval (ILit n) = IVal n eval (Add e1 e2) = case (eval e1, eval e2) of (IVal n1, IVal n2) > IVal (n1+n2) _ > Nothing eval (BLit b) = BVal b
24 Revised Evaluator data Val = IVal Int BVal Bool eval :: Exp > Maybe Val eval (ILit n) = Just (IVal n) eval (Add e1 e2) = case (eval e1, eval e2) of (IVal n1, IVal n2) > Just (IVal (n1+n2)) _ > Nothing eval (BLit b) = Just (BVal b)
25 Revised Evaluator data Val = IVal Int BVal Bool eval :: Exp > Maybe Val eval (ILit n) = Just (IVal n) eval (Add e1 e2) = case (eval e1, eval e2) of (IVal n1, IVal n2) > Just (IVal (n1+n2)) _ > Nothing eval (BLit b) = Just (BVal b)
26 Revised Evaluator data Val = IVal Int BVal Bool eval :: Exp > Maybe Val eval (ILit n) = Just (IVal n) eval (Add e1 e2) = case (eval e1, eval e2) of (Just (IVal n1), Just (IVal n2)) > Just (IVal (n1+n2)) _ > Nothing eval (BLit b) = Just (BVal b)
27 Revised Evaluator data Val = IVal Int BVal Bool eval :: Exp > Maybe Val eval (ILit n) = Just (IVal n) eval (Add e1 e2) Overhead due to possibly illtyped expressions = case (eval e1, eval e2) of (Just (IVal n1), Just (IVal n2)) > Just (IVal (n1+n2)) _ > Nothing eval (BLit b) = Just (BVal b)
28 GADTs to the Rescue
29 The Problem admits invalid values Exp
30 The Problem admits invalid values Exp Add (BLit True) (ILit 5)
31 The Problem accept more valid programs admits invalid values Exp accept fewer invalid programs
32 The Problem accept more valid programs admits invalid values Exp GADTs accept fewer invalid programs
33 The Problem accept more valid programs admits invalid values Exp Exp a GADTs accept fewer invalid programs
34 The Problem accept more valid programs admits invalid values Exp admits only valid values Exp a GADTs accept fewer invalid programs
35 Parametrised Expressions Exp a
36 Parametrised Expressions Expressions that yield a value of type a type a Exp a
37 Parametrised Expressions Expressions that yield a value of type a type a Exp a indexed family index
38 Parametrised Expressions Expressions that yield a value of type a type a Exp a indexed family index family members Exp Int Exp Bool
39 Parametrised Expressions Expressions that yield a value of type a type a Exp a indexed family index family members Exp Int Exp Bool ILit 0 Add (ILit 1) (ILit 2)
40 Parametrised Expressions Expressions that yield a value of type a type a Exp a indexed family index family members Exp Int ILit 0 Exp Bool BLit True Add (ILit 1) (ILit 2) BLit False
41 Generalized Algebraic Data Type data Exp where ILit :: Int > Exp Add :: Exp > Exp > Exp BLit :: Bool > Exp
42 Generalized Algebraic Data Type data Exp a where ILit :: Int > Exp Int Add :: Exp Int > Exp Int > Exp Int BLit :: Bool > Exp Bool
43 Generalized Algebraic Data Type indexed family data Exp a where ILit :: Int > Exp Int Add :: Exp Int > Exp Int > Exp Int BLit :: Bool > Exp Bool
44 Generalized Algebraic Data Type indexed family Refined index data Exp a where ILit :: Int > Exp Int Add :: Exp Int > Exp Int > Exp Int BLit :: Bool > Exp Bool
45 GADT Evaluator eval :: Exp a > a eval (ILit n) = n eval (Add e1 e2) = eval e1 + eval e2 eval (BLit b) = b
46 GADT Evaluator eval :: Exp a > a No noise due to possibly illtyped expressions! eval (ILit n) = n eval (Add e1 e2) = eval e1 + eval e2 eval (BLit b) = b
47 GADT Evaluator eval :: Exp a > a No noise due to possibly illtyped expressions! eval (ILit n) = n From the pattern match we know that a = Int eval (Add e1 e2) = eval e1 + eval e2 eval (BLit b) = b
48 GADT Evaluator eval :: Exp a > a No noise due to possibly illtyped expressions! eval (ILit n) = n From the pattern match we know that a = Int eval (Add e1 e2) = eval e1 + eval e2 eval (BLit b) = b From the pattern match we know that a = Bool
49 GADT Extension data Exp a where ILit :: Int > Exp Int Add :: Exp Int > Exp Int > Exp Int BLit :: Bool > Exp Bool IfThenElse :: Exp Bool > Exp a > Exp a > Exp a
50 Extended GADT Evaluator eval :: Exp a > a eval (ILit n) = n eval (Add e1 e2) = eval e1 + eval e2 eval (BLit b) = b eval (IfThenElse i t e) = if eval i then eval t else eval e
51 Alternative Syntax data Exp = ILit Int Add (Exp ) (Exp ) BLit Bool
52 Alternative Syntax data Exp a = a ~ Int => ILit Int a ~ Int => Add (Exp Int) (Exp Int) a ~ Bool => BLit Bool
53 Alternative Syntax data Exp a = a ~ Int => ILit Int a ~ Int => Add (Exp Int) (Exp Int) a ~ Bool => BLit Bool Equality Constraint
54 Alternative Syntax data Exp a = a ~ Int => ILit Int a ~ Int => Add (Exp Int) (Exp Int) a ~ Bool => BLit Bool Equality Constraint a ~ Int a equals Int
55 Ensure & Assume Construct value ILit n :: Exp a Type checker has to assure that a ~ Int
56 Ensure & Assume Construct value ILit n :: Exp a Type checker has to assure that a ~ Int Deconstruct value case e :: Exp a of ILit n > body Type checker can assume that a ~ Int
57 LengthIndexed Lists with GADTs
58 Regular Lists data List a = Nil Cons a (List a) head :: List a > a head (Cons x xs) = x
59 Regular Lists data List a = Nil Cons a (List a) head :: List a > a head (Cons x xs) = x
60 Regular Lists data List a = Nil Cons a (List a) head :: List a > a head (Cons x xs) = x crashes on empty list!
61 The Problem crashes on empty list head List a
62 The Problem crashes on empty list head List a head Nil
63 The Problem accept more valid programs crashes on empty list head List a accept fewer invalid programs
64 The Problem accept more valid programs crashes on empty list head List a GADTs accept fewer invalid programs
65 The Problem accept more valid programs crashes on empty list head List a head List n a GADTs accept fewer invalid programs
66 The Problem accept more valid programs crashes on empty list head List a does not accept head Nil head List n a GADTs accept fewer invalid programs
67 LengthIndexed Lists List n a
68 LengthIndexed Lists List n a indexed family index
69 LengthIndexed Lists List n a indexed family index family members List Z a List (S Z) a List (S (S Z)) a
70 LengthIndexed Lists List n a indexed family index family members List Z a List (S Z) a List (S (S Z)) a Nil Cons x Nil Cons x (Cons y)ni
71 LengthIndex List GADT data List a where Nil :: List a Cons :: a > List a > List a
72 LengthIndex List GADT data List n a where Nil :: List Z a Cons :: a > List n a > List (S n) a
73 LengthIndex List GADT indexed family data List n a where Nil :: List Z a Cons :: a > List n a > List (S n) a
74 LengthIndex List GADT indexed family Refined index data List n a where Nil :: List Z a Cons :: a > List n a > List (S n) a
75 LengthIndex List GADT indexed family Refined index data List n a where Nil :: List Z a Cons :: a > List n a > List (S n) a data Z data S n Empty data types: only used as type indices
76 Safe Head data List n a where Nil :: List Z a Cons :: a > List n a > List (S n) a head :: List a > a head (Cons x xs) = x
77 Safe Head data List n a where Nil :: List Z a Cons :: a > List n a > List (S n) a head :: List (S n) a > a head (Cons x xs) = x
78 Safe Head data List n a where Nil :: List Z a Cons :: a > List n a > List (S n) a head :: List (S n) a > a head (Cons x xs) = x > head Nil Couldn't match type Z with S n0 Expected type: List (S n0) a Actual type: List Z a In the first argument of head, namely Nil In the expression: head Nil
79 Safe Zip data List n a where Nil :: List Z a Cons :: a > List n a > List (S n) a zip :: List a > List b > List (a,b) zip Nil Nil = Nil zip (Cons x xs) (Cons y ys) = Cons (x,y) (zip xs ys) lists of different length!
80 Safe Zip data List n a where Nil :: List Z a Cons :: a > List n a > List (S n) a zip :: List n a > List n b > List n (a,b) zip Nil Nil = Nil zip (Cons x xs) (Cons y ys) = Cons (x,y) (zip xs ys)
81 Type Families
82 Append? data List n a where Nil :: List Z a Cons :: a > List n a > List (S n) a append :: List n a > List m a > List? a append Nil ys = ys append (Cons x xs) ys = Cons x (append xs ys)
83 Append? data List n a where Nil :: List Z a Cons :: a > List n a > List (S n) a append :: List n a > List m a > List? a append Nil ys n + m = ys append (Cons x xs) ys = Cons x (append xs ys)
84 Append? data List n a where Nil :: List Z a Cons :: a > List n a > List (S n) a append :: List n a > List m a > List? a append Nil ys n + m = ys append (Cons x xs) ys = Cons x (append xs ys) typelevel computation
85 The Problem append
86 The Problem accept more valid programs append accept fewer invalid programs
87 The Problem accept more valid programs Type Families append accept fewer invalid programs
88 The Problem accept more valid programs append Type Families append accept fewer invalid programs
89 Type Family aka Type Function type family Add n m where Add Z m = m Add (S n) m = S (Add n m)
90 Append with Type Family type family Add n m where Add Z m = m Add (S n) m = S (Add n m) append :: List n a > List m a > List (Add n m) a append Nil ys = ys append (Cons x xs) ys = Cons x (append xs ys)
91 Open & Associated Type Families
92 Collect Type Class class Collect c where insert :: c >? > c
93 Elem Type Family (open) type class declaration class Collect c where insert :: c > Elem c > c type family Elem c open type family declaration
94 Instances type class instance instance Collect [e] where insert l c = c : l type instance Elem [e] = e type family instance
95 Open Nature type instance Elem [e] = e instance Collect [e] where insert l c = c : l type instance Elem ByteString = Word8 instance Collect ByteString where insert l c = cons c l
96 Open Nature type instance Elem [e] = e instance Collect [e] where insert l c = c : l type instance Elem ByteString = Word8 instance Collect ByteString where insert l c = cons c l double instances
97 Associated Type Family class Collect c where type Elem c insert :: c > Elem c > c instance Collect [e] where type Elem [e] = e insert l c = c : l instance Collect ByteString where type Elem ByteString = Word8 insert l c = cons c l
98 Associated Type Family class Collect c where type Elem c insert :: c > Elem c > c instance Collect [e] where type Elem [e] = e insert l c = c : l instance Collect ByteString where type Elem ByteString = Word8 insert l c = cons c l
99 Summary
100 Advanced Type System Features Generalised Algebraic Data Types Typelevel Functions aka Type Families
101 Advanced Type System Features Generalised Algebraic Data Types Typelevel Functions aka Type Families accept more valid programs accept fewer invalid programs
102 More To Learn Existential Types Rankn Polymorphism Kinds: Type Promotion, Kind Polymorphism Type Classes: Functional Dependencies, Resolution Extensions ValueDependent Types (beyond Haskell)
103 Next time: 19/5/2015
104 Data Recursion Genericity Schemes Expression Problem Monads GADTs DSLs Type Type Families Classes Lists and Effect Free other Handlers Theorems Monoids
105 Data Recursion Genericity Schemes Expression Problem Monads GADTs DSLs Type Type Families Classes Lists Quattro Stagioni Effect Free Handlers Theorems other of Haskell Monoids and
106 Join the Google Group Leuven Haskell User Group
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