ECE 154A Introduction to. Fall 2012

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1 ECE 154A Introduction to Computer Architecture Fall 2012 Dmitri Strukov Lecture 4: Arithmetic and Data Transfer Instructions

2 Agenda Review of last lecture Logic and shift instructions Load/store instructionsi

3 Last Lecture

4 CPU Overview

5 with muxes

6 Assembly Language Basic job of a CPU: execute lots of instructions Instructions are the primitive operations that the CPU may execute Different CPUs implement different sets of instructions Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) is a set of instructions a particular CPU implements Examples: Intel 80x86 (Pentium 4), IBM/Motorola Power PC (Macintosh), MIPS, Intel IA64, ARM

7 High Level Language Program (e.g., C) Compiler Assembly Language Program (e.g.,mips) Assembler Machine Language Program (MIPS) Machine Interpretation Hardware Architecture Description (e.g., block diagrams) Architecture Implementation Logic Circuit Description (Circuit Schematic Diagrams) Below the Program temp = v[k]; v[k] = v[k+1]; v[k+1] = temp; lw $t0, 0($2) lw $t1, 4($2) sw $t1, 0($2) sw $t0, 4($2)

8 Instruction Syntax: MIPS Syntax [Label:] Op code [oper. 1], [oper. 2], [oper.3], ],[#comment] (0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Where 1) operation name 2,3,4) operands 5) comments 0) label field is optional, will discuss later For arithmetic and logic instruction 2) operand getting result ( destination ) 3) 1 st operand for operation ( source 1 ) 4) 2 nd d f i ( 2 4) 2 nd operand for operation (source 2 Syntax is rigid 1 operator, 3 operands Why? Keep hardware simple via regularity

9 Assembly Variables: Registers Unlike HLL like C or Java, assembly cannot use variables Why not? Keep hardware simple Assembly Operands are registers Limited i number of special illocations built directly into the hardware Operations can only be performed on these Benefit: Since registers file is small, it is very fast

10 Assembly Variables: Registers By convention, each register also has a name to make it easier to code For now: $16 $23 $s0 $s7 (correspond to C variables) $8 $15 $t0 $t7 (correspond to temporary variables) Will explain other 16 register names later In general, use names to make your code more readable

11 $0 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 $11 $12 $13 $14 $15 $16 $17 $18 $19 $20 $21 $22 $23 $24 $25 $26 $27 $28 $29 $30 $31 0 $zero $at Reserved for assembler use $v0 Procedure results $v1 $a0 $a1 Procedure Saved $a2 arguments $a3 $t0 $t1 $t2 $t3 Temporary $t4 values $t5 $t6 $t7 $s0 $s1 $s2 Saved $s3 across Operands $s4 procedure $s5 calls $s6 $s7 $t8 More $t9 temporaries $k0 $k1 $gp $sp $fp $ra Reserved for OS (kernel) Global pointer Stack pointer Frame pointer Return address Saved A 4-byte word sits in consecutive memory addresses according to the big-endian order (most significant byte has the lowest address) When loading a byte into a register, it goes in the low end Byte numbering: Doublew ord Word Byte A doubleword sits in consecutive registers or memory locations according to the big-endian order (most significant word comes first) Register Conventions

12 Instruction formats R format: op rs rt rd shamt funct 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 6 bits I format: op rs rt constant or address 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 16 bits J format: op address 6 bits 26 bits ECE 15B Spring 2011

13 Instruction formats Why stick to fixed formats? rigid and just few formats + fixed instruction size simple decoding faster clock cycle ( hopefully faster execution) note that it is always a tradeoff: too rigid and simple instruction set could be result in the large number of instructions several visual example later

14 Arithmetic Instructions

15 Addition and Subtraction of Integers Addition in assembly Example: add $s0, $s1, $s2 (in MIPS) Equivalent to: a = b + c (in C) Where MIPS registers $s0, $s1, $s2 are associated with C variables a, b, c Subtraction in Assembly Example Sub $s3, $s4, S5 (in MIPS) Equivalent to: d = e f (in C) Where MIPS registers $s3, $s4, $s5 are associated with C variables d, e, f

16 Addition and Subtraction of Integers How do we do this? f = (g + h) (i+ j) Use intermediate temporary registers add $t0, $s1, $s2 #temp = g + h add $t1, $3$4 $s3, $s4 #temp = I + j sub $s0, $t0, $t1 #f = (g+h) (i+j)

17 Immediates Immediates are numerical constants They appear often in code, so there are special instructions for them Add immediate: addi $s0, $s1, 10 # f= g + 10 (in C) Where MIPS registers $s0 and $s1 are associated with C variables f and g Syntax similar to add instruction, except that last argument is a number instead of register

18 R format Example op rs rt rd shamt funct 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 6 bits add $t0, $s1, $s2 note the order! (green card) special $s1 $s2 $t0 0 add =

19 Logic and Shift Instructions

20 Bitwise operations Up until now, instructions have been: Arithmetic (e.g. add, sub, addi) All these instructions view contents of registers as a single quantity (such as signed or unsigned integer) New Perspective View contents of register as 32 individual bits rather than as a single 32 bit number Introduce two new classes of instructions: Logical operations Shift Instructions

21 Logical Operations Instructions for bitwise manipulation Operation C Java MIPS Shift left << << sll Shift right >> >>> srl Bitwise AND & & and, andi Bitwise OR or, ori Bitwise NOT ~ ~ nor Useful for extracting and inserting groups of bits in a word

22 AND Operations Useful to mask bits in a word Select some bits, clear others to 0 and $t0, $t1, $t2 $t2 $t $t

23 OR Operations Useful to include bits in a word Set some bits to 1, leave others unchanged or $t0, $t1, $t2 $t2 $t $t

24 NOT Operations Useful to invert bits in a word Change 0 to 1, and 1 to 0 MIPS has NOR 3 operand instruction a NOR b == NOT ( a OR b ) nor $t0, $t1, $zero Register 0: always read as zero $t1 $t

25 Shift Operations op rs rt rd shamt funct 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 5 bits 6 bits shamt: how many positions to shift Shift left logical (SLL) Shift left and fill with 0 bits sll by i bits multiplies by 2 i Shift hf right logical l( (SRL) Shift right and fill with 0 bits srl by i bits divides by 2 i (unsigned only) Shift right arithmetic (SRA) Shift right and fill emptied bits by sign extending Notethat that shamt (immediatevalue) is only 5 bits

26 Uses for Shift Instructions Very convenient operation to extract group of bits (e.g. one byte) within a word (e.g. think of operations on 8 bit pixels or 8 bit characters) For example, suppose we want to get bits 8 to 15 from $t0. The code below will do the job sll $t0, $t0, 16 srl $t0,,$ $t0, 24

27 Uses for Shift Instructions Since ceshifting is faster than multiplication, utp cato,a good compiler (or a good programmer for that matter) usually notices when C code multiplies by a power of 2 and compiles it to a shift hf instruction For example: a = a*8; (in C) would compile to: sll $s0, $s0, 3 (in MIPS)

28 Load and Store Instructions

29 Memory Operands Main memory used for composite data Arrays, structures, dynamic data To apply arithmetic operations Load values from memory into registers Store result from register to memory Memory is byte addressed Each address identifies an8 bitbyte byte Words are aligned in memory Address must be a multiple of 4 MIPS is Big Endian Most significant byte at least address of a word c.f. Little Endian: least significant byte at least address

30 Data Transfer: Memory to Register MIPS load Instruction Syntax lw register#, offset(register#) (1) (2) (3) (4) Where 1) operation name 2) register that will receive value 3) numerical offset in bytes 4) register containing pointer to memory lw meaning Load Word 32 bits or one word are loaded at a time

31 Data Transfer: Register to Memory MIPS store Instruction Syntax sw register#, offset(register#) (1) (2) (3) (4) Where 1) operation name 2) register that will be written in memory 3) numerical offset in bytes 4) register containing pointer to memory sw meaning Store Word 32 bits or one word are stored at a time

32 Memory Operand Example 1 C code: g = h + A[8]; g in $s1, h in $s2, base address of A in $s3 Compiled MIPS code: Index 8 requires offset of 32 4 bytes per word lw $t0, 32($s3) 3) # load word add $s1, $s2, $t0 offset base register

33 Memory Operand Example 2 C code: A[12] = h + A[8]; h in $s2, base address of A in $s3 Compiled MIPS code: Index 8 requires offset of 32 lw $t0, 32($s3) # load word add $t0, $s2, $t0 sw $t0, 48($s3) # store word

34 Registers vs. Memory Registers are faster to access than memory Operating on memory data requires loads and stores More instructions to be executed Compiler must use registers for variables as much as possible Only spill to memory for less frequently used variables Register optimization is important!

35 Byte/Halfword Operations MIPS byte/halfword load/store String processing is a common case lb rt, offset(rs) lh rt, offset(rs) Sign extend to 32 bits in rt lbu rt, offset(rs) lhu rt, offset(rs) Zero extend to 32 bits in rt sb rt, offset(rs) sh rt, offset(rs) Store just rightmost byte/halfword Why do we need them? characters and multimedia data are expressed by less than 32 bits; having dedicated 8 and 16 bits load and store instructions results in faster operation

36 Two s Compliment Representation

37 Unsigned Binary Integers Given an n bit number x x n 1 n n 12 xn 22 x12 x02 Range: 0 to +2 n 1 Example = = = Using 32 bits 0 to +4,294,967,295,,

38 Unsigned Binary Integers Turn x notches counterclockwise to add x Inside: Natural number Outside: 4-bit encoding Turn y notches 8 clockwise to subtract t y 1000 Schematic representation of 4 bit code for integers in [0, 15].

39 2s Complement Signed Integers Given an n bit number x x n 1 n n 12 xn 22 x12 x02 Range: 2 n 1 to +2 n 1 1 Example = = 2,147,483, ,147,483,644 = 4 10 Using 32 bits 2,147,483,648,, to +2,147,483,647,,

40 2s Complement Signed Integers Bit 31 is sign bit 1 for negative numbers 0 for non negative numbers ( 2 n 1 ) can t be represented Non negative numbers have the same unsigned and 2s complement representation Some specific numbers 0: : Most negative: Most positive:

41 Two s Complement Representation With k bits, numbers in the range [ 2 k 1, 2 k 1 1] represented. Negation is performed by inverting all bits and adding Turn x notches counterclockwise to add x _ Turn 16 y notches 8 counterclockwise to add y (subtract y) 1000 Schematic representation of 4 bit 2 s complement code for integers in [ 8, +7].

42 Signed Negation Complement and add 1 Complement means 1 0, 0 1 x x x 1 x Example: negate = = =

43 Sign Extension Representing a number using more bits Preserve the numeric value In MIPS instruction set addi: extend immediatevalue lb, lh: extend loaded byte/halfword beq, bne: extend the displacement Replicate the sign bit to the left c.f. unsigned values: extend with 0s Examples: 8 bit to 16 bit +2: => : =>

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