SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING. Srimanta Pal. Associate Professor Indian Statistical Institute Kolkata OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

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1 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMING Srimanta Pal Associate Professor Indian Statistical Institute Kolkata OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

2 Contents Preface v 1. Scope of Systems Programming Introduction Computers and uman Beings Concept of ardware Machine Structure Some System Software Concepts Operating Systems System Repairing and Debugging Tools 8 ft! Ph 1 Systems Programming Background 2. Prerequisites of Systems Programming Introduction Systems Popular Terms and Concepts Number Systems and their Representation Components of A Computer Program Programming Techniques Data Structures Design of Algorithms Analysis of Algorithms Overview of System Software Introduction Software Software ierarchy Systems Programming Embedded Systems Programming Machine Structure Interfaces Address Space Computer Languages Language Translators 43 Operating Systems 46 Distributed System 48 Tools 48 Database System 49 Life Cycle of a Source Program Different Views on the Meaning of a Program 50 System Software Development Recent Trends in Software Development 50 Levels of System Software 57 Machine Structures Introduction John Von Neumann Machine Structure 53 A General Approach to Machines 57 Machine 58 Numbered Register-Based Instructional Computers 62 Accumulator-Based Computers 65 Classification of Computers 67 Microprocessor Evolution 69 The Architecture ofa Microcomputer 70 CISC Architecture-Based Computers 77 RISC Architecture-Based Computer 82

3 CONTENTS ix 5. System File and Library Structures 5.1 Introduction Library and File Organization Design of a Record Source Program/Data File Structure 92 8B 5.5 Object Code Object Files Standard Object File Structures Executable File Standard Executable File Structures Libraries Image File Structures , Low-Level Translators B. Machine and Mnemonic Languages 6.1 Introduction Machine Languages Mnemonic Languages Machine Language vs Mnemonic Language Machine Operations In Machine Languages Programming Techniques In Machine Languages Object Code Advanced Concepts Assembly Languages Programming in Assembly Language: an Illustrative Approach Introduction Features The Intel 8086 Instruction Set Interrupts / ousekeeping of Interrupt Calls Programming Techniques Assembly Language Programming Styles Language Constructs ow to Run Assembly Programs Standard Assemblers Microsoft Assembler (MASM) Introduction Roles of Assembly Language Basis of Assembly Languages 175 1A Disadvantages Why Learn Assembly Languages? Comparisons Assembly Language Applications Multi-Platform Assembly Programming Assembly Language Formats Assembly Statements Basic Operations Importance of Registers Macros Structured Assembly Language Elements of Assembly Programs 7S Programming Techniques Assembly Language Subroutines Borland Turbo Assembler (TASM) Microasm Netwidc Assembler (NASM) DOS Batch Files for TASM and M ASM Memory Models Program Illustrations Assemblers Introduction Basic Tasks Classification of Assemblers Working Principles Problems in Manual Assembly General Problems in Assembler General Procedure for Assembler Design A Simple Assembly Process Assembly Process Design Issues Assembler Features 258

4 x CONTENTS 9.12 Assembler Design Criteria Types of Assemblers Two-Pass Assemblers One-Pass Assemblers Multi-Pass Assemblers Advanced Assembly Process Variants of Assemblers Macros and Macro Languages Introduction Definitions Advantages of Using a Macro Macro vs Procedure Development of Macro Languages Local Variables in a Macro Macros Without Parameters Concept of Parameters in Macros Formal vs Actual Parameters in Macros Concatenation of Macro Parameters Parameter-Passing Mechanism in Macros Conditions in Macro Definitions Macro Calls Within Macro Definitions Macro Instructions Defining Macros Case Studies Macro Programming: An Illustrative Approach Introduction Features Macro Programming Techniques Program Illustrations Macro Processors Introduction Functions of a Macro Processor Basic Tasks of a Macro Processor A Design Issues of Macro Processors Features Macro Processor Design Options Two-Pass Macro Processors One-Pass Macro Processors Generalized one-pass Macro Processors Applications of Macro Processors Macro Command Interpreter Linkers Introduction Principles of Linking A Simple Linking Process Basic Linking Tasks and Procedure Memory Management During Linking Symbols and Symbol Resolution Binding Resolving External References Relocation and Code Modification Linking Methods Static Linking Dynamic Linking Library Linking Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Module Linking Design of Linkers Linker Command Languages Automatic Library Searching Some Popular Linkers Loaders Introduction Programs in Memory Principles of Loading Operation Linkers vs Loaders Loading Shared Libraries From Applications Different Loading Schemes Sequential and Direct Loaders Compile-and-Go Loaders General Loader Schemes Absolute Loaders Relocating Loaders Practical Relocating Loaders Linking Loaders Relocating Linking Loaders Overlay Binder Dynamic Loader Automatic Library Search Complexity Some Popular Loaders Graphics Loaders 441

5 CONTENTS xi 15. Object Code Translators 15.1 Introduction Binary Code Translators Object Code Translators Translation Process ybrid Method Applications 450 OS 3 igh-level Translators eu 16. Overview of igh-level Translators Introduction Programming Languages Compilers Variant of Compilers igh-level Programming Languages for Compilers Introduction Nature Needs Structured Language Features Regular Expressions Finite Automata Grammars Context-Free Grammars Ambiguous and Unambiguous Grammars Left-Recursive Grammar Grammar Classes BNF to Parsing Table Some Terminology Used in Parsing Parsing Table Construction Predictive Parsing Table Construction LR Parsing Table Construction Operator Precedence Grammars Object-Oriented Programming Languages Functional Programming Languages 18. Design of Compilers ,.5,6 ; Introduction 495 Compilation Process 496 Other Programs with Compilers 497 Translation of a Statement 498 Compiler Construction Tools 498 Lexical Analysis 499 Syntax Analysis 505 Basic Parsing Techniques 505 Semantic Analysis 523 Parameter Passing 526 Intermediate Code Generation 528 Code Generation 531 Code Optimization 532 Optimizing Compilers 533 Some Popular Compilers Compiler-Compilers 19.1 Introduction Design of Compiler Generators Popular Compiler Generators Lex Yacc Inside of Lex and Yacc Compiler Design Toolbox Universal Compiler-Compilers OS Oh4, Lowest-Level Translators 20. Principles of Operating Systems Introduction The Scope of Op'erating Systems The Functions of Operating Systems Memory Management Schemes Interrupts Structural Overview of Operating Systems State Transition of Concurrent Processes 596

6 xii CONTENTS 20.8 igher-level Synchronizing Tools 20.9 Deadlocks andling Deadlocks Scheduling Device Management Buffer Allocation Algorithm Case Studies OS 5, System Tools 0u 21. Editors 21.1 Introduction Document Editor The Design of a Text Editor Sound Editor Case Studies Debuggers 22.1 Introduction Types of Errors Debugging Procedures A Classification of Debuggers Dynamic/Interactive Debugger Debugging Using 22.7 Use of Debugger in Unix C 672 ardware System Administration Introduction System Administrators System Installation System Configuration On-Going Process 678s 23.6 System Administration for DOS System Administration for Windows System Administration for UNIX 681 Appendix 683 Bibliography 708 Index 713

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