Chapter 6 Primitive types

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1 Chapter 6 Primitive types Lesson page 6-1. Primitive types Question 1. There are an infinite number of integers, so it would be too ineffient to have a type integer that would contain all of them. Question 2. The five integral types are: byte, short, int, long, andchar. Question 3. The two floating-point types are float and double. Question 4. Type long is the integral type with the largest range. It is also the integral type that uses the most amount of memory. Question 5. Type double is the floating-point type with the largest range. It is also the floating-point type that uses the most amount of memory. Question 6. Type boolean has only two values: true and false. Question 7. Here s the filled-in table: type smallest value largest value boolean false/true false/true long (2 63 ) int (2 31 ) short (2 15 ) byte (2 7 ) Lesson page 6-2. The integral types Activity 6-2-1: Integral constants (literals) Question 1. A literal is a Java denotion for a value of a type. For example, 123 is a literal of type long. Activity 6-2-2: Operations on type int Question 2. The summary of operations on type int is in a footnote on the lesson page.

2 60 Chapter 6. Primitive types Symbol Name Example of operation unary operator: negation -45 unary operator: + addition +45 = 45 binary operator: + addition = 8 binary operator: subtraction 6-4 = 2 binary operator: multiplication 3 * 2 = 6 binary operator: / division 5 / 2 = 2 binary operator: % remainder 5 % 2 = 1 Question 3. False. Java does not stop execution if integers get too large and cause overflow. Instead, the program probably produces incorrect results. Question 4. The expression evaluates to Question 5. We have: 5-(6/7) = 5-(0) = 5. Question 6. In Java, division 6/7 results in an integer, with the fraction part being deleted. In mathematics, division of two integers yields a rational number. Question 7. There are no operations on type byte or type short. Question 8. True. All values of one integral type are contained in the integral values of a wider type. Question 9. True. Java automatically promotes the narrower type byte to the wider type int. Question 10. The four integral types mentioned in this activity, from narrowest to widest, are: byte, short, int, long. Activity 6-2-4: Casting integer values Question 11. To cast a value is to convert it from one type to another. Question 12. The expression is: (byte)( ). Question 13. Here are the answers: byte b= 3.5; // can t assign a decimal to a byte short s= b; short j= 4; long l= (long)j; byte k= 440; // too large to store in a byte int i= k;

3 Chapter 6. Primitive types 61 Activity 6-2-5: Review of integer types Lesson page 6-3. A minimalist view of floating-point Activity 6-3-1: Literals of type double Question 1. All the literals are of type double except the last, 4500, which is of type int. Activity 6-3-2: Values of type double and operations on them Question 2. In Java, write as * 10e5. Question 3. The underlined items are, in order: double, double, float, float, long, long, int, short, byte, char, int. Question 4. The rules are: (1) byte short int long float double (2) char int long float double. Lesson page 6-4. Remarks about floating point Question 1. The statement: System.out.println( ); prints: E17. Lesson page 6-5. Type char Activity 6-5-1: Literals of type char Question 1. True. A char literal begins and ends with a single quotemark. Question 2. True. A String literal begins and ends with a double quotemark. Question 3. An escape sequence is a literal that cannot be written as a single character. For example, \t denotes the tab character. All the Java escape sequences begin with the backslash (the \ ) character. Question 4. Here are the literals for various symbols:

4 62 Chapter 6. Primitive types Java literal Symbol it represents \\ backslash \ single quote \" double quote \n line feed, or newline \r carriage return \t tab \f form feed \b backspace Question 5. ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Each ASCII character uses one byte of memory. Question 6. False. Java uses Unicode, not ASCII, to represent characters. Activity 6-5-2: char as an integral type Question 7. This works only for 0 i 9. Look at the footnote on the lesson page to figure out why (or try it and see what happens). char c= (char)(i + 0 ); Question 8. Because type int is wider than char, no casting is required: int i= c; Activity 6-5-3: A loop to sequence through characters Question 9. In ASCII and Unicode, a is larger than A. Question 10. char capc= ( A - a ) + c ; Activity 6-5-4: Execution of the loop Question 11. The statement c++; increments character c. Question 12. The expression is: A <= c && c <= Z ; Lesson page 6-6. Type boolean Activity 6-6-1: The literals and operations of type boolean Question 1. The literals true and false. Question 2. Not, negation, and complement. Question 3. Here s the truth table:

5 Chapter 6. Primitive types 63 b c b&&c b c!b b==c b!=c true true true true false true false true false false true false false true false true false true true false true false false false false true true false Question 4. Here are the precedences: 1. Unary operators: ! 2. Binary arithmetic operators: * / % 3. Binary arithmetic operators: Arithmatic relations: < > <= >= 5. Equality relations: ==!= 6. Logical and: && 7. Logical or: Question 5. We start with the formula and simplify it: (true false) 5 < = true 5 < 5 = true Question 6. to ). Question 7. equal to ). Equivalence is the boolean operator == (also called equal Inequivalence is the boolean operator!= (also called not Activity 6-6-2: Short-circuit evaluation Question 8. The manner in which conjunctions && and disjunctions are evaluated. If the value of the operation can be determined from the first operand, the second is not evaluated. For example, in the boolean expression: 6 > 5 4 > 5 since the first operand, 6 > 5, is true, only the first would be evaluated. However, with the following example, even though the first operand is true, both would have to be evaluated. 6 > 5 && 6 > 5

6 64 Chapter 6. Primitive types Question 9. When the first operand is false. Question 10. When the first operand is true. Question 11. This expression can be evaluated; since the first operand is true, the second operand is not evaluated, and the result of evaluation is true. Question 12. This expression cannot be evaluated. Since x = 0, the first operand is true, the second operand is evaluated, and a divison by 0 occurs. Activity 6-6-3: Properties of boolean operators Question 13. The formula is: ( X && Y) == ( Y && X) Question 14. The formula is: (A (B C)) == ((A B) C) Question 15. The formula is: ( A && A) == A Question 16. B!B, and!(b &&!B). Question 17.!( B && C) == (!B!C), and!(b C) == (!B &&!C). Question 18. By DeMorgan s law (!(B C) == (!B &&!C) ) and double negation (!!B == B ), the formula is equivalent to: ( b && ( i < j)) == ( b && i > j) This is true iff b is false, so it reduces to!b. So it is cannot be said to be true or false without knowing the value of b. Activity 6-6-4: Exercises on type boolean Activity 6-6-5: The mark of a boolean tyro Question 19. A tyro is one (a person) familiar with the rudiments (basics) of a subject but lacking in practical experience. Question 20. Three marks of a boolean tyro are: 1. if (athome == true) if (!athome == false) if (athome atwork) { b == true; } else { b == false; } Question 21. Here we go:!((a!= true) && ( a == true)) == true =!(!a && a) == true =!(!a && a)

7 =!false = true Chapter 6. Primitive types 65

8 66 Chapter 6. Primitive types

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