Introduction to Programming

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1 Introduction to Programming session 6 Instructor: Reza Entezari-Maleki 1 Spring 2011 These slides are created using Deitel s slides Sharif University of Technology

2 Outlines Arithmetic Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators Algorithms and Pseudocode Control Structures 2

3 Arithmetic Arithmetic calculations * Multiplication / Division Integer division truncates remainder 7 / 5 evaluates to 1 % Modulus operator returns remainder 7 % 5 evaluates to 2 3

4 Arithmetic Rules of operator precedence Operators in parentheses evaluated first Nested/embedded parentheses Operators in innermost pair first Multiplication, division, modulus applied next Operators applied from left to right Addition, subtraction applied last Operator(s) Operation(s) Order of evaluation (precedence) 4 () Parentheses Evaluated first. If the parentheses are nested, the expression in the innermost pair is evaluated first. If there are several pairs of parentheses on the same level (i.e., not nested), they are evaluated left to right. *, /, or % Multiplication Division Modulus + or - Addition Subtraction Evaluated second. If there are several, they re evaluated left to right. Evaluated last. If there are several, they are evaluated left to right.

5 Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators if structure Make decision based on truth or falsity of condition If condition met, body executed Else, body not executed Equality and relational operators Equality operators Same level of precedence Relational operators Same level of precedence Associate left to right 5

6 Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators Standard algebraic equality operator or relational operator Relational operators C++ equality or relational operator Example of C++ c ondition Meaning of C++ condition > > x > y x is greater than y < < x < y x is less than y >= x >= y x is greater than or equal to y <= x <= y x is less than or equal to y Equality operators = == x == y x is equal to y!= x!= y x is not equal to y 6

7 Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators using statements Eliminate use of std:: prefix Write cout instead of std::cout 7

8 1 /* Using if statements, relational 2 operators, and equality operators. */ 3 #include <iostream> 4 using std::cout; // program uses cout 5 using std::cin; // program uses cin 6 using std::endl; // program uses endl 7 // function main begins program execution 8 int main() 9 { 10 int num1; // first number to be read from user 11 int num2; // second number to be read from user 12 cout << "Enter two integers, and I will tell you\n" 13 << "the relationships they satisfy: "; 14 cin >> num1 >> num2; // read two integers 15 if ( num1 == num2 ) 16 cout << num1 << " is equal to " << num2 << endl; 17 if ( num1!= num2 ) 18 cout << num1 << " is not equal to " << num2 << endl; 8

9 19 if ( num1 < num2 ) 20 cout << num1 << " is less than " << num2 << endl; 21 if ( num1 > num2 ) 22 cout << num1 << " is greater than " << num2 << endl; 23 if ( num1 <= num2 ) 24 cout << num1 << " is less than or equal to " 25 << num2 << endl; 26 if ( num1 >= num2 ) 27 cout << num1 << " is greater than or equal to " 28 << num2 << endl; 29 return 0; // indicate that program ended successfully 30 } // end function main Enter two integers, and I will tell you the relationships they satisfy: is not equal to is greater than is greater than or equal to 12 9

10 10 Enter two integers, and I will tell you the relationships they satisfy: is equal to 7 7 is less than or equal to 7 7 is greater than or equal to 7

11 Algorithms Before writing a program Have a thorough understanding of problem Carefully plan your approach for solving it While writing a program Know what building blocks are available Use good programming principles 11

12 Algorithms Computing problems Solved by executing a series of actions in a specific order Algorithm a procedure determining Actions to be executed Order to be executed Program control Specifies the order in which statements are executed 12

13 Pseudocode Pseudocode Artificial, informal language used to develop algorithms Similar to everyday English Not executed on computers Used to think out program before coding Easy to convert into C++ program Only executable statements No need to declare variables 13

14 Control Structures Sequential execution Statements executed in order Transfer of control Next statement executed not next one in sequence 3 control structures (Bohm and Jacopini) Sequence structure Programs executed sequentially by default Selection structures if, if/else, switch Repetition structures while, do/while, for 14

15 Control Structures C++ keywords Cannot be used as identifiers or variable names C++ Keywords 15 Keywords common to the C and C++ programming languages auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static struct switch typedef union unsigned void volatile while C++ only keywords asm bool catch class const_cast delete dynamic_cast explicit false friend inline mutable namespace new operator private protected public reinterpret_cast static_cast template this throw true try typeid typename using virtual wchar_t

16 Control Structures Flowchart Graphical representation of an algorithm Special-purpose symbols connected by arrows (flowlines) Rectangle symbol (action symbol) Any type of action Oval symbol Beginning or end of a program, or a section of code (circles) Single-entry/single-exit control structures Connect exit point of one to entry point of the next Control structure stacking 16

17 if Selection Structure Selection structure Choose among alternative courses of action Pseudocode example: If student s grade is greater than or equal to 60 Print Passed If the condition is true Print statement executed, program continues to next statement If the condition is false Print statement ignored, program continues Indenting makes programs easier to read C++ ignores whitespace characters (tabs, spaces, etc.) 17

18 if Selection Structure Translation into C++ If student s grade is greater than or equal to 60 Print Passed if ( grade >= 60 ) cout << "Passed"; Diamond symbol (decision symbol) Indicates decision is to be made Contains an expression that can be true or false Test condition, follow path if structure Single-entry/single-exit 18

19 if Selection Structure Flowchart of pseudocode statement grade >= 60 true print Passed A decision can be made on any expression. zero -false nonzero -true Example: 3-4 istrue false 19

20 if/else Selection Structure if Performs action if condition true if/else Different actions if conditions true or false Pseudocode if student s grade is greater than or equal to 60 print Passed else print Failed C++ code if ( grade >= 60 ) cout << "Passed"; else cout << "Failed"; 20

21 if/else Selection Structure Ternary conditional operator (?:) Three arguments (condition, value if true, value if false) Code could be written: cout << ( grade >= 60? Passed : Failed ); Condition Value if true Value if false false grade >= 60 true print Failed print Passed 21

22 if/else Selection Structure Nested if/else structures One inside another, test for multiple cases Once condition met, other statements skipped if student s grade is greater than or equal to 90 Print A else if student s grade is greater than or equal to 80 Print B else if student s grade is greater than or equal to 70 Print C else if student s grade is greater than or equal to 60 Print D else Print F 22

23 if/else Selection Structure Example if ( grade >= 90 ) // 90 and above cout << "A"; else if ( grade >= 80 ) // cout << "B"; else if ( grade >= 70 ) // cout << "C"; else if ( grade >= 60 ) // cout << "D"; else // less than 60 cout << "F"; 23

24 if/else Selection Structure Compound statement Set of statements within a pair of braces if ( grade >= 60 ) cout << "Passed.\n"; else { cout << "Failed.\n"; cout << "You must take this course again.\n"; } Without braces, cout << "You must take this course again.\n"; always executed Block Set of statements within braces 24

25 while Repetition Structure Repetition structure Action repeated while some condition remains true Psuedocode while there are more items on my shopping list Purchase next item and cross it off my list while loop repeated until condition becomes false Example int product = 2; while ( product <= 1000 ) product = 2 * product; 25

26 while Repetition Structure Flowchart of while loop product <= 1000 true product = 2 * product false 26

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