# COMP1730/COMP6730 Programming for Scientists. Data: Values, types and expressions.

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1 COMP1730/COMP6730 Programming for Scientists Data: Values, types and expressions.

2 Lecture outline * Data and data types. * Expressions: computing values. * Variables: remembering values.

3 What is data? * The number of students currently enrolled in the course. * The words typed into a web search engine. * A time series of total rainfall in Canberra for the month of June since * An elevation map of Australia. * Most (scientific) applications of computing involve summarising or deriving information from data.

4 Example: Data analysis * In 2016, enrolment in COMP1730/6730, at its peak, was 364 students. In 2017, the enrolment was 485 students. How big an increase, in percent, is this? * The increase is: * as a fraction of the 2016 number: ( ) / 364 * in percent: (( ) / 364) * 100

5 Expressions * (( ) / 364) * 100 is an expression; * it evaluates to ; * 485, 364, 100 and are all values (and expressions). * In interactive mode, the python interpreter will print the result of evaluating an expression: >>> (( ) / 364) * (with one exception, which we ll see later).

6 python syntax (recap) * A python program is a sequence of statements: - import a module; - function definition; - function call expression. - Every function call is an expression. -...and more we ll see later. * Comment: # to end-of-line. * Whitespace: - end-of-line ends statement (except for function definition, which ends at the end of the suite); - indentation defines extent of (function) suite.

7 python expressions * Expressions are built up of: - constants ( literals ); - variables; - operators; and - function calls. * When an expression is executed, it evaluates to a value (a.k.a. the return value). * Expressions can act as statements (the return value is ignored), but statements cannot act as expressions.

8 Continuation * end-of-line marks the end of a statement. * Except that, - adding a \ at the end makes the statement continue onto the next line, e.g., (2 ** 0) + (2 ** 1) + (2 ** 2) \ + (2 ** 3) + (2 ** 4) - an expression enclosed in parentheses continues to the closing parenthesis, e.g., math.sqrt((x2 - x1) ** 2 + (y2 - y1) ** 2)

9 Values and Types

10 Every value has a type * Value (data) types in python: - Integers (type int) - Floating-point numbers (type float) - Strings (type str) - Truth values (type bool) -...and many more we ll see later. * Types determine what we can do with values (and sometimes what the result is).

11 * The type function tells us the type of a value: >>> type(2) <class int > >>> type(2 / 3) <class float > >>> type("zero") <class str > >>> type("1") <class str > >>> type(1 < 0) <class bool >

12 Numeric types * python has two built-in numeric types: Integers and floating-point numbers. * Integers (type int) can represent positive and negative whole numbers. - 0, 1, 2, 1, 17, 4096,... * Values of type int have no inherent size limit. >>> 2 ** (2 ** 2) 16 >>> 2 ** (2 ** (2 ** 2)) >>> 2 ** (2 ** (2 ** (2 ** 2)))...

13 * Floating-point numbers (type float) can represent decimal numbers. * Values of type float have limited range and limited precision. - Min/max value: ± Smallest non-zero value: Smallest value > 1: (These are typical limits; actual limits depend on the python implementation.) * Type float also has special values ± inf (infinity) and nan (not a number). * More about floating-point numbers and their limitations in a coming lecture.

14 * Every decimal number is a float: >>> type( ) <class float > >>> type(1.0) <class float > * The result of division is always a float: >>> type(4 / 2) <class float > * floats can be written (and are sometimes printed) in scientific notation : e8 means e-34 means e308 means

15 Strings * Strings (type str) represent text. * A string literal is enclosed in single or double quote marks: >>> "Hello world" Hello world >>> 4" long 4" long - A string can contain the other type of quotation mark, but not the one used to delimit it. * More about strings in a coming lecture.

16 Type conversion * Explicit conversions use the type name like a function: >>> int(2.0) >>> float(" -1.05") >>> str(0.75 * 1.75) * Conversion from str to number only works if the string contains (only) a numeric literal. * Conversion from int to float is automatic. - E.g., int times float becomes a float.

17 Expressions: Operators and Functions

18 Numeric operators in python +, -, *, / standard math operators ** power (x ** n means x n ) // floor division % remainder * Some operators can be applied also to values of other (non-numeric) types, but with a different meaning (this is called operator overloading ). * We ll see more operators later in the course.

19 Precedence * There is an order of precedence on operators, that determines how an expression is read: - 2 * 3-1 means (2 * 3) - 1, not 2 * (3-1) ** 5 means -(1 ** 5), not (-1) ** 5. * Operators with equal precedence associate left: - d/2*pi means (d/2)*pi, not d/(2*pi) *...except exponentiation, which associates right. * Whenever it is not obvious, use parentheses to make it clear.

20 Math functions * The math module provides standard math functions, such as square root, logarithm, trigonometric functions, etc. >>> import math >>> help(math) # read documentation... >>> math.sqrt(3 ** ** 2) 5.0 * Almost all math functions take and return values of type float.

21 Comparison operators <, >, <=, >= ordering (strict and non-strict) == equality (note double = sign)!= not equal * Can compare two values of the same type (for almost any type). * Comparisons return a truth value (type bool), which is either True or False. * Caution: Conversion from any type to type bool happens automatically, but the result may not be what you expect.

22 Variables

23 Variables * A variable is a name that is associated with a value in the program. - The python interpreter stores name value associations in a namespace. (More about namespaces later in the course.) * A variable can be an expression: evaluating it returns the associated value. * A name value association is created by the first assignment to the name.

24 Valid names in python (reminder) * A (function or variable) name in python may contain letters, numbers and underscores ( ), but must begin with a letter or underscore. * Reserved words cannot be used as names. * Names are case sensitive: upper and lower case letters are not the same. - Length Of Rope and length of rope are different names.

25 Variable assignment * A variable assignment is written var name = expression - Reminder: Equality is written == (two = s). - Assignment is a statement. * When executing an assignment, the interpreter 1. evaluates the right-hand side expression; 2. associates the left-hand side name with the resulting value.

26 Programming problem * A block resting on an inclined surface will begin to move if the force pulling it down the slope is greater than the normal force times the static friction coefficient (µ s ). (Image from Wikipedia) Say m = 1, g = 9.81, θ = 23 and µ s = 0.62: will the block move? * Yes, if mg sin(θ) > mg cos(θ)µ s.

27 The print function * print prints text to the console: >>> print("the answer is:", 42) The answer is: 42 - Non-text arguments are converted to type str before printing. - print takes a variable number of arguments, and prints them all followed by a newline. * Print the result, and intermediate steps, when a program is run in script mode.

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