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1 A-PDF MERGER DEMO Philadelphia University Lecturer: Dr. Nadia Y. Yousif Coordinator: Dr. Nadia Y. Yousif Internal Examiner: Dr. Raad Fadhel Examination Paper... Programming Languages Paradigms (750321) Section: 3 Final Exam Programming Paradigms (710315) Section: 1 Date: February 4, 2006 First Semester /2006 Time: 2 Hours Information for Candidates 1. This examination paper contains 6 questions totalling 50 marks. 2. The marks for parts of questions are shown in square brackets: e.g. [2 marks] Advice to Candidates 1. You should attempt questions such that the sum of the marks is at least You are not allowed to split answers of one question and mix up sections of different questions... I. Basic Notions Objectives: The aim of the questions in this part is to evaluate your required minimal knowledge and understanding skills in different programming languages concepts and paradigms. Question 1 (8 marks) NOTE: Answer ANY FOUR of the following 6 sections: Faculty of Information Technology Department of Computer Science Department of Applied Computer Science (A) Why is useful for a programmer to have some background in language design, even though he/she may never actually design a programming language? [2 marks] (B) What does Orthogonality in programming languages mean? Give examples. [2 marks] (C) What is the difference between the static scoping and dynamic scoping? [2 marks] (D) What are the design issues for character string type? How Java language uses strings? [2 marks] (E) What is a coroutine? What language supports this concept? Give an example. [2 marks] (F) Explain the differences between the imperative programming languages, the object-oriented languages, and the functional programming languages. [2 marks].. Question 2 (8 marks) (B) Consider the following declaration in Pascal: [4 marks] (A) The declaration of an integer one-dimensional array type with its initialization is given in C++ and Ada as arr = array [0.. 3] of integer; follows: [4 marks] rec = record In C++: a : real; int score[ ] = {65, 70, 55, 87}; b : arr; In Ada: c : integer; SCORE: array (1.. 6) of INTEGER := (1 => 54, end; 2 => 76, 3 => 80, others => 35); var R : rec; Determine (by a diagram) the storage Explain the effects of these two declarations. structure representation of variable R... II. Familiar Problems Solving Objectives: This part aims to evaluate your ability in programming with different control constructs, procedures, and functional languages. Question 3 (8 marks) NOTE: Answer ANY TWO of the following 3 sections: (A) Consider the following Pascal case statement. Rewrite it using only two-way selection. case index - 1 of 2, 4: even := even + 1; 1, 3: odd := odd + 1; 0: zero := zero + 1; else error := true end [4 marks] Concepts of Programming Languages (750321) Final Exam First Semester 2005/2006 February 4,

2 (B) Consider the ALGOL-like declaration: procedure SWAP ( x, y : integer ); var z: integer; begin z := x; x := y; y:= z; end; and suppose that x and y are parameters called by name. If a[1] = 2, a[2] = 5, and i = 1, what would be the effect of SWAP ( i, a[i] )? [4 marks] (C) Write the three numbers that the following C++ program will output when function test is called with argument y (1) by value (2) by reference [4 marks] #include <iostream.h> int y; void test ( int x ) { x = x + 2; cout << "x = "<<x <<" y = "<<y<<endl; } void main( ) { y = 5; test (y); cout <<" y = "<<y<<endl; } Question 4 (9 marks) Consider the following function: int fun ( int n ) { if (n < 1) return 1 ; else return 5 + f un ( n 1 ); } Answer ANY THREE of the following 4 sections: (A) Trace the function to find the value of the function call fun(5). (B) Rewrite the function to use iteration instead of recursion. Which version will evaluate the call fun(50) quickest? (C) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using recursion? [3 marks] [3 marks] [3 marks] (D) Rewrite the above function fun in the functional language SCHEME. [3 marks]... Concepts of Programming Languages (750321) Final Exam First Semester 2005/2006 February 4,

3 Question 5 (8 marks) (A) Show the stack with all activation record instances, using static chain mechanism, when executing the following Pascal program. Notice the calling sequence: MAIN calls P; P calls R; R calls S; S calls Q. [5 marks] program MAIN; var x : integer; procedure P; var a, b, c : integer; procedure Q; var a, d : integer; begin { Q } a := b + c; < end; { Q } (B) To what declaration of variable a will the reference to a be bound at each of the positions 1, 2, and 3 in the program of section (A). [3 marks] procedure R ( x : integer); var b, e : integer; begin P ; procedure S ; end. { MAIN var c, } e : integer; begin { S } Q; { calling Q } e := b + a: < end; {S} begin { R } S; { calling S} a := d + e; < end; { R } begin { P } R ( 7 ); { calling R } end; { P } begin { MAIN } P ; { calling P } end. { MAIN } III. Unfamiliar Problems Solving Objective: The aim of the question in this part is to evaluate that you can solve problems using functional languages concepts, and can set out reasoning and explanation in a clear and coherent manner about storage management. Question 6 (9 marks) (A) [3 marks] What does the following function (written in SCHEME language) do? (DEFINE ( f s lis ) ( COND ( ( NULL? Lis ) '( ) ) ( ( EQ? s ( CAR lis ) ) lis ) ( ELSE ( f s ( CDR lis ) ) ) ) ) (B) [3 marks] Explain why LISP-like (functional) languages require more run-time support than ALGOL-like (imperative) languages and why ALGOL-like languages require more run-time support than FORTRAN. Is this fact a function of the compiler/interpreter, or is it inherent in the language? Give some conclusions about the comparative run-time efficiency of these languages. How about space efficiency? Programming efficiency? (C) [3 marks] Write a function in SCHEME functional language that checkes whether a symbol is a member in a list. GOOD LUCK! Concepts of Programming Languages (750321) Final Exam First Semester 2005/2006 February 4,

4 Philadelphia University Lecturer: Dr. Nadia Y. Yousif Coordinator: Dr. Nadia Y. Yousif Internal Examiner: Dr. Raad Fadhel Examination Paper... Programming Languages Paradigms (750321) Section: 3 First Exam Programming Paradigms (710315) Section: 1 Date: November 21, 2005 First Semester /2006 Time: 1 Hour Information for Candidates 1. This examination paper contains 3 questions totalling 15 marks. 2. The marks for parts of questions are shown in square brackets: e.g. [2 marks]. Advice to Candidates 1. You should attempt ALL questions and write your answers clearly. 2. You are not allowed to split answers of one question and mix up sections of different questions... I. Basic Notions Objectives: The aim of the questions in this part is to evaluate your required minimal knowledge and understanding skills in the basics of programming paradigms. Answers in the pass category represent the minimum acceptable standard. Question 1 (5 marks) Consider the following program in a lexically-scoped C++-like language. Note that the numbers are used to refer to the statement number in your answer. 1: int n; // n1 2: void b (int n) { // b1, n2 3: int m, p; // m1, p1 4: m := m + n; // m2, m3, n3 5: b(1); // b2 6: } 7: void c (int m) { // c1, m4 8: m := m + p; // m5, m6, p2 9: } 10: void main () { 11: c (n); // c2, n2 12: } Faculty of Information Technology Department of Computer Science Department of Applied Computer Science For each name occurrence (they are identified in the comments to the left by numbers indicting their order of occurrence), tell whether it is a declaration occurrence, a free, or a bound occurrence. If bound, indicate which declaration binds it. To do this, complete the following table: FREE :... DECLARATION : n1,... BOUND to n1 :... BOUND to.. : Concepts of Programming Languagess (750321) First Exam First Semester 2005/2006 November 21,

5 Question 2 (5 marks) (a) How is a reference to a nonlocal variable in a static scoped program connected to its definition? [1 mark] (b) Consider the following program: program main; var x, y, z : integer ; procedure sub1; var a, y, z : integer; procedure sub2; var a, b, z : integer; begin { sub2 }... end; { sub2 } begin { sub1 }... end; { sub1 } procedure sub3; var a, x, w : integer; begin { sub3 }... end; { sub3 } begin { main }... end; { main } List all the variables, along with the program units where they are declared, that are visible in the bodies of sub1, sub2, and sub3, assuming static scoping is used. [4 marks]... II. Familiar Problems Solving Objectives: This part aims to evaluate that you have some basic knowledge of the key aspects of the lecture material and can attempt to solve familiar problems. The question tests your ability in designing simple string operation which could have some similarity to what you have practiced. Question 3 (5 marks) (a) What are the design issues for cchracter string type? [1 mark] (b) Consider the following storage structure for a limited dynamic length string (with descriptor) Maximum length current length 10 8 A B C D E F G H /// /// Eight-bit character code packed 4 per word with no extension Unused Design a concatentation operation CAT. CAT is called with three parameters X, Y, and Z. X and Y are poiters to the two storage blocks containing the string to be concatenated, and Z is the receiving block, which initially contains some other character string. [4 marks] GOOD LUCK! Concepts of Programming Languagess (750321) First Exam First Semester 2005/2006 November 21,

6 Philadelphia University Lecturer: Dr. Nadia Y. Yousif Coordinator: Dr. Nadia Y. Yousif Faculty of Information Technology Department of Computer Science Department of Applied Computer Science Internal Examiner: Dr. Raad Fadhel Examination Paper... Programming Languages Paradigms (750321) Section: 3 Second Exam Programming Paradigms (710315) Section: 1 Date: December 26, 2005 First Semester /2006 Time: 1 Hour Information for Candidates 1. This examination paper contains 4 questions totalling 20 marks. 2. The marks for parts of questions are shown in square brackets: e.g. [2 marks] Advice to Candidates 1. You should attempt questions such that the sum of the marks is at least You are not allowed to split answers of one question and mix up sections of different questions... I. Basic Notions Objectives: The aim of the questions in this part is to evaluate your required minimal knowledge and understanding skills in different data types and the control structures of different programming languages. Question 1 (7 marks) (a) What is a descriptor? (b) Consider the following type and variable declaration in Pascal Type rec = record i : string [10]; case j : integer of 1 : ( a : integer ); 2 : ( b : integer ; c : real ) end; var R : rec; [1 mark] [3 marks] Determine the storage structure representation of the variable R. (c) What is wrong with FORTRAN's arithmetic IF statement? [1 mark] (d) What are the design issues for counter-controlled loop? [2 marks].. Question 2 (4 marks) Consider the following piece of program: begin var p : ^ T ; /* P is a pointer of type T */ begin var x : T ; /* x is variable of type T */ p := & x ; /* p points now to address of x */ end;. end in which there will be a dangling reference. 1- Discuss why it occurred. Why this is a serious problem? [2 marks] 2- Suggest some simple rules to prevent dangling reference from occurring. [2 marks] Concepts of Programming Languagess (750321) Second Exam First Semester 2005/2006 December 26,

7 II. Familiar Problems Solving Objectives: This part aims to evaluate that you have some basic knowledge of the key aspects of the lecture material and can attempt to solve familiar problems. The question tests your ability in designing simple control constructs, which could have some similarity to what you have practiced. Question 3 (6 marks) Suppose that you are given the following Pascal-like If statement. if ( color = 1 ) then write ( ' Red Color ' ) else if ( color = 2 ) then write ( ' Blue Color ' ) else if ( color = 3 ) then write ( ' Green Color ' ) else if ( color = 4 ) then write ( ' Black Color ' ) ; (a) Write the equivalent switch statement for the above if statement. [3 marks] (b) Declare an enumerated type Colors that includes 4 colors and rewrite the above If statement [3 marks] Question 4 (3 marks) Rewrite the following C++ code so that the only control structures it uses are if-then (with no else) and goto. The body of an if-then statement should contain a single goto statement. i = 10; while (i > 0) { i = i - 1; for (j = 0; j < i; j++) { cout << i << j ; } } cout << i ; GOOD LUCK! Concepts of Programming Languagess (750321) Second Exam First Semester 2005/2006 December 26,

8 Philadelphia University Faulty of Information Technology Department of Computer Science Department of Applied Computer Science Marking Scheme and Outline Solutions of the Final Exam Module: Concepts of Programming Languages (750321) (Section 3) Programming Paradigms (710315) (Section 1) Exam Date: February 4, 2006 Lecturer: Dr. Nadia Y. Yousif First Semester 2005 / There are three parts in this exam paper. Part I contains two questions: Question (1) carries 8 marks and contains 6 sections and Question (2) carries 8 marks with 2 sections. Part II contains three questions: Questions (3) carries 8 marks, Question (4) carries 9 marks, and Question (5) carries 8 marks. Part III has only one question (Question (6)) which carries 9 marks. In some Questions, students can select any of the sections. The following is the marking scheme and the set of outline solutions for the questions. It includes breakdown of the marks to each part of the question and the steps of the solution. It also describes the type of answer required to gain the stated marks. 1- Question 1 (8 marks) NOTE: Answer ANY FOUR of the following 6 sections: (A) Why is useful for a programmer to have some background in language design, even though he/she may never actually design a programming language? [2 marks] (B) What does Orthogonality in programming languages mean? Give examples. [2 marks] (C) What is the difference between the static scoping and dynamic scoping? [2 marks] (D) What are the design issues for character string type? How Java language uses strings? [2 marks] (E) What is a coroutine? What language supports this concept? Give an example. [2 marks] (F) Explain the differences between the imperative programming languages, the object-oriented languages, and the functional programming languages. [2 marks].. The aim of this question is to evaluate student's required minimal knowledge and understanding skills in different programming languages concepts and paradigms. Students can select any four sections. The student s answer is preferred to look like the following: (A) It is useful because: 1- to increase capacity to express programming concepts 2- to improve background for choosing appropriate languages 3- to increase ability to learn new languages 4- to understand the significance of implementation 5- to increase ability to design new languages (B) Orthognality in a PL means that a small set of primitive construct can be combined in a relatively small number of ways to build the control and data structures of the language. Example: C language has integer type, arrays, and pointers from which many data structures can be built. (C) Static scoping is to connect a name reference to a variable. In imperative languages static scope is associated with program unit definition. To search for variable binding, first search locally, then in increasingly larger enclosing scopes until one is found for the given name. Dynamic scoping is based on calling sequences of program units, not their textual layout. References to variables re connected to declarations by searching back through the chain of subprogram calls that forced execution to this point. 2 marks 2 marks 1 mark 1 mark Marking Scheme Final Exam -1 st Semester 2005/2006 Concepts of Programming Languages (750321) (Section 3) 1

9 (D) The design issues of strings are: 1- Is it a primitive type or jut a special kind of array? 2- Is the length of objects static or dynamic? 2 marks 3- What operations can be implemented on them? Java has class String and class StringBuffer to handle objects of static and dynamic lengths respectively. (E) A coroutine is a subprogram that has multiple entries and controls them itself. The first resume of a coroutine is to it beginning, but subsequent calls enter at the point just after the last executed statement in 1 mark the coroutine. Coroutines provide quasi concurrent execution of program units. Their execution is irrelevant. Modula2, Ada, Java can support coroutines. Example: Procedure A calls procedure B: Procedure A 1 mark Begin. B; End; Procedure B Begin. A; End; (F) Imperative languages depend on Von Neumann architecture that has to store variables. They use 1 mark iterative process for repetition. E.g. Pascal, C, Algol, Fortran Functional languages does not depend on Von Neumann architecture, therefore, they have no notion of 1 mark store variables. They use recursion for repeating a process. They rely heavily on mathematical functions. They are used for AI applications. Object-oriented languages depend on objects. A program in these languages is a collection of objects that 1 mark can implement encapsulation and hide information to give better software design. E.g. Java, C Question 2 (8 marks) (B) Consider the following declaration in (A) The declaration of an integer one-dimensional array with its initialization is given in C++ and Ada as follows: [4 marks] In C++: int score[ ] = {65, 70, 55, 87}; In Ada: SCORE: array (1.. 6) of INTEGER := (1 => 54, 2 => 76, 3 => 80, others => 35); Explain the effects of these two declarations. Pascal: [4 marks] type arr = array [0.. 3] of integer; rec = record a : real; b : arr; c : integer; end; var R : rec; Determine (by a diagram) the storage structure representation of variable R... This question is to test students understanding of some programming concepts concerning different data types and data structures with their storage representation. It is intended to students of intermediate level that need to know the basic concepts of programming. The outline solution and marking scheme are given as follows: (A) The declaration in C++ will allow the compiler to allocate a space of 4 locations (4 bytes each - for integer) to array named score, indexed from 0 to 3 and the initial values are stored in the array as follows: 65 goes to location 0, 70 to location 1, 55 to location 2, and 87 to location 3. The declaration in Ada will allow the compiler to allocate a space of 6 locations (4 bytes each - for integer) to array named SCORE, indexed from 1 to 6 and the initial values are stored in the array as follows: 54 goes to location 1, 76 to location 2, 80 to location 3, and 35 to locations 4, 5, and 6. 2 marks 2 marks Marking Scheme Final Exam -1 st Semester 2005/2006 Concepts of Programming Languages (750321) (Section 3) 2

10 (B) Record a real Offset: 1 b arr Offset: 2 c Integer Offset: 6 Address Array integer subrange 0 3 address 4 marks.. 3- Question 3 (8 marks) NOTE: Answer ANY TWO of the following 3 sections: (A) Consider the following Pascal case statement. Rewrite it using only two-way selection. [4 marks] case index - 1 of 2, 4: even := even + 1; 1, 3: odd := odd + 1; 0: zero := zero + 1; else error := true end (B) Consider the ALGOL-like declaration: [4 marks] procedure SWAP ( x, y : integer ); var z: integer; begin z := x; x := y; y:= z; end; and suppose that x and y are parameters called by name. If a[1] = 2, a[2] = 5, and i = 1, what would be the effect of SWAP ( i, a[i] )? (C) Write the three numbers that the following C++ program will output when function test is called with argument y (1) by value (2) by reference [4 marks] #include <iostream.h> int y; void test ( int x ) { x = x + 2; cout << "x = "<<x <<" y = "<<y<<endl; } void main( ) { y = 5; test (y); cout <<" y = "<<y<<endl; }... Marking Scheme Final Exam -1 st Semester 2005/2006 Concepts of Programming Languages (750321) (Section 3) 3

11 This question is to evaluate that students have some basic knowledge of the key aspects of the lecture material and can attempt to solve familiar problems using different control constructs and some parameter passing mechanisms. It is intended to students of intermediate level that need to know different concepts. Students can select any two sections. The following is one possible solution and the breakdown of marks: (A) if (( index 1) = 2 or ( index 1 ) = 4 ) then even := even + 1; else if (( index 1) = 1 or ( index 1 ) = 3 ) then odd := odd + 1; else if (( index 1) = 0 ) then zero := zero + 1; else error := true; (B) On calling SWAP ( i, a[i] ) by name, the names of the parameters are passed. Therefore, the address and contents of parameters are recognized in the body of the procedure SWAP. The result will be: x will be bound to i and y to a[i] z := i z := 1 x := y i := a[i] i := a[1] i := 2 y := z a[i] := z a[i] := 1 a[2] := 1 This means that the values of i and a[2] are swapped; not the values of i and a[1]. (C) 1- Call by value The update on the parameter x does not affect the argument y. Then the output is x = 7 y = 5 y = 5 2- Call by reference The update on the parameter x affects the argument y. Then the output is x = 7 y = 7 y = 7 1 mark 1 mark 1 mark 1 mark 1 mark 1 mark 1 mark 1 mark 2 marks 2 marks 4- Question 4 (9 marks) Consider the following function: int fun ( int n ) { if (n < 1) return 1 ; else return 5 + fun ( n 1 ); } Answer ANY THREE of the following 4 sections: (A) Trace the function to find the value of the function call fun(5). [3 marks] (B) Rewrite the function to use iteration instead of recursion. Which version will evaluate the call fun(50) quickest? [3 marks] (C) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using recursion? [3 marks] (D) Rewrite the above function fun in the functional language SCHEME. [3 marks].. This question is to evaluate that students have some basic knowledge of the key aspects of the lecture material and can attempt to solve familiar problems using functions and functional languages. It is intended to students of intermediate level. Students can select any three sections. The following is the solution and the breakdown of marks: (A) The returned value will be 21 that is obtained as follows: fun (5) means n is bound to 5, then n is tested and a recursive call occurs to give 5 + fun (4) this gives (5 + (5 + fun (3))) (10 + (5 + fun (2)) (15 + (5 + fun(1))) (20 + (5 + fun(0)) (25 + fun(0)). Recursion stops now and fun will return 1, and the total result will be 26 3 marks Marking Scheme Final Exam -1 st Semester 2005/2006 Concepts of Programming Languages (750321) (Section 3) 4

12 (B) The iterative version of fun function is as follows: int fun ( int n ) { int sum = 1; if ( n < 1 ) return 1; else for ( int I = n; I > 1; I--) sum = sum + 5; return sum; } The iterative version will evaluate fun (50) faster than the recursive version, because of the required large number of activation record instances that are needed to be created during execution. (C) The advantages of using recursion is that the function code could be shorter than iterative version. The disadvantages: It could take more stack space because of the multiple instances of activation records created during execution. Whereas the iterative function needs only one activation record for the first call. (D) The function fun written in the functional language SCHEME: ( DEFINE ( fun n ) ( IF ( > n 1 ) 1 ( + 5 ( fun ( - n 1 ) ) ) ) ) 1 mark 1 mark 1 mark 1.5 marks 1.5 marks 3 marks.. 5- Question 5 (8 marks) (A) Show the stack with all activation record instances, using static chain mechanism, when executing the following Pascal program. Notice the calling sequence: MAIN calls P; P calls R; R calls S; S calls Q. [5 marks] program MAIN; var x : integer; procedure P; var a, b, c : integer; procedure Q; var a, d : integer; begin { Q } a := b + c; < end; { Q } (B) To what declaration of variable a will the reference to a be bound at each of the positions 1, 2, and 3 in the program of section (A). [3 marks] procedure R ( x : integer); var b, e : integer; begin P ; procedure S ; end. { MAIN var c, } e : integer; begin { S } Q; { calling Q } e := b + a: < end; {S} begin { R } S; { calling S} a := d + e; < end; { R } begin { P } R ( 7 ); { calling R } end; { P } begin { MAIN } P ; { calling P } end. { MAIN } Marking Scheme Final Exam -1 st Semester 2005/2006 Concepts of Programming Languages (750321) (Section 3) 5

13 This question is to evaluate that students can attempt to solve problems with procedures. It is intended to students of intermediate level. The following is the solution and the breakdown of marks: (A) (5 marks) The stack with instances of activation records is shown in Figure (1). (B) At position 1, a is a reference to the local declaration in procedure Q. At position 2, a is a reference to a declared in procedure P, because it is not declared in R or S procedures. At position 3, a is a reference to a declared in procedure P. 1 mark 1 mark 1 mark.. 6- Question 6 (9 marks) (A) [3 marks] What does the following function (written in SCHEME language) do? (DEFINE ( f s lis ) ( COND ( ( NULL? Lis ) '( ) ) ( ( EQ? s ( CAR lis ) ) lis ) ( ELSE ( f s ( CDR lis ) ) ) ) ) (B) [3 marks] Explain why LISP-like (functional) languages require more run-time support than ALGOL-like (imperative) languages and why ALGOL-like languages require more run-time support than FORTRAN. Is this fact a function of the compiler/interpreter, or is it inherent in the language? Give some conclusions about the comparative run-time efficiency of these languages. How about space efficiency? Programming efficiency? (C) [3 marks] Write a function in SCHEME functional language that checkes whether a symbol is a member in a list.. The aim of this question is to evaluate that students can solve problems using functional languages concepts, and can set out reasoning and explanation in a clear and coherent manner. Therefore, it is intended to students of more than intermediate level that can write programs with functional paradigm and give reasoning about storage management. The following is the solution and the breakdown of marks: (A) The function f first checks if a given list is empty, then ( ) will be returned. Otherwise, the recursive calls will check if an atom exists in the list, then it will return a list with atoms starting from the matched one. For example, if f is applied as follows: f ( 'B '( A B C)) Then f will return with the list ( B C ) (B) * LISP-like languages are functional type; they have dynamic type checking and they need dynamic allocation for their programs and data structures, thus a heap storage management is required (i.e. dynamic storage management) because of the linked lists required during run-time together with the stack because of the recursive use of functions. A garbage collector should be working during execution to manage the work space. Thus they require more run-time. * ALGOL-like languages are imperative languages; they have static type checking; that is done during compilation-time. Thus the execution time is reduced. The program & data will be stored in memory in a static area. A stack is required for activation record instances for procedure calls and a heap is required for dynamically allocated data (pointer type). A pointer variable could be deallocated explicitly in the program and this can put some efforts on the programmer but the program will be considered efficient. The static and dynamic storage managements are required. The space required for activation record instances put some space overhead and the dynamic 3 marks 1 mark 1 mark Marking Scheme Final Exam -1 st Semester 2005/2006 Concepts of Programming Languages (750321) (Section 3) 6

14 management add extra overhead on run-time. 1 mark * FORTRAN does not support recursion; therefore it has only static storage management as it has only one instance of activation record, a space for it can be allocated in memory during compilation. Thus no extra space is required for that. This storage management is the simplest one and no runtime overhead is required. But from the programming point of view, a FORTRAN program can be considered efficient, although recursion could be needed in some cases. (C) The member function can be written as: ( DEFINE ( member atm lis ) ( COND ( ( NULL? lis '( ) ) ( ( EQ? atm ( CAR lis ) ) #T ) ( ELSE ( member atm ( CDR lis ) ) ) ) ) 1 mark 1 mark 1 mark Marking Scheme Final Exam -1 st Semester 2005/2006 Concepts of Programming Languages (750321) (Section 3) 7

15 Figure (1) Stack Contents for MAIN Program of Q5 Local d AR for Q Local a (called from S) Dynamic link Static link Return (to R) Local e Local c AR for S Dynamic link (called from R) Static link Return (to R) Local e Local b AR for R Parameter 7 x (called from P) Dynamic link Static link Return (to P) Local c Local b AR for P Local a (called from Dynamic link MAIN_2) Static link Return (to MAIN_2) AR for MAIN_2 Local x

16 Philadelphia University Lecturer : Daed Al-Halabi Coordinator : Daed Al-Halabi Internal Examiner: Dr. Ahamed Al-Khateeb Faculty of Information Technology Department of CS Examination Paper Concept of Programming Language (750321) 1 st exam 2 nd Section (1) Semester 2005/2006 Time: 50 minutes Information for Candidates 1. This examination paper contains 3 questions, totaling 20 marks. 2. The marks for parts of questions are shown in round brackets. Advice to Candidates 1. You should attempt all questions. 2. You should write your answers clearly. I. Basic Notions Objectives. The aim of the questions in this part is to evaluate the required minimal student knowledge and skills. Answers in the pass category represent the minimum acceptable standard. Q1. (10 Marks) Quick Answers: 1. (0.5 Mark) (T/ F) It is important to make programs understandable to other humans 2. (0.5 Mark) (T/ F) Variable is a data object with a name which is bound to a value permanently during its life time. 3. (0.5 Mark) (T/ F) Compiler languages have fast execution than interpreter languages. 4. (1 Mark) By using Type inference, F (a): integer { a * 2.5;} F will be of type integer. 5. (1 Mark) Declare a variable x of type integer and its value 5 using explicit declaration (1.5 Mark) Name three different possible binding times (5 Marks) Match each term with the appropriate definition. Seq Stmt Seq Stmt 1 Type A Are not defined in terms of other types. 2 Subrange B is a word of programming language that is special only in certain contexts. 3 Local variable C Symbolic constant 4 Descriptor D Determine the range of values the variable can have. 5 Primitive data types E Those that are bound to memory cells before program execution begins and remain bound to those same memory cells until program execution terminates. 6 Enumeration type 7 Float-point 8 Keyword 9 Static variable 10 Scope of program variable Answers: (5, A ), (8, B ), ( 6, C ), ( 1, D ), ( 9, E ) 1

17 II. Familiar Problems Solving Objectives. The aim of the questions in this part is to evaluate that the student has some basic knowledge of the key aspects of the lecture material and can attempt to solve familiar problems. Q2. (6 Marks) Name, Bindings, Type Checking and scope: A.(2 Marks) Assume a language L, use Name type compatibility, for the following C-syntax code: int x = 7; float y = 2.7; Can we write x = y; why/ why not False, since x of type integer and y of type float where integer <> float B. (4 Marks) Here is a program written in a Pseudo code. Explain what the result would be printed under static scoping, and what the result would be under dynamic scoping. Determine the variable x belongs to what subprogram in the last call. var x; void two ( ) { var x; x= 3; three(); } void three ( ) { if (x < 5) cout<< (x + 1); else cout<< (x - 1); } void main ( ) {x = 7; two();} Static Scoping: Output: 6 X belongs to global Dynamic Scoping: 2 X belongs to two Q3. (4 Marks) Data Type: A. (2 Marks) Define Ordinal, subrange data type. Ordinal: SubRange: B. (2 Marks) Assume the language L use static length string, for the following C-Syntax: String S[10]; - What is the minimum number of characters that S can hold? - What is the maximum number of characters that S can hold? 2

18 Philadelphia University Lecturer : Daed Al-Halabi Coordinator : Daed Al-Halabi Internal Examiner: Dr. Ahamed Al-Khateeb Faculty of Information Technology Department of CS Examination Paper Concept of Programming Language (750321) 1 st exam Section (1) 2 nd Semester 2005/2006 Time: 50 minutes Information for Candidates 1. This examination paper contains 3 questions, totaling 20 marks. 2. The marks for parts of questions are shown in round brackets. Advice to Candidates Student Name: Student Number: 1. You should attempt all questions. 2. You should write your answers clearly. I. Basic Notions Objectives. The aim of the questions in this part is to evaluate the required minimal student knowledge and skills. Answers in the pass category represent the minimum acceptable standard. Q1. (10 Marks) Quick Answers: 1. (0.5 Mark) (T/ F) It is important to make programs understandable to other humans 2. (0.5 Mark) (T/ F) Variable is a data object with a name which is bound to a value permanently during its life time. 3. (0.5 Mark) (T/ F) Compiler languages have fast execution than interpreter languages. 4. (1 Mark) By using Type inference, F(a): integer { a * 2.5;} F will be of type. 5. (1 Mark) Declare a variable x of type integer and its value 5 using explicit declaration (1.5 Mark) Name three different possible binding times (5 Marks) Match each term with the appropriate definition. Seq Stmt Seq Stmt 1 Type A Are not defined in terms of other types. 2 Subrange B is a word of programming language that is special only in certain contexts. 3 Local variable C Symbolic constant 4 Descriptor D Determine the range of values the variable can have. 5 Primitive data types E Those that are bound to memory cells before program execution begins and remain bound to those same memory cells until program execution terminates. 6 Enumeration type 7 Float-point 8 Keyword 9 Static variable 10 Scope of program variable Answers: (, A ), (, B ), (, C ), (, D ), (, E ) 1

19 II. Familiar Problems Solving Objectives. The aim of the questions in this part is to evaluate that the student has some basic knowledge of the key aspects of the lecture material and can attempt to solve familiar problems. Q2. (6 Marks) Name, Bindings, Type Checking and scope: A.(2 Marks) Assume a language L, use Name type compatibility, for the following C-syntax code: int x = 7; float y = 2.7; Can we write x = y; why/ why not B. (4 Marks) Here is a program written in a Pseudo code. Explain what the result would be printed under static scoping, and what the result would be under dynamic scoping. Determine the variable x belongs to what subprogram for the last call. var x; void two ( ) { var x; x= 3; three(); } void three ( ) { if (x < 5) cout<< (x + 1); else cout<< (x - 1); } void main ( ) {x = 7; two();} Static Scoping: Output: X belongs to: Dynamic Scoping: Output: X belongs to: Q3. (4 Marks) Data Type: A. (2 Marks) Define Ordinal, subrange data type. Ordinal: SubRange: B. (2 Marks) Assume the language L use static length string, for the following C-Syntax: String S[10]; - What is the minimum number of characters that S can hold? - What is the maximum number of characters that S can hold? 2

20 Philadelphia University Lecturer : Daed Al-Halabi Coordinator : Daed Al-Halabi Internal Examiner: Dr. Ahamed Al-Khateeb Faculty of Information Technology Department of CS Examination Paper Concept of Programming Language (750321) 1 st exam Section (1) 2 nd Semester 2005/2006 Time: 50 minutes Information for Candidates 1. This examination paper contains 3 questions, totaling 20 marks. 2. The marks for parts of questions are shown in round brackets. Advice to Candidates Student Name: Student Number: 1. You should attempt all questions. 2. You should write your answers clearly. I. Basic Notions Objectives. The aim of the questions in this part is to evaluate the required minimal student knowledge and skills. Answers in the pass category represent the minimum acceptable standard. Q1. (10 Marks) Quick Answers: 1. (0.5 Mark) (T/ F) It is not important to make programs understandable to other humans 2. (0.5 Mark) (T/ F) Variable is a data object with a name which is bound to a value temporarily during its life time. 3. (0.5 Mark) (T/ F) Compiler languages have slow execution than interpreter languages. 4. (1 Mark) By using Type inference, F(a) { a * 2.5;} F will be of type. 5. (1 Mark) Declare a variable x of type float and its value 9 using implicit declaration (1.5 Mark) What is an alias? (5 Marks) Match each term with the appropriate definition. Seq Stmt Seq Stmt 1 Enumeration type A Are not defined in terms of other types. 2 Float-point B is a word of programming language that is special only in certain contexts. 3 Keyword C Symbolic constant 4 Static variable D Determine the range of values the variable can have. 5 Scope of program variable 6 Type 7 Subrange 8 Local variable 9 Descriptor 10 Primitive data types Answers: (, A ), (, B ), (, C ), (, D ), (, E ) E Those that are bound to memory cells before program execution begins and remain bound to those same memory cells until program execution terminates. II. Familiar Problems Solving Page 1

21 Objectives. The aim of the questions in this part is to evaluate that the student has some basic knowledge of the key aspects of the lecture material and can attempt to solve familiar problems. Q2. (6 Marks) Name, Bindings, Type Checking and scope: A.(2 Marks) Assume a language L, use structure type compatibility, for the following C-syntax code: int x = 7; float y = 2.7; Can we write x = y; why/ why not B. (4 Marks) Here is a program written in a Pseudo code. Explain what the result would be printed under static scoping, and what the result would be under dynamic scoping. Determine the variable x belongs to what subprogram for the last call. var x; void two ( ) { var x; x= 10; three(); } void three ( ) { if (x < 8) cout<< (x + 1); else cout<< (x - 1); } void main ( ) {x = 2; two();} Static Scoping: Output: X belongs to: Dynamic Scoping: Output: X belongs to: Q3. (4 Marks) Data Type: A. (2 Marks) Define subrange, Ordinal data type. SubRange: Ordinal: B. (2 Marks) Assume the language L use static length string, for the following C-Syntax: String S[5]; - What is the maximum number of characters that S can hold? - What is the minimum number of characters that S can hold? Page 2

22 Philadelphia University Lecturer : Daed Al-Halabi Coordinator : Daed Al-Halabi Internal Examiner: Dr. Ahamed Al-Khateeb Faculty of Information Technology Department of CS Examination Paper Concept of Programming Language (750321) 1 st exam Section (2) 2 nd Semester 2005/2006 Time: 50 minutes Information for Candidates 1. This examination paper contains 3 questions, totaling 20 marks. 2. The marks for parts of questions are shown in round brackets. Advice to Candidates Student Name: Student Number: 1. You should attempt all questions. 2. You should write your answers clearly. I. Basic Notions Objectives. The aim of the questions in this part is to evaluate the required minimal student knowledge and skills. Answers in the pass category represent the minimum acceptable standard. Q1. (10 Marks) Quick Answers: 1. (0.5 Mark) (T/ F) It is important to make programs understandable to other humans 2. (0.5 Mark) (T/ F) constant is a data object with a name which is bound to a value temporarily during its life time. 3.(0.5 Mark) (T/ F) Interpreter languages have fast execution than complier languages. 3. (1 Mark) By using Type inference, F (a: integer) { a * 2.5;} F will be of type. 4. (1 Mark) Declare a variable x of type float and its value 9 using explicit declaration (1.5 Marks) What is the l-value of a variable? What is the r-value? (5 Marks) Match each term with the appropriate definition. Seq Stmt Seq Stmt 1 Constant A Designed to support business system 2 Location B Answers: (, A ), (, B ), (, C ), (, D ), (, E ) Is a word of programming language that can not be used as user defined name. 3 Subrange Type C The collection of the attributes of a variable. 4 Keyword D Is bound to a value only at the time it is bound to storage 5 Binding E Contiguous subsequence 6 Static variables 7 Reserved word 8 Descriptor 9 Primitive data types 10 Enumeration type 11 Decimal 12 Scope of program variable 13 Value Page 1

23 II. Familiar Problems Solving Objectives. The aim of the questions in this part is to evaluate that the student has some basic knowledge of the key aspects of the lecture material and can attempt to solve familiar problems. Q2. (6 Marks) Name, Bindings, Type Checking and scope: A.(2 Marks) Assume a language L, use structure type compatibility, for the following C-syntax code: int x = 7; float y = 2.7; Can we write x = y; why/ why not B. (4 Marks) Here is a program written in a Pseudo code. Explain what the result would be printed under static scoping, and what the result would be under dynamic scoping. Determine the variable x belongs to what subprogram for the last call. var x; void two ( ) { var x; x= 10; three(); } void three ( ) { if (x > 8) cout<< (x + 1); else cout<< (x - 1); } void main ( ) {x = 2; two();} Static Scoping: Output: X belongs to: Dynamic Scoping: Output: X belongs to: Q3. (4 Marks) Data Type: A. (2 Marks) Define Enumeration, Ordinal data type. Enumeration: Ordinal: B. (2 Marks) Assume the language L use dynamic length string, for the following C-Syntax: String S[5]; - What is the maximum number of characters that S can hold? - What is the minimum number of characters that S can hold? Page 2

24 Philadelphia University Lecturer : Daed Al-Halabi Coordinator : Daed Al-Halabi Internal Examiner: Dr. Ahamed Al-Khateeb Faculty of Information Technology Department of CS Examination Paper Concept of Programming Language (750321) 1 st exam Section (2) 2 nd Semester 2005/2006 Time: 50 minutes Information for Candidates 1. This examination paper contains 3 questions, totaling 20 marks. 2. The marks for parts of questions are shown in round brackets. Advice to Candidates Student Name: Student Number: 1. You should attempt all questions. 2. You should write your answers clearly. I. Basic Notions Objectives. The aim of the questions in this part is to evaluate the required minimal student knowledge and skills. Answers in the pass category represent the minimum acceptable standard. Q1. (10 Marks) Quick Answers: 1. (0.5 Mark) (T/ F) It is important to make programs well understandable to other humans 2. (0.5 Mark) (T/ F) constant is a data object with a name which is bound to a value permanently during its life time. 3. (0.5 Mark) (T/ F) Interpreter languages have slow execution than complier languages. 4. (1 Mark) By using Type inference, F (a: integer) { a * 2.5;} F will be of type. 5. (1 Mark) Declare a variable x of type float and its value 9 using explicit declaration (1.5 Marks) What is the l-value of a variable? What is the r-value? (5 Marks) Match each term with the appropriate definition. Seq Stmt Seq Stmt 1 Static variables A Designed to support business system 2 Local variable B Answers: (, A ), (, B ), (, C ), (, D ), (, E ) Is a word of programming language that can not be used as user defined name. 3 Descriptor C The collection of the attributes of a variable. 4 Primitive data types D Is bound to a value only at the time it is bound to storage 5 Enumeration type E Contiguous subsequence 6 Decimal 7 Scope of program variable 8 Value 9 Constant 10 Reserved word 11 Subrange Type 12 Keyword 13 Binding Page 1

25 II. Familiar Problems Solving Objectives. The aim of the questions in this part is to evaluate that the student has some basic knowledge of the key aspects of the lecture material and can attempt to solve familiar problems. Q2. (6 Marks) Name, Bindings, Type Checking and scope: A.(2 Marks) Assume a language L, use name type compatibility, for the following C-syntax code: int x = 7; float y = 2.7; Can we write x = y; why/ why not B. (4 Marks) Here is a program written in a Pseudo code. Explain what the result would be printed under static scoping, and what the result would be under dynamic scoping. Determine the variable x belongs to what subprogram for the last call. var x; void two ( ) { if (x > 8) cout<< (x + 1); else cout<< (x - 1); } void three ( ) { var x = 15; Two ();} void main ( ) {x = 3; three();} Dynamic Scoping: Output: X belongs to: Static Scoping: Output: X belongs to: Q3. (4 Marks) Data Type: A. (2 Marks) Define Ordinal, Enumeration data type. Ordinal: Enumeration: B. (2 Marks) Assume the language L use dynamic length string, for the following C-Syntax: String S[5]; - What is the minimum number of characters that S can hold? - What is the maximum number of characters that S can hold? Page 2

26 Philadelphia University Faculty of Information Technology Department of Computer Science Concept of Programming Language (750321) Final Exam - Section (1) 2 nd Semester 2005/2006, Time: 2 Hours (10 Marks) Part 1: Introduction, Names, Bindings, Type Checking, and Scopes A. (2 m) Chose an appropriate answer for each of the following Answer: a a. Reserved Word; b d. Implicit Heap- Dynamic Variables. B. (4 m) State whether each of the following statements is (True) or (False). a. (F) In a language X, an identifier begins with one of the letters I, J, K, L, M or N it is declared to be integer; otherwise it is declared to be float type. Then it say it use explicit variable declaration. b. (T) The scope of a variable is the range of statements over which it is visible. c. (T) An automatic conversion is called coercion. d. (T) If all type bindings are static, nearly all type checking can be static. e. (T) The lifetime of a variable is the time during which it is bound to a particular memory cell f. (T) Type checking is the activity of ensuring that the operands of an operator are of compatible types. g. (T) A data type is the collection of the attributes of a variable h. (T) In static-scoped language, the referencing environment is the local variables plus all visible variables in all active subprograms. C. (2 m) Give a language as an example for the following programming domain (Scientific, Business, Artificial intelligence, Systems programming, Web Software) Answer: Scientific Fortran, Business COBOL, AI prolog, System programming C, web software HTML D. (2 m) What are the six attributes of a variable? Answer: Name, address, scope, lifetime, data type, value (14 Marks) Part 2: Data types, Expressions and Assignment Statements: A. (5 m) State whether each of the following statements is (True) or (False). a. (T) The user-defined enumeration and sub-range types are convenient and add to the readability and reliability of programs. b. (T) An array is an aggregate of homogeneous data elements in which an individual element is identified by its position in the aggregate, relative to the first element. c. (T) Primitive data types, Those not defined in terms of other data types d. (T) A data type defines a collection of data objects and a set of predefined operations on those objects, where a descriptor is the collection of the attributes of a variable e. (T) Elliptical references allow leaving out record names as long as the reference is unambiguous. f. (T) Pointers point to heap and non-heap variables g. (T) Pointers provide a power of indirect addressing. h. (T) To understand expression evaluation, need to be familiar with the orders of operator and operand evaluation. i. (T) Arithmetic expressions consist of operators, operands, parentheses, and function calls j. (T) The following statement average = (count == 0)? 0 : sum / count, it is evaluated as if it written Good Luck 1

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