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1 This circuit is used to obtain the compliment of a value. If X = 0, then X = 1. The truth table for NOT gate is : X X OR gate : The OR gate has two or more input signals but only one output signal if any of the input signal is 1(high) the output signal is 1(high). Truth Table for Two Input OR gate is : X Y F The circuit diagram of two inputs OR gate is:- X Y Z F=X+Y+Z AND gate The AND gate have two or more than two input signals and produce an output signal. When all the inputs are 1(High) then the output is 1 otherwise output is 0 only. X Y F=X.Y Circuit diagram of Two input AND gate Basic postulates of Boolean Algebra: Boolean algebra consists of fundamental laws that are based on theorem of Boolean algebra. These fundamental laws are known as basic postulates of Boolean algebra. These postulates states basic relations in boolean algebra, that follow: I If X!= 0 then x=1 and If X!=1 then x=0 II OR relations(logical addition) = = = = 1 77

2 III AND relations (logical multiplication) IV Complement Rules 0.0=0 0.1=0 1.0=0 1.1=1 0 = 1, 1 = 0 Principal of Duality This principal states that we can derive a Boolean relation from another Boolean relation by performing simple steps. The steps are:- 1. Change each AND(.) with an OR(+) sign 2. Change each OR(+) with an AND(.) sign 3. Replace each 0 with 1 and each 1 with 0 e.g 0+0=0 then dual is 1.1=1 1+0=1 then dual is 0.1=0 Basic theorem of Boolean algebra Basic postulates of Boolean algebra are used to define basic theorems of Boolean algebra that provides all the tools necessary for manipulating Boolean expression. 1. Properties of 0 and 1 (a) 0+X=X (b) 1+X=1 (c) 0.X=0 (d) 1.X=X 2. Indempotence Law (a) X+X=X (b) X.X=X 3. Involution Law (X) = X 4. Complementarity Law (a) X + X=1 (b) X. X=0 5. Commutative Law (a) X+Y=Y+X (b) X.Y=Y.X 6. Associative Law (a) X+(Y+Z)=(X+Y)+Z (b) X(YZ)=(XY)Z 7. Distributive Law (a) X(Y+Z)=XY_XZ (b) X=YZ=(X+Y)(X+Z) 8. Absorption Law (a) X+XY= X (b) X(X+Y)=X Some other rules of Boolean algebra X+XY=X+Y Demorgan s Theorem A mathematician named DeMorgan developed a pair of important rules regarding group complementation in Boolean algebra. 78

3 Demorgan s First Theorem: This rule states that the compliment of OR of two operands is same as the AND of the compliments of those operands. Mathematically it can be written as: :- Demorgan s Second Theorem: This rule states that the compliment of AND of two operands is same as the OR of the compliments of those operands. Mathematically it can be written as: :- Derivation of Boolean expression:- Minterms and Maxterms Consider two binary variables x and y combined with an AND operation. x y, x y, xy, xy Each of these four AND terms represents one of the distinct areas in the Venn diagram and is called a minterm or standard product. Consider two binary variables x and y combined with an OR operation. x + y, x + y, x + y, x + y Each of these four OR terms represents one of the distinct areas in the Venn diagram and is called a maxterm or standard sum. n Variables can be combined to form 2 n minterms or maxterms. Minterms and Maxterms for Three Binary Variables Minterms Maxterms x y Z Term Designation Term Designation x y z m 0 x+y+z M x y z m 1 x+y+z M x yz m 2 x+y +z M x yz m 3 x+y +z M xy z m 4 x +y+z M xy z m 5 x +y+z M xyz m 6 x +y +z M xyz m 7 x +y +z M 7

4 A Boolean function may be represented algebraically from a given truth table by forming a minterm for each combination of the variables that produces a 1 in the function and then taking the OR of all those terms. Functions of Three Variables X y z Function F1 Function F F1= x y z + xy z + xyz = m 1 + m 4 + m 7 F2= x yz + xy z + xyz + xyz = m 3 + m 5 + m 6 + m 7 The complement of a Boolean function may be read from the truth table by forming a minterm for each combination that produces a 0 in the function and then ORing those terms. F1 = x y z + x yz + x yz + xy z + xyz Example: Express the Boolean function F(A,B,C) = AB + C as a sum of minterms. Step 1 Each term must contain all variables AB = AB(C + C ) = ABC + ABC C = C(A + A ) = AC + A C = AC(B + B ) + A C(B + B ) = ABC + AB C + A BC + A B C Step 2 OR all new terms, eliminating duplicates F(A,B,C) = A B C + A BC + AB C + ABC + ABC = m 1 + m 3 + m 5 + m 6 + m 7 = Σ(1, 3, 5, 6, 7) Example: Express the Boolean function F(x,y,z) = x y + xz as a product of maxterms. Step 1 Convert the function into OR terms using the distributive law F(x,y,z) = (x y + x)(x y + z) = (x + x )(y + x)(x + z)(y + z) = (y + x)(x + z)(y + z) Step 2 Each term must contain all variables y + x = y + x + zz = (x + y + z)(x + y + z ) x + z = x + z + yy = (x + y + z)(x + y + z) y + z = y + z + xx = (x + y + z)(x + y + z) step 3 AND all new terms, eliminating duplicates F(x,y,z) = (x + y + z)(x + y + z )(x + y + z)(x + y + z) = ( M 0 M 1 M 4 M 6 ) = Π(0, 1, 4, 6) Conversion between Canonical Forms The complement of a function expressed as the sum of minterms equals the sum of minterms missing from the original function. This is because the original function is expressed by those minterms that make the function equal to 1, whereas its complement is a 1 for those minterms that the function is 0. Example : F (A,B,C) = Σ(0, 2, 4, 6, 7) F (A,B,C) = Σ(1, 3, 5) = m 1 + m 3 + m 5 Take the complement of F by DeMorgan s theorem to obtain F in a different form: F(A,B,C) = (m 1 + m 3 + m 5 ) = (m 1 m 3 m 5 ) = M 1 M 3 M 5 = Π(1, 3, 5) To convert from one canonical form to the other, interchange the symbols Σ and Π, and list those numbers missing from the original form. Standard Forms 80

5 The two canonical forms of Boolean algebra are basic forms that one obtains from reading a function from the truth table. By definition, each minterm or maxterm must contain all variables in either complemented or uncomplemented form. Another way to express Boolean functions is in standard form. In this configuration, the terms that form the function may contain one, two, or any number of literals. There are two types of standard forms: the sum of products and the product of sums. The sum of products is a Boolean function containing AND terms, called product terms, of one or more literals each. The sum denotes the ORing of these terms. Example: F1 = y + xy + x yz The product of sums is a Boolean expression containing OR terms, called sum terms. Each term may have one or more literals. The product denotes the ANDing of these terms. Example: F2 = x(y + z)(x + y + z + w) A Boolean function may also be expressed in nonstandard form. Example: F3 = (AB + CD)(A B + C D ) Minimization of Boolean expressions:- After obtaining SOP and POS expressions, the next step is to simplify the Boolean expression. There are two methods of simplification of Boolean expressions. 1. Algebraic Method 2. Karnaugh Map : 1.Algebric method:this method makes use of Boolean postulates, rules and theorems to simplify the expression. Example..1. Simplify ABCD + ABCD +ABCD +ABCD Solution-- ABCD + ABCD +ABCD +ABCD _ =ABC(D+D) +ABC(D+D) =ABC.1 + ABC.1 (D+D=1) _ =AC(B+B) =AC.1 =AC Example..2.. Reduce.. X`Y`Z`+X`YZ`+XY`Z`+XYZ` _ Solution X Y Z+XYZ+XYZ+XYZ _ =X (Y Z +YZ ) +X(Y Z +YZ ) _ =X (Z (Y+Y)) +X(Z( Y+Y)) =X(Z.1) +X(Z.1) (Y+Y=1) _ =XZ+XZ =Z(X+X) _ =Z.1 _ =Z 2. Using Karnaugh Map : A Karnaugh map is graphical display of the fundamental products in a truth table. For example: Put a 1 in the box for any minterm that appears in the SOP expansion. Basic idea is to cover the largest adjacent blocks you can whose side length is some power of 2. Blocks can wrap around the edges. 81

6 For example, the first K-map here represents x y + x y = x ( y + y ) = x. (since y+y =1) The second K-map, similarly, shows x y + x y = ( x + x ) y = y Remember, group together adjacent cells of 1s, to form largest possible rectangles of sizes that are powers of 2. Notice that you can overlap the blocks if necessary. Sum Of Products Reduction using K- Map In SOP reduction each square represent a minterm. Suppose the given function is f(a,b,c,d) = (0,2,7,8,10,15) Enter the 1 in the corresponding position for each minterm of the given function. Now the K-map will be as follows AB CD C D C D CD CD A B A B AB A B For reducing the expression first mark Octet, Quad, Pair then single. Pair: Two adjacent 1 s makes a pair. Quad: Four adjacent 1 s makes a quad. Octet: Eight adjacent 1 s makes an Octet. Pair removes one variable. Quad removes two variables. Octet removes three variables. Reduction of expression: When moving vertically or horizontally in pair or a quad or an octet it can be observed that only one variable gets changed that can be eliminated directly in the expression. For Example 82

7 In the above Ex Step 1 : In K Map while moving from m 7 to m 15 the variable A is changing its state Hence it can be removed directly, the solution becomes B.CD = BCD. This can be continued for all the pairs, Quads, and Octets. Step 2 : In K map while moving from m 0 to m 8 and m 2 to m 10 the variable A is changing its state. Hence B can be taken similarly while moving from m 0 to m 2 and m 8 to m 10 the variable C is changing its state. Hence D can be taken; the solution becomes B.D The solution for above expression using K map is BCD + B D. 2 Marks Questions 1. Write the equivalent Boolean Expression for the following Logic Circuit 2. Write the equivalent Boolean Expression F for the following circuit diagram : 3. Write the equivalent Boolean Expression F for the following circuit diagram : 4. Convert the following Boolean expression into its equivalent Canonical Sum of Product Form((SOP) (X +Y+Z ).(X +Y+Z).(X +Y +Z).(X +Y +Z ) 5. Convert the following Boolean expression into its equivalent Canonical Product of Sum form (POS): A.B.C + A.B.C +A.B.C 6. Draw a Logical Circuit Diagram for the following Boolean expression: A.(B+C ) 7. Write the equivalent Boolean Expression F for the following circuit diagram: 8. Prove that XY+YZ+YZ =Y algebraically 9. Express the F(X,Z)=X+X Z into canonical SOP form. 10. Write the equivalent Boolean Expression for the following Logic Circuit. 83

8 11. Interpret the following logical circuit as Boolean expression 12. Design (A+B).(C+D) using NAND Gate 13. Prove x.y +y.z = x yz+x yz +xyz+x yz algebraically. 14. Prove that (a +b )(a +b)(a+b )=a b. 15. A Boolean function F defined on three input variable X,Y,Z is 1 if and only if the number of 1(One) input is odd (e.g. F is 1 if X=1,Y=0,Z=0). Draw the truth table for the above function and express it in canonical sum of product form. 3 Marks Questions : Boolean Algebra 1. If F(a,b,c,d)= (0,2,4,5,7,8,10,12,13,15), obtain the simplified form using K-Map. 2. If F(a,b,c,d) = (0,3,4,5,7,8,9,11,12,13,15), obtain the simplified form using KMap 3. Obtain a simplified form for a boolean expression F(U,V,W,Z)= π (0,1,3,5,6,7,10,14,15) 4. Reduce the following boolean expression using K-Map F(A,B,C,D) = (5,6,7,8,9,12,13,14,15) Answers: 2 Marks Questions : Boolean Algebra 1. F(P,Q)=(P'+Q).(P+Q') 2. A B+AB+AB 3. X (Y +Z) 4. F(X, Y, Z) =π(4, 5, 6, 7) = (0, 1, 2, 3) = X. Y. Z + X. Y. Z + X. Y. Z + X. Y. Z 5. A.B.C + A.B.C +A.B.C = π (0,1,4,6,7) OR=(A+B+C).(A+B+C ).(A +B+C).(A +B +C).(A +B +C ) (A+C)(A +B) 8. XY+YZ+YZ =Y L.H.S. XY+YZ+YZ = XY+Y(Z+Z ) =XY+Y=Y(X+1) =Y.1 =Y=RHS 9. F(X,Z)=X+X Z =X(Y+Y )+X (Y+Y )Z =XY+XY +X YZ+X Y Z =XY(Z+Z )+XY (Z+Z )+X YZ+X Y Z =XYZ+XYZ +XY Z+XY Z +X YZ+X Y Z 10. XY+(XY) +X 11. ab+b c+c e

9 13. L.H.S.= x y +y.z =x y.1+1.y.z =x y(z+z )+(x+x )y.z =x yz+x yz +xyz+x yz =RHS 14. LHS=(a +b )(a +b)(a+b ) =(a a +a b+a b +b b)(a+b ) =(a +a b+a b +0)(a+b ) =aa +a b +aa b+a bb +a ab +a b b =0+a b +0+)+0+0+a b =a b =RHS 15. X Y Z F Canonical SOP XYZ +XY Z+XY Z +XYZ Answers: 3 marks Questions Boolean Algebra 1. F(a,b,c,d)= (0,2,4,5,7,8,10,12,13,15) F(a,b,c,d)=B1+B2+B3 B1=m0+m4+m12+m8==c d B2=m5+m7+m13+m15=bd B3=m0+m2+m8+m10=b d F(a,b,c,d)=c d +bd+b d 2. F(a,b,c,d) = (0,3,4,5,7,8,9,11,12,13,15) F(a,b,c,d)=B1+B2+B3+B4 B1=m0+m4+m12+m8=c d B2=m5+m7+m13+m15=bd B3=m13+m15+m9+m11=ad B4=m3+m7+m15+m11=cd F(a,b,c,d)=c d +bd+ad+cd 3. F(U,V,W,Z)= π (0,1,3,5,6,7,10,14,15) 85

10 F(U,V,W,Z)=B1.B2.B3.B4 B1=M0.M1=(U+V+W) B2=M1.M3.M5.M7=(U+Z ) B3=M7.M6.M15.M14=(V +W ) B4=M14.M10=(U +W +Z) F(U,V,W,Z)= (U+V+W).(U+Z ).(V +W ).(U +W +Z) 4. F(A,B,C,D) = (5,6,7,8,9,12,13,14,15) F(A,B,C,D)=B1+B2+B3 B1=M0+M2+M8+M10=B D B2=M0+M1+M4+M5=A C B3=M8+M9+M11+M10=AB F(A,B,C,D)=B D +A C +AB 86

11 Points to remember COMMUNICATION AND NETWORK CONCEPTS Network The collection of interconnected computers is called a computer network. Two computers are said to be interconnected if they are capable of sharing and exchanging information. Usages of Networking: Resource Sharing Reliability Cost Factor Communication Medium Resource Sharing means to make all programs, data and peripherals available to anyone on the network irrespective of the physical location of the resources and the user. Reliability means to keep the copy of a file on two or more different machines, so if one of them is unavailable (due to some hardware crash or any other) them its other copy can be used. Cost factor means it greatly reduces the cost since the resources can be shared Communication Medium means one can send messages and whatever the changes at one end are done can be immediately noticed at another. Evolution of Networking First network came into existencearpanet (ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECT AGENCY NETWORK)MID 80 S - NSFNET (NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NETWORK) Internet is the network of networks. SWITCHING TECHNIQUES Switching techniques are used for transmitting data across networks. Different types are : Circuit Switching Message Switching 87

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