# CSE123. Program Design and Modular Programming Functions 1-1

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1 CSE123 Program Design and Modular Programming Functions 1-1

2 5.1 Introduction A function in C is a small sub-program performs a particular task, supports the concept of modular programming design techniques. In modular programming the various tasks are assigned to individual functions and the main program basically calls these functions in a certain order. 1-2

3 5.1 Introduction We have already been exposed to functions. The main body of a C program, identified by the keyword main, and enclosed by left and right braces is a function. int main(void) {...} It is called by the operating system when the program is loaded, and when terminated, returns to the operating system. 1-3

4 5.2 Program Modules in C Functions Modules in C Programs combine user-defined functions with library functions C standard library has a wide variety of functions Function calls Invoking functions Provide function name and arguments (data) Function performs operations or manipulations Function returns results Function call analogy: Boss asks worker to complete task Worker gets information, does task, returns result Information hiding: boss does not know details 1-4

5 5.2 Program Modules in C Fig. 5.1 Hierarchical boss function/worker function relationship. main worker1 worker2 worker3 worker4 worker5 1-5

6 5.3 Math Library Functions Math library functions perform common mathematical calculations #include <math.h> Format for calling functions FunctionName( argument ); If multiple arguments, use comma-separated list printf( "%.2f", sqrt( ) ); Calls function sqrt, which returns the square root of its argument All math functions return data type double Arguments may be constants, variables, or expressions 1-6

7 5.3 Math Library Functions The following code fragment uses the Pythagorean theorem c 2 = a 2 + b 2 to calculate the length of the hypotenuse given the other two sides of a right triangle: double c, a, b; c=sqrt(pow(a,2)+pow(b,2)); 1-7

8 5.3 Math Library Functions Function Description Example sqrt( x ) square root of x sqrt( ) is 30.0 sqrt( 9.0 ) is 3.0 exp( x ) exponential function e x exp( 1.0 ) is exp( 2.0 ) is log( x ) natural logarithm of x (base e) log( ) is 1.0 log( ) is 2.0 log10( x ) logarithm of x (base 10) log10( 1.0 ) is 0.0 log10( 10.0 ) is 1.0 log10( ) is 2.0 fabs( x ) absolute value of x fabs( 5.0 ) is 5.0 fabs( 0.0 ) is 0.0 fabs( -5.0 ) is 5.0 ceil( x ) floor( x ) rounds x to the smallest integer not less than x rounds x to the largest integer not greater than x ceil( 9.2 ) is 10.0 ceil( -9.8 ) is -9.0 floor( 9.2 ) is 9.0 floor( -9.8 ) is pow( x, y ) x raised to power y (x y ) pow( 2, 7 ) is pow( 9,.5 ) is 3.0 fmod( x, y ) remainder of x/y as a floating point number sin( x ) cos( x ) tan( x ) Fig. 5.2 trigonometric sine of x (x in radians) trigonometric cosine of x (x in radians) trigonometric tangent of x (x in radians) fmod( , ) is sin( 0.0 ) is 0.0 cos( 0.0 ) is 1.0 tan( 0.0 ) is 0.0 Commonly used math library functions. 1-8

9 Functions - Reasons for Use 1-9

10 5.5 Function Definitions 1-10

11 5.5 Function Definitions Here is an example of a function that calculates n! int factorial(int n) { int i,product=1; for(i=2;i<=n;++i) product*=i; return product; } 1-11

12 5.5 Function Definitions Function-name: any valid identifier Return-value-type: data type of the result (default int) void indicates that the function returns nothing Parameter-list: comma separated list, declares parameters 1-12

13 5.5 Function Definitions 1-13

14 5.5 Function Definitions 1-14

15 5.5 Using The Functions 1-15

16 1-16

17 1-17

18 5.6 Function Prototypes Function prototypes are used to declare a function so that it can be used in a program before the function is actually defined. Now the program reads in a "natural" order. You know that a function called compute_sum will be defined later on, and you see its immediate use in the main program. Perhaps you don t care about the details of how the sum is computed and you won t need to read the actual function definition. 1-18

19 1 /* Fig. 5.3: fig05_03.c 2 Creating and using a programmer-defined function */ 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 5 int square( int y ); /* function prototype */ 6 7 /* function main begins program execution */ 8 int main() 9 { 10 int x; /* counter */ /* loop 10 times and calculate and output square of x each time */ 13 for ( x = 1; x <= 10; x++ ) { 14 printf( "%d ", square( x ) ); /* function call */ 15 } /* end for */ printf( "\n" ); return 0; /* indicates successful termination */ } /* end main */ /* square function definition returns square of an integer */ 24 int square( int y ) /* y is a copy of argument to function */ 25 { 26 return y * y; /* returns square of y as an int */ } /* end function square */ Outline fig05_03.c (Part 1 of 2) Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

21 1 /* Fig. 5.4: fig05_04.c 2 Finding the maximum of three integers */ 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 5 int maximum( int x, int y, int z ); /* function prototype */ 6 7 /* function main begins program execution */ 8 int main() 9 { 10 int number1; /* first integer */ 11 int number2; /* second integer */ 12 int number3; /* third integer */ printf( "Enter three integers: " ); 15 scanf( "%d%d%d", &number1, &number2, &number3 ); /* number1, number2 and number3 are arguments 18 to the maximum function call */ 19 printf( "Maximum is: %d\n", maximum( number1, number2, number3 ) ); return 0; /* indicates successful termination */ } /* end main */ 24 Outline fig05_04.c (Part 1 of 2) Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

22 25 /* Function maximum definition */ 26 /* x, y and z are parameters */ 27 int maximum( int x, int y, int z ) 28 { 29 int max = x; /* assume x is largest */ if ( y > max ) { /* if y is larger than max, assign y to max */ 32 max = y; 33 } /* end if */ if ( z > max ) { /* if z is larger than max, assign z to max */ 36 max = z; 37 } /* end if */ return max; /* max is largest value */ } /* end function maximum */ Enter three integers: Maximum is: 85 Enter three integers: Maximum is: 85 Enter three integers: Maximum is: 85 Outline fig05_04.c (Part 2 of 2) Program Output Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

23 5.6 Function Prototypes Promotion rules and conversions Converting to lower types can lead to errors Data types printf conversion specifications long double %Lf %Lf double %f %lf float %f %f unsigned long int %lu %lu long int %ld %ld unsigned int %u %u int %d %d short %hd %hd char %c %c Fig. 5.5 Promotion hierarchy for data types. scanf conversion specifications 1-23

24 5.7 Header Files Header files Contain function prototypes for library functions <stdlib.h>, <math.h>, etc Load with #include <filename> #include <math.h> Custom header files Create file with functions Save as filename.h Load in other files with #include "filename.h" Reuse functions 1-24

25 5.7 Header Files Standard library header <assert.h> <ctype.h> <errno.h> <float.h> <limits.h> <locale.h> <math.h> <setjmp.h> <signal.h> <stdarg.h> <stddef.h> <stdio.h> <stdlib.h> <string.h> <time.h> Fig. 5.6 Explanation Contains macros and information for adding diagnostics that aid program debugging. Contains function prototypes for functions that test characters for certain properties, and function prototypes for functions that can be used to convert lowercase letters to uppercase letters and vice versa. Defines macros that are useful for reporting error conditions. Contains the floating point size limits of the system. Contains the integral size limits of the system. Contains function prototypes and other information that enables a program to be modified for the current locale on which it is running. The notion of locale enables the computer system to handle different conventions for expressing data like dates, times, dollar amounts and large numbers throughout the world. Contains function prototypes for math library functions. Contains function prototypes for functions that allow bypassing of the usual function call and return sequence. Contains function prototypes and macros to handle various conditions that may arise during program execution. Defines macros for dealing with a list of arguments to a function whose number and types are unknown. Contains common definitions of types used by C for performing certain calculations. Contains function prototypes for the standard input/output library functions, and information used by them. Contains function prototypes for conversions of numbers to text and text to numbers, memory allocation, random numbers, and other utility functions. Contains function prototypes for string processing functions. Contains function prototypes and types for manipulating the time and date Some of the standard library header.

26 5.11 Storage Classes Every variable in C actually has two attributes: its data type and its storage class. The storage class refers to the manner in which memory is allocated for the variable. The storage class also determines the scope of the variable, that is, what parts of a program the variable s name has meaning. In C, the four possible Storage classes are auto extern static register 1-26

27 5.11 Storage Classes Auto This is the default classification for all variables declared within a function body [including main()]. Automatic variables are truly local. They exist and their names have meaning only while the function is being executed. They are unknown to other functions. When the function is exited, the values of automatic variables are not retained. They are recreated each time the function is called. auto double x, y; 1-27

28 5.11 Storage Classes Extern In contrast to auto, extern variables are global. If a variable is declared at the beginning of a program outside all functions [including main()] it is classified as an external by default. External variables can be accessed and changed by any function in the program. Their storage is in permanent memory, and thus never disappear or need to be recreated. What is the advantage of using global variables? It is a method of transmitting information between functions in a program without using arguments. 1-28

29 5.11 Storage Classes Extern There are two disadvantages of global variables versus arguments. First, the function is much less portable to other programs. Second, is the concept of local dominance. If a local variable has the same name as a global variable, only the local variable is changed while in the function. Once the function is exited, the global variable has the same value as when the function started. 1-29

30 5.11 Storage Classes Static A static variable is a local variable that retains its latest value when a function is recalled. Keep value after function ends Only known in their own function Static variables are created and initialized once on the first call to the function. With clever programming, one can use static variables to enable a function to do different things depending on how many times it has been called. (Consider a function that counts the number of times it has been called). 1-30

31 5.11 Storage Classes Register It is often true that the time bottleneck in computer calculations is the time it takes to fetch a variable from memory and store its value in a register where the CPU can perform some calculation with it. So for performance reasons, it is sometimes advantageous to store variables directly in registers. This strategy is most often used with loop counter variables, as shown below. register int i; for (i=0; i<n; ++i)... Note that this type can only be used for automatic variables 1-31

32 5.12 Scope Rules File scope Identifier defined outside function, known in all functions Used for global variables, function definitions, function prototypes Function scope Can only be referenced inside a function body Used only for labels (start:, case:, etc.) 1-32

33 5.12 Scope Rules Block scope Identifier declared inside a block Block scope begins at definition, ends at right brace Used for variables, function parameters (local variables of function) Outer blocks "hidden" from inner blocks if there is a variable with the same name in the inner block Function prototype scope Used for identifiers in parameter list 1-33

34 1 /* Fig. 5.12: fig05_12.c 2 A scoping example */ 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 5 void uselocal( void ); /* function prototype */ 6 void usestaticlocal( void ); /* function prototype */ 7 void useglobal( void ); /* function prototype */ 8 9 int x = 1; /* global variable */ /* function main begins program execution */ 12 int main() 13 { 14 int x = 5; /* local variable to main */ printf("local x in outer scope of main is %d\n", x ); { /* start new scope */ 19 int x = 7; /* local variable to new scope */ printf( "local x in inner scope of main is %d\n", x ); 22 } /* end new scope */ printf( "local x in outer scope of main is %d\n", x ); 25 Outline fig05_12.c (Part 1 of 3) Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

35 26 uselocal(); /* uselocal has automatic local x */ 27 usestaticlocal(); /* usestaticlocal has static local x */ 28 useglobal(); /* useglobal uses global x */ 29 uselocal(); /* uselocal reinitializes automatic local x */ 30 usestaticlocal(); /* static local x retains its prior value */ 31 useglobal(); /* global x also retains its value */ printf( "local x in main is %d\n", x ); return 0; /* indicates successful termination */ } /* end main */ /* uselocal reinitializes local variable x during each call */ 40 void uselocal( void ) 41 { 42 int x = 25; /* initialized each time uselocal is called */ printf( "\nlocal x in a is %d after entering a\n", x ); 45 x++; 46 printf( "local x in a is %d before exiting a\n", x ); 47 } /* end function uselocal */ 48 Outline fig05_12.c (Part 2 of 3) Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

36 49 /* usestaticlocal initializes static local variable x only the first time 50 the function is called; value of x is saved between calls to this 51 function */ 52 void usestaticlocal( void ) 53 { 54 /* initialized only first time usestaticlocal is called */ 55 static int x = 50; printf( "\nlocal static x is %d on entering b\n", x ); 58 x++; 59 printf( "local static x is %d on exiting b\n", x ); 60 } /* end function usestaticlocal */ /* function useglobal modifies global variable x during each call */ 63 void useglobal( void ) 64 { 65 printf( "\nglobal x is %d on entering c\n", x ); 66 x *= 10; 67 printf( "global x is %d on exiting c\n", x ); 68 } /* end function useglobal */ Outline fig05_12.c (Part 3 of 3) Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

37 local x in outer scope of main is 5 local x in inner scope of main is 7 local x in outer scope of main is 5 local x in a is 25 after entering a local x in a is 26 before exiting a Outline Program Output local static x is 50 on entering b local static x is 51 on exiting b global x is 1 on entering c global x is 10 on exiting c local x in a is 25 after entering a local x in a is 26 before exiting a local static x is 51 on entering b local static x is 52 on exiting b global x is 10 on entering c global x is 100 on exiting c local x in main is 5 Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

38 5.13 Recursion Recursive functions Functions that call themselves Can only solve a base case Divide a problem up into What it can do What it cannot do What it cannot do resembles original problem The function launches a new copy of itself (recursion step) to solve what it cannot do Eventually base case gets solved Gets plugged in, works its way up and solves whole problem 1-38

39 5.13 Recursion Example: factorials 5! = 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1 Notice that 5! = 5 * 4! 4! = 4 * 3!... Can compute factorials recursively Solve base case (1! = 0! = 1) then plug in 2! = 2 * 1! = 2 * 1 = 2; 3! = 3 * 2! = 3 * 2 = 6; 1-39

40 5.13 Recursion 5! 5 * 4! 4 * 3! 3 * 2! 2 * 1! 1 (a) Sequenc e of rec ursive c alls. Final value = 120 5! 5! = 5 * 24 = 120 is returned 5 * 4! 4! = 4 * 6 = 24 is returned 4 * 3! 3! = 3 * 2 = 6 is returned 3 * 2! 2! = 2 * 1 = 2 is returned 2 * 1! 1 returned 1 (b) Values returned from eac h recursive c all. 1-40

41 1 /* Fig. 5.14: fig05_14.c 2 Recursive factorial function */ 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 5 long factorial( long number ); /* function prototype */ 6 7 /* function main begins program execution */ 8 int main() 9 { 10 int i; /* counter */ /* loop 10 times. During each iteration, calculate 13 factorial( i ) and display result */ 14 for ( i = 1; i <= 10; i++ ) { 15 printf( "%2d! = %ld\n", i, factorial( i ) ); 16 } /* end for */ return 0; /* indicates successful termination */ } /* end main */ 21 Outline fig05_14.c (Part 1 of 2) Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

42 22 /* recursive definition of function factorial */ 23 long factorial( long number ) 24 { 25 /* base case */ 26 if ( number <= 1 ) { 27 return 1; 28 } /* end if */ 29 else { /* recursive step */ 30 return ( number * factorial( number - 1 ) ); 31 } /* end else */ } /* end function factorial */ Outline fig05_14.c (Part 2 of 2) 1! = 1 2! = 2 3! = 6 4! = 24 5! = 120 6! = 720 7! = ! = ! = ! = Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

43 5.14 Example Using Recursion: The Fibonacci Series Fibonacci series: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8... Each number is the sum of the previous two Can be solved recursively: fib( n ) = fib( n - 1 ) + fib( n 2 ) Code for the fibonacci function long fibonacci( long n ) { } if (n == 0 n == 1) // base case else return n; return fibonacci( n - 1) + fibonacci( n 2 ); 1-43

44 5.14 Example Using Recursion: The Fibonacci Series fibonacci( 3 ) return fibonacci( 2 ) + fibonacci( 1 ) return fibonacci( 1 ) + fibonacci( 0 ) return 1 return 1 return

45 1 /* Fig. 5.15: fig05_15.c 2 Recursive fibonacci function */ 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 5 long fibonacci( long n ); /* function prototype */ 6 7 /* function main begins program execution */ 8 int main() 9 { 10 long result; /* fibonacci value */ 11 long number; /* number input by user */ /* obtain integer from user */ 14 printf( "Enter an integer: " ); 15 scanf( "%ld", &number ); /* calculate fibonacci value for number input by user */ 18 result = fibonacci( number ); /* display result */ 21 printf( "Fibonacci( %ld ) = %ld\n", number, result ); return 0; /* indicates successful termination */ } /* end main */ 26 Outline fig05_15.c (Part 1 of 2) Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

46 27 /* Recursive definition of function fibonacci */ 28 long fibonacci( long n ) 29 { 30 /* base case */ 31 if ( n == 0 n == 1 ) { 32 return n; 33 } /* end if */ 34 else { /* recursive step */ 35 return fibonacci( n - 1 ) + fibonacci( n - 2 ); 36 } /* end else */ } /* end function fibonacci */ Enter an integer: 0 Fibonacci( 0 ) = 0 Outline fig05_15.c (Part 2 of 2) Program Output Enter an integer: 1 Fibonacci( 1 ) = 1 Enter an integer: 2 Fibonacci( 2 ) = 1 Enter an integer: 3 Fibonacci( 3 ) = 2 Enter an integer: 4 Fibonacci( 4 ) = 3 Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

47 Enter an integer: 5 Fibonacci( 5 ) = 5 Enter an integer: 6 Fibonacci( 6 ) = 8 Enter an integer: 10 Fibonacci( 10 ) = 55 Outline Program Output (continued) Enter an integer: 20 Fibonacci( 20 ) = 6765 Enter an integer: 30 Fibonacci( 30 ) = Enter an integer: 35 Fibonacci( 35 ) = Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

48 5.15 Recursion vs. Iteration Repetition Iteration: explicit loop Recursion: repeated function calls Termination Iteration: loop condition fails Recursion: base case recognized Both can have infinite loops Balance Choice between performance (iteration) and good software engineering (recursion) 1-48

49 5.9 Random Number Generation rand function Load <stdlib.h> Returns "random" number between 0 and RAND_MAX (at least 32767) i = rand(); Pseudorandom Preset sequence of "random" numbers Same sequence for every function call Scaling To get a random number between 1 and n 1 + ( rand() % n ) rand() % n returns a number between 0 and n - 1 Add 1 to make random number between 1 and n 1 + ( rand() % 6) number between 1 and

50 5.9 Random Number Generation srand function <stdlib.h> Takes an integer seed and jumps to that location in its "random" sequence srand( seed ); srand( time( NULL ) );/*load <time.h> */ time( NULL ) Returns the time at which the program was compiled in seconds Randomizes" the seed 1-50

51 1 /* Fig. 5.7: fig05_07.c 2 Shifted, scaled integers produced by 1 + rand() % 6 */ 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 #include <stdlib.h> 5 6 /* function main begins program execution */ 7 int main() 8 { 9 int i; /* counter */ /* loop 20 times */ 12 for ( i = 1; i <= 20; i++ ) { /* pick random number from 1 to 6 and output it */ 15 printf( "%10d", 1 + ( rand() % 6 ) ); /* if counter is divisible by 5, begin new line of output */ 18 if ( i % 5 == 0 ) { 19 printf( "\n" ); 20 } /* end if */ } /* end for */ return 0; /* indicates successful termination */ } /* end main */ fig05_07.c Outline Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

53 1 /* Fig. 5.8: fig05_08.c 2 Roll a six-sided die 6000 times */ 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 #include <stdlib.h> 5 6 /* function main begins program execution */ 7 int main() 8 { 9 int frequency1 = 0; /* rolled 1 counter */ 10 int frequency2 = 0; /* rolled 2 counter */ 11 int frequency3 = 0; /* rolled 3 counter */ 12 int frequency4 = 0; /* rolled 4 counter */ 13 int frequency5 = 0; /* rolled 5 counter */ 14 int frequency6 = 0; /* rolled 6 counter */ int roll; /* roll counter */ 17 int face; /* represents one roll of the die, value 1 to 6 */ /* loop 6000 times and summarize results */ 20 for ( roll = 1; roll <= 6000; roll++ ) { 21 face = 1 + rand() % 6; /* random number from 1 to 6 */ 22 Outline fig05_08.c (Part 1 of 3) Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

54 23 /* determine face value and increment appropriate counter */ 24 switch ( face ) { case 1: /* rolled 1 */ 27 ++frequency1; 28 break; case 2: /* rolled 2 */ 31 ++frequency2; 32 break; case 3: /* rolled 3 */ 35 ++frequency3; 36 break; case 4: /* rolled 4 */ 39 ++frequency4; 40 break; case 5: /* rolled 5 */ 43 ++frequency5; 44 break; 45 Outline fig05_08.c (Part 2 of 3) Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

55 45 46 case 6: /* rolled 6 */ 47 ++frequency6; 48 break; 49 } /* end switch */ } /* end for */ /* display results in tabular format */ 54 printf( "%s%13s\n", "Face", "Frequency" ); 55 printf( " 1%13d\n", frequency1 ); 56 printf( " 2%13d\n", frequency2 ); 57 printf( " 3%13d\n", frequency3 ); 58 printf( " 4%13d\n", frequency4 ); 59 printf( " 5%13d\n", frequency5 ); 60 printf( " 6%13d\n", frequency6 ); return 0; /* indicates successful termination */ } /* end main */ Face Frequency Outline fig05_08.c (Part 3 of 3) Program Output Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

56 1 /* Fig. 5.9: fig05_09.c 2 Randomizing die-rolling program */ 3 #include <stdlib.h> 4 #include <stdio.h> 5 6 /* function main begins program execution */ 7 int main() 8 { 9 int i; /* counter */ 10 unsigned seed; /* number used to seed random number generator */ printf( "Enter seed: " ); 13 scanf( "%u", &seed ); srand( seed ); /* seed random number generator */ /* loop 10 times */ 18 for ( i = 1; i <= 10; i++ ) { /* pick a random number from 1 to 6 and output it */ 21 printf( "%10d", 1 + ( rand() % 6 ) ); 22 Outline fig05_09.c (Part 1 of 2) Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

57 23 /* if counter is divisible by 5, begin a new line of output */ 24 if ( i % 5 == 0 ) { 25 printf( "\n" ); 26 } /* end if */ } /* end for */ return 0; /* indicates successful termination */ } /* end main */ Enter seed: Enter seed: Enter seed: Outline fig05_09.c (Part 2 of 2) Program Output Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

58 5.10 Example: A Game of Chance Craps simulator Rules Roll two dice 7 or 11 on first throw, player wins 2, 3, or 12 on first throw, player loses 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 - value becomes player's "point" Player must roll his point before rolling 7 to win 1-58

59 1 /* Fig. 5.10: fig05_10.c 2 Craps */ 3 #include <stdio.h> 4 #include <stdlib.h> 5 #include <time.h> /* contains prototype for function time */ 6 7 /* enumeration constants represent game status */ 8 enum Status { CONTINUE, WON, LOST }; 9 10 int rolldice( void ); /* function prototype */ /* function main begins program execution */ 13 int main() 14 { 15 int sum; /* sum of rolled dice */ 16 int mypoint; /* point earned */ enum Status gamestatus; /* can contain CONTINUE, WON, or LOST */ /* randomize random number generator using current time */ 21 srand( time( NULL ) ); sum = rolldice( ); /* first roll of the dice */ 24 Outline fig05_10.c (Part 1 of 4) Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

60 25 /* determine game status based on sum of dice */ 26 switch( sum ) { /* win on first roll */ 29 case 7: 30 case 11: 31 gamestatus = WON; 32 break; /* lose on first roll */ 35 case 2: 36 case 3: 37 case 12: 38 gamestatus = LOST; 39 break; /* remember point */ 42 default: 43 gamestatus = CONTINUE; 44 mypoint = sum; 45 printf( "Point is %d\n", mypoint ); 46 break; /* optional */ 47 } /* end switch */ 48 Outline fig05_10.c (Part 2 of 4) Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

61 49 /* while game not complete */ 50 while ( gamestatus == CONTINUE ) { 51 sum = rolldice( ); /* roll dice again */ /* determine game status */ 54 if ( sum == mypoint ) { /* win by making point */ 55 gamestatus = WON; 56 } /* end if */ 57 else { if ( sum == 7 ) { /* lose by rolling 7 */ 60 gamestatus = LOST; 61 } /* end if */ } /* end else */ } /* end while */ /* display won or lost message */ 68 if ( gamestatus == WON ) { 69 printf( "Player wins\n" ); 70 } /* end if */ 71 else { 72 printf( "Player loses\n" ); 73 } /* end else */ 74 Outline fig05_10.c (Part 3 of 4) Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

62 75 return 0; /* indicates successful termination */ } /* end main */ /* roll dice, calculate sum and display results */ 80 int rolldice( void ) 81 { 82 int die1; /* first die */ 83 int die2; /* second die */ 84 int worksum; /* sum of dice */ die1 = 1 + ( rand() % 6 ); /* pick random die1 value */ 87 die2 = 1 + ( rand() % 6 ); /* pick random die2 value */ 88 worksum = die1 + die2; /* sum die1 and die2 */ /* display results of this roll */ 91 printf( "Player rolled %d + %d = %d\n", die1, die2, worksum ); return worksum; /* return sum of dice */ } /* end function rollrice */ Outline fig05_10.c (Part 4 of 4) Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

63 Player rolled = 11 Player wins Outline Player rolled = 5 Point is 5 Player rolled = 8 Player rolled = 3 Player rolled = 5 Player wins Program Output Player rolled = 2 Player loses Player rolled = 5 Point is 5 Player rolled = 7 Player loses Copyright by Deitel & Associates, Inc. and Pearson Education Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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