# Some Applications of Stack. Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 1

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1 Some Applications of Stack Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 1

2 Arithmetic Expressions Polish Notation Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 2

3 What is Polish Notation? Conventionally, we use the operator symbol between its two operands in an arithmetic expression. A+B C D*E A*(B+C) We can use parentheses to change the precedence of the operators. Operator precedence is pre-defined. This notation is called INFIX notation. Parentheses can change the precedence of evaluation. Multiple passes required for evaluation. Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 3

4 Polish notation Named after Polish mathematician Jan Lukasiewicz. Polish POSTFIX notation Refers to the notation in which the operator symbol is placed after its two operands. AB+ CD* AB*CD+/ Polish PREFIX notation Refers to the notation in which the operator symbol is placed before its two operands. +AB *CD /*AB-CD Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 4

5 How to convert an infix expression to Polish form? Write down the expression in fully parenthesized form. Then convert stepwise. Example: A+(B*C)/D-(E*F)-G (((A+((B*C)/D))-(E*F))-G) Polish Postfix form: A B C * D / + E F * - G - Polish Prefix form: Try it out. Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 5

6 Advantages: No concept of operator priority. Simplifies the expression evaluation rule. No need of any parenthesis. Hence no ambiguity in the order of evaluation. Evaluation can be carried out using a single scan over the expression string. Using stack. Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 6

7 Evaluation of a Polish Expression Can be done very conveniently using a stack. We would use the Polish postfix notation as illustration. Requires a single pass through the expression string from left to right. Polish prefix evaluation would be similar, but the string needs to be scanned from right to left. Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 7

8 while (not end of string) do { a = get_next_token(); if (a is an operand) push (a); if (a is an operator) { y = pop(); x = pop(); push (x a y); } } return (pop()); Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 8

9 Parenthesis Matching Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 9

10 The Basic Problem Given a parenthesized expression, to test whether the expression is properly parenthesized. Whenever a left parenthesis is encountered, it is pushed in the stack. Whenever a right parenthesis is encountered, pop from stack and check if the parentheses match. Works for multiple types of parentheses ( ), { }, [ ] Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 10

11 while (not end of string) do { a = get_next_token(); if (a is ( or { or [ ) push (a); if (a is ) or } or ] ) { if (isempty()) { print ( Not well formed ); exit(); } x = pop(); if (a and x do not match) { print ( Not well formed ); exit(); } } } if (not isempty()) print ( Not well formed ); Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 11

12 Converting an INFIX expression to POSTFIX Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 12

13 Basic Idea Let Q denote an infix expression. May contain left and right parentheses. Operators are: Highest priority: ^ (exponentiation) Then: * (multiplication), / (division) Then: + (addition), (subtraction) Operators at the same level are evaluated from left to right. In the algorithm to be presented: We begin by pushing a ( in the stack. Also add a ) at the end of Q. Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 13

14 The Algorithm (Q:: given infix expression, P:: output postfix expression) push ( ( ); Add ) to the end of Q; while (not end of string in Q do) { a = get_next_token(); if (a is an operand) add it to P; if (a is ( ) push(a); if (a is an operator) { Repeatedly pop from stack and add to P each operator (on top of the stack) which has the same or higher precedence than a ; push(a); } Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 14

15 if (a is ) ) { Repeatedly pop from stack and add to P each operator (on the top of the stack) until a left parenthesis is encountered; } } Remove the left parenthesis; Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 15

16 Q: A + (B * C (D / E ^ F) * G) * H ) Q A + ( B * C - ( D / E ^ F ) STACK ( ( + ( + ( ( + ( ( + ( * ( + ( * ( + ( - ( + ( - ( ( + ( - ( ( + ( - ( / ( + ( - ( / ( + ( - ( / ^ ( + ( - ( / ^ ( + ( - Output Postfix String P A A A A B A B A B C A B C * A B C * A B C * D A B C * D A B C * D E A B C * D E A B C * D E F A B C * D E F ^ / Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 16

17 Q STACK Output Postfix String P * G ) * H ) ( + ( - * ( + ( - * ( + ( + * ( + * A B C * D E F ^ / A B C * D E F ^ / G A B C * D E F ^ / G * - A B C * D E F ^ / G * - A B C * D E F ^ / G * - H A B C * D E F ^ / G * - H * + Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 17

18 Some Other Applications Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 18

19 Reversing a string of characters. Generating 3-address code from Polish postfix (or prefix) expressions. Handling function calls and returns, and recursion. Spring Semester 2007 Programming and Data Structure 19

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Stack and Queue 1 Stack Data structure with Last-In First-Out (LIFO) behavior In Out C B A B C 2 Typical Operations Pop on Stack Push isempty: determines if the stack has no elements isfull: determines

### UNIT 3

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