# COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15: JavaScript (Part 2) Handouts

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1 COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15: JavaScript (Part 2) Handouts Ullrich Hustadt Department of Computer Science School of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Computer Science University of Liverpool

2 Contents 1 Primitive datatypes Numbers Booleans Strings 2 Arrays Definition foreach-method Array functions 3 Control structures Conditional statements Switch statements While- and Do While-loops For-loops COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 1

3 Primitive datatypes Numbers Integers and Floating-point numbers The JavaScript datatype number covers both integer numbers floating-point numbers e19 2.4e-10 The Math object provides a wide range of mathematical functions Math.abs(number) absolute value Math.ceil(number) round fractions up Math.floor(number) round fractions down Math.round(number) round fractions Math.log(number) natural logarithm Math.random() random number between 0 and 1 Math.sqrt(number) square root There are also some pre-defined number constants including Math.PI (case sensitive) NaN (case sensitive) not a number Infinity (case sensitive) infinity COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 2

4 Primitive datatypes Numbers: NaN and Infinity Numbers The constants NaN and Infinity are used as return values for applications of mathematical functions that do not return a number Math.log(0) Math.sqrt(-1) returns NaN returns -Infinity (negative infinity ) ( not a number ) 1/0 returns Infinity (positive infinity ) 0/0 returns NaN ( not a number ) Equality and comparison operators produce the following results for NaN and Infinity: NaN == NaN false NaN === NaN false Infinity == Infinity true Infinity === Infinity true NaN == 1 false Infinity == 1 false NaN < NaN false Infinity < Infinity false 1 < Infinity true 1 < NaN false Infinity < 1 false NaN < 1 false NaN < Infinity false Infinity < NaN false COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 3

5 Primitive datatypes Numbers Integers and Floating-point numbers: NaN and Infinity JavaScript provides two functions to test whether a value is or is not NaN, Infinity or -Infinity: bool isnan(value) returns TRUE iff value is NaN bool isfinite(value) returns TRUE iff value is neither NaN nor Infinity/-Infinity There is no isinfinite function In conversion to a boolean value, NaN converts to false Infinity converts to true In conversion to a string, NaN converts to NaN Infinity converts to Infinity COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 4

6 Primitive datatypes Booleans Booleans JavaScript has a boolean datatype with constants true and false (case sensitive) JavaScript offers the same short-circuit boolean operators as Java, Perl and PHP: && (conjunction) (disjunction)! (negation) But and and or cannot be used instead of && and, respectively The truth tables for these operators are the same as for Perl and PHP, taking into account that the conversion of non-boolean values to boolean values differs Remember that && and are not commutative, that is, (A && B) is not the same as (B && A) (A B) is not the same as (B A) COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 5

7 Primitive datatypes Type conversion to boolean Booleans When converting to boolean, the following values are considered false: the boolean false itself the number 0 (zero) the empty string, but not the string 0 undefined null NaN Every other value is converted to true including Infinity 0 functions objects, in particular, arrays with zero elements COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 6

8 Primitive datatypes Strings Strings JavaScript supports both single-quoted and double-quoted strings JavaScript uses + for string concatenation Within double-quoted strings JavaScript supports the following escape characters \b (backspace) \f (form feed) \n (newline) \r (carriage return) \t (tab) \ (backslash) \ (single quote) \" (double quote) JavaScript does not support variable interpolation JavaScript also does not support heredocs, but multi-line strings are possible document. writeln (" Your \ name is " + name + " and \ you are studying " + degree + "\ at " + university ); COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 7

9 Arrays Arrays Definition An array is created by assigning an array value to a variable var arrayvar = [] var arrayvar = [ elem0, elem1,... ] JavaScript uses arrayvar [ index ] to denote the element stored at position index in arrayvar The first array element has index 0 Arrays have no fixed length and it is always possible to add more elements to an array Accessing an element of an array that has not been assigned a value yet returns undefined For an array arrayvar, arrayvar.length returns the maximal index index such that arrayvar[index] has been assigned a value (including the value undefined) plus one COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 8

10 Arrays Arrays Definition It is possible to assign a value to arrayvar.length if the assigned value is greater than the previous value of arrayvar.length, then the array is extended by additional undefined elements if the assigned value is smaller than the previous value of arrayvar.length, then array elements with greater or equal index will be deleted Assigning an array to a new variable creates a reference to the original array changes to the new variable affect the original array Arrays are also passed to functions by reference The slice function can be used to create a proper copy of an array: object arrayvar.slice(start, end) returns a copy of those elements of array variable that have indices between start and end COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 9

11 Arrays Arrays: Example Definition var array1 = [ hello, [1, 2], function() {return 5}, 43] document.writeln("1: array1.length = "+array1.length+"<br>") 1: array1.length = 4<br> document.writeln("2: array1[3] ="+array1[3]+"<br>") 2: array1[3] = 43<br> array1[5] = world document.writeln("3: array1.length = "+array1.length+"<br>") 3: array1.length = 6<br> document.writeln("4: array1[4] ="+array1[4]+"<br>") 4: array1[4] = undefined<br> document.writeln("5: array1[5] ="+array1[5]+"<br>") 5: array1[5] = world<br> array1.length = 4 document.writeln("6: array1[5] ="+array1[5]+"<br>") 6: array1[5] = undefined<br> var array2 = array1 array2[3] = 7 document.writeln("7: array1[3] ="+array1[3]+"<br>") 7: array1[3] = 7<br> COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 10

12 Arrays foreach-method foreach-method The recommended way to iterate over all elements of an array is a for-loop for ( index = 0; index < arrayvar. length ; index ++) {... arrayvar [ index ]... } An alternative is the use of the foreach method: var callback = function ( elem, index, arrayarg ) { statements } array. foreach ( callback ); The foreach method takes a function as an argument It iterates over all indices/elements of an array It passes the current array element (elem), the current index (index) and a pointer to the array (arrayarg) to the function Return values of that function are ignored, but the function may have side effecs COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 11

13 Arrays foreach-method: Example foreach-method var myarray = [ Michele Zito, Ullrich Hustadt ]; var rewritenames = function ( elem, index, arr ) { arr [ index ] = elem. replace (/(\ w +)\ s(\w+)/, "\$2, \$1"); } myarray. foreach ( rewritenames ); for (i =0; i< myarray. length ; i ++) { document. write ( [ +i+ ] = + myarray [i]+" "); } document. writeln ("<br >"); [0] = Zito, Michele [1] = Hustadt, Ullrich <br > COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 12

14 Arrays Array operators Array functions JavaScript has no stack or queue data structures, but has stack and queue functions for arrays: number array.push(value1, value2,...) appends one or more elements at the end of an array; returns the number of elements in the resulting array mixed array.pop() extracts the last element from an array and returns it mixed array.shift() shift extracts the first element of an array and returns it number array.unshift(value1, value2,...) inserts one or more elements at the start of an array variable; returns the number of elements in the resulting array Note: In contrast to PHP and Perl, array does not need to be a variable COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 13

15 Arrays Array functions Array operators: push, pop, shift, unshift planets = ["earth"] planets.unshift("mercury","venus") planets.push("mars","jupiter","saturn"); "+planets.join(" ")+" <br>") mercury venus earth mars jupiter saturn <br> last = planets.pop() "+planets.join(" ")+" <br>") mercury venus earth mars jupiter <br> first = planets.shift() "+planets.join(" ")+" <br>") venus earth mars jupiter <br> document.writeln(" "+first+" "+last+" mercury saturn <br> home = ["mercury","venus","earth"].pop() document.writeln(" "+ home + " earth <br> number = ["earth"].push("mars"); document.writeln(" "+ number + " 2 <br> COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 14

16 Control structures Control structures JavaScript control structures conditional statements switch statements while- and do while-loops for-loops break and continue are identical to those of PHP except for conditional statements COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 15

17 Control structures Conditional statements Control structures: conditional statements JavaScript conditional statements do not allow for elsif- or elseif-clauses, but conditional statements can be nested: if ( condition ) { statements } else if ( condition ) { statements } else { statements } The else-clause is optional but there can be at most one Curly brackets can be omitted if there is only a single statement in a clause JavaScript also supports conditional expressions condition? if_ true_ expr : if_ false_ expr COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 16

18 Control structures Switch statements Control structures: switch statement Switch statements in JavaScript take the same form as in PHP: switch ( expr ) { case expr1 : statements break ; case expr2 : statements break ; default : statements break ; } there can be arbitrarily many case-clauses the default-clause is optional but there can be at most one expr is evaluated only once and then compared to expr1, expr2, etc using (loose) equality == once two expressions are found to be equal the corresponing clause is executed if none of expr1, expr2, etc are equal to expr, then the default-clause will be executed break breaks out of the switch statement if a clause does not contain a break command, then execution moves to the next clause COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 17

19 Control structures Switch statements Control structures: switch statement Not every case-clause needs to have associated statements Example: switch ( month ) { case 1: case 3: case 5: case 7: case 8: case 10: case 12: days = 31; break ; case 4: case 6: case 9: case 11: days = 30; break ; case 2: days = 28; break ; default : days = 0; break ; } COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 18

20 Control structures While- and Do While-loops Control structures: while- and do while-loops JavaScript offers while-loops and do while-loops while ( condition ) { statements } do { statements } while ( condition ); As usual, curly brackets can be omitted if the loop onsists of only one statement Example: // Compute the factorial of a given number factorial = 1; do { factorial *= number - -; } while ( number > 0); COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 19

21 Control structures Control structures: for-loops For-loops for-loops in JavaScript take the form for ( initialisation ; test ; increment ) { statements } Again, the curly brackets are not required if the body of the loop only consists of a single statement In JavaScript, as in PHP, initialisation and increment can consist of more than one statement, separated by commas instead of semicolons Example: for (i = 3, j = 3; j >= 0; i++, j - -) document. writeln (i + " - " + j + " - " + i*j) // Indentation has no meaning in JavaScript, // the next line is not part of the loop document. writeln (" After loop : " + i + " - " + j) Note: Variables introduced in a for-loop are still global even if declared using var COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 20

22 Control structures For-loops Control structures: break and continue The break command can also be used in while-, do while-, and for-loops and discontinues the execution of the loop while ( value < 100) { if ( value == 0) break ; value ++ } The continue command stops the execution of the current iteration of a loop and moves the execution to the next iteration for (x = -2; x <= 2; x ++) { if ( x == 0) continue ; document. writeln ("10 / " + x + " = " + (10/ x )); } 10 / -2 = / -1 = / 1 = / 2 = 5 COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 21

23 Control structures Revision For-loops Read Chapter 15: Expressions and Control Flow in JavaScript Chapter 16: JavaScript Functions, Objects, and Arrays of R. Nixon: Learning PHP, MySQL, and JavaScript. O Reilly, COMP284 Scripting Languages Lecture 15 Slide L15 22

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