# Flow of Control. Flow of control The order in which statements are executed. Transfer of control

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1 1 Programming in C

2 Flow of Control Flow of control The order in which statements are executed Transfer of control When the next statement executed is not the next one in sequence 2

3 Flow of Control Control structures combination of individual statements into a logical unit that regulates the flow of execution in a program or function Sequence Selection (Making Decisions) Repetition (Looping) 3

4 Boolean Expressions Evaluate to true or false Forms Relational expression: <expr> <relational operator> <expr> Examples: 7 < 5 a + b > 6 Logical expression: <Boolean expr> <logical operator> <Boolean expr> Examples: (x < 7) && (y > 3) 4

5 Relational Operators Standard Algebraic Relational Operator C Relational Operator C Condition Example Meaning of C Condition Inequality < < x < y x is less than y <= x <= y x is less than or equal to y > > x > y x is greater than y >= x >= y x is greater than or equal to y Equality = == x == y x is equal to y!= x!= y x is not equal to y Ch 5 p. 46 5

6 Logical Operators (Compound Relationals) && (logical AND) Returns true if both conditions are true (logical OR) Returns true if either of its conditions is true Ch 6 p. 72! (logical NOT, logical negation) Is a unary operator, only takes one operand following Reverses the truth/falsity of its condition Returns true when its condition is false 6

7 Logical Operators Truth Table P Q P && Q P Q!P true true true true false true false false true false false true false true true false false false false true 7

8 Precedence of Operators 1. Unary +, unary -,! 2. Type casting 3. *, /, % 4. +, - 5. <, <=, >, >= 6. ==,!= 7. && = 8

9 The if Selection Structure Selection structure used when we want the computer to choose between two alternative courses of action 9

10 The if Selection Structure if Statement Boolean Expression true false true block 10

11 The if Selection Structure General form of if: if (Boolean Expression) { statement1; statement2;... } 11

12 The if-else Selection Structure if Only performs an action if the condition is true if-else Performs one action if the condition is true, and another different action is performed when condition is false 12

13 if-else Selection Structure if-else statement false Boolean Expression true false block true block 13

14 The if-else Selection Structure General form of if-else: if (expression) { statement1a; statement2a;... } else { statement1b; } statement2b;... 14

15 The if-else Selection Structure Nested if-else structures Test for multiple cases by placing if-else selection structures inside if-else selection structures. 15

16 16 Nested if-else Structures

17 The if-else-if Construct Once a condition is met, the rest of the statements are skipped 17

18 The if-else-if Construct The standard way to indent the previous code is 18

19 The if-else Selection Structure Compound statement: Set of statements within a pair of braces Example: 19

20 The if-else Selection Structure Without the braces, only one statement is executed. e.g. given the following code: The statement, will be executed independent of the value of grade. The statement, will execute only if grade is less than

21 The dangling else Note: the compiler matches an else with the closest unmatched if The above will be treated as 21

22 The dangling else If the else is to match the outer if, use braces. 22

23 if-else Construct To avoid confusion, and possible errors, it is best to use braces even for single statements. However, code will be longer 23

24 Conditionals C uses an integer to represent Boolean values Zero is interpreted as false Any other integer value is interpreted as true 24

25 Conditionals is not a syntax error in C. The expression, n = 0, assigns zero to n and the value of the expression is 0. Zero is interpreted as false, and the false branch of the if statement will be taken. is not a syntax error in C. The expression assigns 5 to n. 5 is interpreted as true, and the true branch of the if statement will be taken. 25

26 Conditionals Remember to use the == operator to test for equality. To help catch the error when the equality check involves a constant, put the constant on the left hand side of the ==. For example, use instead of Since is not a valid assignment in C, the compiler will detect this error when == is intended. 26

27 The switch Multiple-Selection Structure switch Useful when variable or expression is tested for multiple values Consists of a series of case labels and an optional default case 27

28 The switch Multiple-Selection Structure With Breaks case a case a action(s) break case b case b action(s) break case z case z action(s) break default action(s) 28

29 The switch Multiple-Selection Structure Without Breaks case a case a action(s) case b case b action(s) case z case z action(s) default action(s) 29

30 switch Statement Syntax switch (switch_expression) { case constant1: statementsequence1 break; case constant2: statementsequence2 break; case constantn: statementsequencen break; default: defaultstmtsequence } 30

31 switch Statement The switch_expression is compared against the values constant1, constant2,, constantn constant1, constant2,, constantn must be simple constants or constant expressions. Can be a char or an int 31

32 switch Statement Reminder The switch statement ends break statement end of the switch statement When executing the statements after a case label, it continues to execute until it reaches a break statement or the end of the switch. If you omit the break statements, then after executing the code for one case, the computer will continue to execute the code for the next case. 32

33 Example of switch 33

34 Programming in C T H E E N D 34

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