# Organization of Programming Languages CS3200 / 5200N. Lecture 06

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1 Organization of Programming Languages CS3200 / 5200N Razvan C. Bunescu School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

2 Data Types A data type defines a collection of data objects and a set of predefined operations on those objects. Primitive data types are those not defined in terms of other data types: Some primitive data types are merely reflections of the hardware. Others require only a little non-hardware support for their implementation. User-defined types are created with flexible structure defining operators (ALGOL 68). Abstract data types separate the interface of a type (visible) from the representation of that type (hidden). 2

3 Primitive Data Types Integers almost always an exact reflection of the hardware. Java s signed integers: byte,short,int,long. Floating Point model real numbers, but only as approximations. Support for two types: float and double. Complex two floats, the real and the imaginary. Supported in Fortran and Python. Boolean two elements, true and false. Implemented as bits or bytes. Character stored as numeric codings. ASCII 8-bit encoding, UNICODE 16-bit encoding. 3

4 Primitive Data Types Rationals: represented as pairs of integers (Scheme, Common LISP): (rational? 6/10) => #t Decimals: use a base-10 encoding to avoid round-off in financial arithmetic. Cobol, PL/I. 4

5 Scalar Types Scalar types (also simple types): All primitive types. Some user-defined types: Fixed-point: represented as integers, with position for decimal point:» type Fixed_Point is delta 0.01 digits 10; Enumerations: represented as small integers: Subranges:» type weekday is (sun, mon, tue, wed, thu, fri, sat); subtype workday is weekday range mon.. fri; 5

6 Composite Types Records (structures) Variant records (unions) Arrays Strings (arrays of characters) Sets Pointers Lists Files 6

7 Array Types An array is an aggregate of homogeneous data elements in which an individual element is identified by its position in the aggregate, relative to the first element. Indexing is a mapping from indices to elements: array_name[index_value_list] an element Index range checking: C, C++, Perl, and Fortran do not specify range checking. Java, ML, C# specify range checking. In Ada, the default is to require range checking, but it can be turned off. 7

8 Array Categories Static: subscript ranges are statically bound and storage allocation is static (before run-time) Advantage: efficiency no dynamic allocation/deallocation. Example: arrays declared as static in C/C++ functions. Fixed Stack-Dynamic: subscript ranges are statically bound, but the allocation is done at declaration time (at run-time) Advantage: space efficiency stack space is reused. Example: arrays declared in C/C++ functions without the static modifier. 8

9 Array Categories Conformant Arrays: array parameters where bounds are symbolic names rather than constants: Pascal, Modula-2, Ada, C99. C only supports single dimensional conformant arrays. function DotProduct(A, B: array[lower.. uper : integer] of real) : real; void square(int n, double M[n][n]); 9

10 Array Categories Stack-Dynamic: subscript ranges are dynamically bound and the storage allocation is dynamic (at run-time): Advantage: flexibility the size of an array need not be known until the array is to be used. Example: Ada arrays, C99. Get(List_Len); declare List: array(1.. List_len) of Integer; begin end; 10

11 Implementation of Stack Dynamic Arrays 11

12 Array Categories Fixed Heap-Dynamic: similar to fixed stack-dynamic i.e. subscript range and storage binding are fixed after allocation: Binding is done when requested by the program. Storage is allocated from the heap. Examples: C/C++ using malloc/free or new/delete. Fortran 95. In Java all arrays are fixed heap-dynamic. C#. 12

13 Array Categories Heap-dynamic: binding of subscript ranges and storage allocation is dynamic and can change any number of times: Advantage: flexibility, as arrays can grow or shrink during program execution. Examples: C#: ArrayList intlist = new ArrayList(); intlist.add(nextone); Java has a similar class, but no subscripting (use methods get()/ set() instead). Perl, JavaScript, Python, Ruby 13

14 Array Categories Static shape arrays: Static. Fixed Stack-Dynamic. Fixed Heap-Dynamic. Dynamic shape arrays: Conformant. Stack-Dynamic. Heap-Dynamic. 14

15 Array Initialization Some languages allow initialization at the time of storage allocation: C, C++, Java, C# example: int list [] = {4, 5, 7, 83} Arrays of strings in C and C++ char *names [] = { Bob, Jake, Joe ]; Java initialization of String objects: String[] names = { Bob, Jake, Joe }; Ada initialization using arrow operator: Bunch : array (1..5) of Integer := (1 => 17, 3 => 34, others => 0) 15

16 Heterogeneous Arrays A heterogeneous array is one in which the elements need not be of the same type. Supported by: Perl: any mixture of scalar types (numbers, strings, and references). JavaScript: dynamically typed language any type. Python and Ruby: references to objects of any type 16

17 Slices A slice is some substructure of an array: nothing more than a referencing mechanism. only useful in languages that have array operations. Fortran 95 (also Perl, Python, Ruby, restricted in Ada): Integer, Dimension (10) :: Vector Integer, Dimension (3, 3) :: Mat Integer, Dimension (3, 3, 3) :: Cube Vector (3:6) is a four element array 17

18 Slices Examples in Fortran 95 18

19 Slices Examples in Fortran 95 19

20 Implementation of Arrays Two layout strategies: 1. contiguous locations. 2. row pointers. 1. Contiguous locations: Column major order (by columns) used in Fortran. Row major order (by rows) used in most languages. Sequential access to matrix elements will be faster if they are accessed in the order in which they are stored: Why? 20

21 Row vs. Column major order 21

22 Implementation of Arrays Row Pointer layout: rows can be put anywhere in memory. rows can have different lengths => jagged arrays. can create arrays from existing rows, without copying. no multiplications to compute addresses => fast on CISC machines. requires extra space for pointers. used in Java and C: C supports both contiguous and row pointer arrays. 22

23 Contiguous vs. Row Pointer layout in C 23

24 Implementation of Contiguous Arrays Access function maps subscript expressions to the address of an element in the array. Single-Dimensional Arrays: implemented as a block of adjacent memory cells. access function for single-dimensioned arrays (row major): A : array (L..U) of elem_type; address(a[k]) = address(a[l]) + (k L) * element_size 1-24

25 Access Function for a Multi-Dimensioned Array A : array (L1..U1) of (L2..U2) of elem_type; n = U 2 L address(a[i,j]) = address(a[l 1,L 2 ]) + ((i - L 1 ) * n + (j L 2 )) * elem_size 25

26 Implementation of Row Pointer Arrays Address calculation is straightforward: no multiplications needed. assume hardware provides an indexed addressing mode: R1 = *R2[R3] (load instruction). A : array (L1..U1) of (L2..U2) of elem_type; 26

27 Character String Types Character Strings values are sequences of characters. Typical operations: Assignment. Comparison. Concatenation. Substring reference. Pattern matching. Design issues: Is it a primitive type or just a special kind of array? Should the length of strings be static or dynamic? 27

28 Strings in Programming Languages C and C++: Implemented as null terminated char arrays. A library of functions in string.h that provide string operations. Many operations are inherently unsafe (ex: strcpy). C++ string class from the standard library is safer. Java (C# and Ruby): Primitive via the String class (immutable). Arrays via the StringBuilder class (mutable, w/ subscripting). StringBuffer for multithreading Fortran: Primitive type. 28

29 Strings in Programming Languages Python: Primitive type that behaves like an array of characters: indexing, searching, replacement, character membership. Immutable. Pattern Matching: built-in for Perl, JavaScript, Ruby, and PHP, using regular expressions. class libraries for C++, Java, Python, C#. 29

30 String Length Static Length set when the string is created: Java String, C++ STL string, Ruby String, C#.NET. Limited Dynamic Length length can vary between 0 and a maximum set when the string is defined: C/C++ null terminated strings. Dynamic Length varying length with no maximum: JavaScript and Perl (overhead of dynamic allocation/deallocation). Ada supports all three types: String, Bounded_String, Unbounded_String. 30

31 Ada Strings Static Length: X: String := Ada.Command_Line.Argument(1); X := Hello! ; -- will raise an exception if X has length 6 Dynamic Length: X: Unbounded_String := To_Unbounded_String(Ada.Command_Line.Argument(1)) ; X := To_Unbounded_String( Hello! ); 31

32 Record Types A record is a possibly heterogeneous aggregate of data elements in which the individual elements are identified by names. A record type in Ada: type Emp_Rec_Type is record First: String (1..20); Mid: String (1..10); Last: String (1..20); Hourly_Rate: Float; end record; Emp_Rec: Emp_Rec_Type; 32

33 Record Types C, C++, C#: supported with the struct data type. In C++ structures are minor variations on classes. In C# structures are related to classes, but also quite different. structures are allocated on the stack (value types). class objects are allocated on the heap (reference types). In C++ and C# structures are also used for encapsulation. Python, Ruby: implemented as hashes. 33

34 Records vs. Arrays Arrays mostly used when: collection of data values is homogenous. values are process in the same way. order is important. Records are used when: collection of data values is heterogeneous. values are not precessed in the same way. unordered. Access to array elements is much slower than access to record fields: array subscripts are dynamic. record field names are static. 34

35 Unions: Free (Fortran, C/C++) union flextype { int i; double d; bool b; } union flextype ft; ft.i = 27; float x = ft.i; // nonsense, no type checking possible. 35

36 Unions: Discriminated (Algol 68, Ada) Include a type indicator called a tag, or discriminant. type Figure (Form: Shape) is record Filled: Boolean; Color: Colors; case Form is when Circle => Diameter: Float; when Triangle => Left_Side: Integer; Right_Side: Integer; Angle: Float; when Rectangle => Side1: Integer; Side2: Integer; end case; end record; type Shape is (Circle, Triangle, Rectangle); type Colors is (Red, Green, Blue); 36

37 Unions: Discriminated (Algol 68, Ada) Figure1 : Figure; Figure2 : Figure(Form => Triangle); Figure1 := (Filled => True, Color => Blue, Form => Rectangle, Side1 => 12, Side2 => 3); if (Figure1.Diameter > 3.0) // => run-time type error. 37

38 Pointer Types A pointer type variable has a range of values that consists of memory addresses and a special value nil. Provide the power of indirect addressing. Provide a way to manage dynamic memory a pointer can be used to access a location in the area where storage is dynamically created i.e. the heap. variables that are dynamically allocated on the heap are heapdynamic variables. Pointer types are defined using a type operator: C/C++: int *ptr = new int; 38

39 Pointer Operations Two fundamental operations: assignment. dereferencing. Assignment is used to set a pointer variable s value to some useful address: int *ptr = &counter; // indirect addressing. int *ptr = new int; // heap-dynamic variable. Dereferencing yields the value stored at the location represented by the pointer s value C++ uses an explicit operation via unary operator *: j = *ptr; // sets j to the value located at ptr 39

40 Pointer Dereferencing The dereferencing operation j = *ptr; 40

41 Problems with Pointers Dangling pointers: A pointer points to a heap-dynamic variable that has been deallocated. Dangerous: the location may be assigned to other variables. Lost heap-dynamic variable: An allocated heap-dynamic variable that is no longer accessible to the user program (often called garbage or memory leak): Pointer p1 is set to point to a newly created heap-dynamic variable Pointer p1 is later set to point to another newly created heapdynamic variable, without deallocating the first one. 41

42 Pointers in C/C++ Extremely flexible but must be used with care: Pointers can point at any variable regardless of when or where it was allocated. Used for dynamic storage management and addressing. Explicit dereferencing (*) and address-of (&) operators. Domain type need not be fixed: void * can point to any type and can be type checked. void * cannot be de-referenced. Pointer arithmetic is possible. 42

43 Pointer Arithmetic in C/C++ float stuff[100]; float *p; p = stuff; *(p+5) is equivalent to stuff[5] and p[5] *(p+i) is equivalent to stuff[i] and p[i] 43

44 Reference Types C++ includes a special kind of pointer type called a reference type that is used primarily for formal parameters: Advantages of both pass-by-reference and pass-by-value. No arithmetic on references. Java extends C++ s reference variables and allows them to replace pointers entirely: References are handles to objects, rather than being addresses. C# includes both the references of Java and the pointers of C++. 44

45 Evaluation of Pointers & References Problems due to dangling pointers and memory leaks. Heap management can be complex and costly. Pointers are analogous to goto's: goto s widen the range of statements that can be executed next. pointers widen the range of cells that can be accessed by a variable. Pointers or references are necessary for dynamic data structures, so we can't design a language without them: pointers are essential for writing device drivers. references in Java and C# provide some of the capabilities of pointers, without the hazards. 45

46 Type Checking Preliminary step: generalize the concept of operands and operators to include: subprograms as operators, and parameters as operands; assignments as operators, and LHS & RHS as operands. Type checking is the activity of ensuring that the operands of an operator are of compatible types. A compatible type is one that is either legal for the operator, or is allowed under language rules to be implicitly converted to a legal type: This automatic conversion, by compiler-generated code, is called a coercion. Lecture 05 46

47 Type Checking A type error results from the application of an operator to an operand of an inappropriate type. Static type checking: if all type bindings are static, nearly all type checking can be done statically (Ada, C/C++, Java). Dynamic type checking: if type bindings are dynamic, type checking must be dynamic (Javascript, PHP). Strong typing: a programming language is strongly typed if type errors are always detected. Done either at compile time or run time. Advantages: allows the detection of the misuses of variables that result in type errors. Lecture 05 47

48 Strong Typing: Language Examples C and C++ less strongly typed than Pascal or Ada: parameter type checking can be avoided; unions are not type checked. Ada is strongly typed: only exception: the UNCHECKED_CONVERSION generic function extracts the value of a variable of one type and uses it as if it were of a different type. Java and C# are strongly typed in the same sense as Ada: types can be explicitely cast may get type errors at run time. ML is strongly typed, so are Lisp, Python and Ruby Lecture 05 48

49 Strong Typing & Type Coercion Coercion rules can weaken the strong typing considerably i.e. loss in error detection capability: C++ s strong typing less effective compared to Ada s. Although Java has just half the assignment coercions of C+ +: its strong typing is more effective than that of C++. its strong typing is still far less effective than that of Ada. Lecture 05 49

50 Reading Assignment Chapter 7 on Data Types (7.1 to 7.6) 50

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