# Relational Expressions. Boolean Expressions. Boolean Expressions. ICOM 4036 Programming Languages. Boolean Expressions

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1 ICOM 4036 Programming Languages Ch7. Expressions & Assignment Statements Arithmetic Expressions Overloaded Operators Type Conversions Relational and Boolean Expressions Short-Circuit Evaluation Assignment Statements Mixed-Mode Assignment This lecture covers review questions 7-16 of Chapter 7 Dr. Amirhossein Chinaei, ECE, UPRM Spring 2010 ***Some slides are adapted from the Sebesta s textbook Relational Expressions Relational Expressions Use relational operators and operands of various types Evaluate to some Boolean representation Operator symbols used vary somewhat among languages (!=, /=, ~=,.NE., <>, #) JavaScript and PHP have two additional relational operator, === and!== Similar to their cousins, == and!=, except that they do not coerce their operands ICOM Ch Boolean Expressions Boolean Expressions Operands are Boolean and the result is Boolean Example operators FORTRAN 77 FORTRAN 90 C Ada.AND. and && and.or. or or.not. not! not xor ICOM Ch Boolean Expressions C89 has no Boolean type it uses int type with 0 for false and nonzero for true One odd characteristic of C s expressions: a < b < c is a legal expression, but the result is not what you might expect: Left operator is evaluated, producing 0 or 1 The evaluation result is then compared with the third operand (i.e., c) ICOM Ch

2 Short Circuit Evaluation An expression in which the result is determined without evaluating all of the operands and/or operators Example: (13*a) * (b/13 1) If a is zero, there is no need to evaluate (b/13-1) Problem with non-short-circuit evaluation index = 1; while (index <= length) && (LIST[index]!= value) index++; When index=length, LIST [index] will cause an indexing problem (assuming LIST has length -1 elements) Short Circuit Evaluation (cont d) C, C++, and Java: use short-circuit evaluation for the usual Boolean operators (&& and ), but also provide bitwise Boolean operators that are not short circuit (& and ) Ada: programmer can specify either (short-circuit is specified with and then and or else) Short-circuit evaluation exposes the potential problem of side effects in expressions e.g. (a > b) (b++ / 3) ICOM Ch ICOM Ch Assignment Statements The general syntax <target_var> <assign_operator> <expression> The assignment operator = FORTRAN, BASIC, the C-based languages := ALGOLs, Pascal, Ada = can be bad when it is overloaded for the relational operator for equality (that s why the C-based languages use == as the relational operator) Assignment Statements Conditional targets (Perl) (\$flag? \$total : \$subtotal) = 0 Which is equivalent to if (\$flag){ \$total = 0 } else { } \$subtotal = 0 ICOM Ch ICOM Ch

3 Assignment Statements: Compound Operators A shorthand method of specifying a commonly needed form of assignment Introduced in ALGOL Example a = a + b is written as a += b Assignment Statements Unary assignment operators in C-based count++ (count incremented) languages combine increment and decrement operations with assignment Examples sum = ++count sum = count++ -count++ (count incremented then negated) ICOM Ch ICOM Ch Assignment as an Expression In C, C++, and Java, the assignment statement produces a result and can be used as operands An example: while ((ch = getchar())!= EOF){ } ch = getchar() is carried out; the result (assigned to ch) is used as a conditional value for the while statement List Assignments E.g. in Perl and Ruby (\$first, \$second, \$third) = (20, 30, 40); ICOM Ch Mixed-Mode Assignment Assignment statements can also be mixed-mode In Fortran, C, and C++, any numeric type value can be assigned to any numeric type variable In Java, only widening assignment coercions are done In Ada, there is no assignment coercion ICOM Ch

4 Summary Expressions Operator precedence and associativity Operator overloading Mixed-type expressions Various forms of assignment ICOM 4036 Programming Languages Ch8. Statement-Level Control Structure Selection Statement Iterative Statements Unconditional Branching Guarded Commands Conclusions This lecture covers review questions 1-7 of Chapter 8 ICOM Ch Dr. Amirhossein Chinaei, ECE, UPRM Spring 2010 ***Some slides are adapted from the Sebesta s textbook Levels of Control Flow Within expressions (Chapter 7) Among program units (Chapter 9) Among program statements (this chapter) Control Statements: Evolution FORTRAN I control statements were based directly on IBM 704 hardware Much research and argument in the 1960s about the issue One important result: It was proven that all algorithms represented by flowcharts can be coded with only two-way selection and pretest logical loops ICOM Ch ICOM Ch

5 Control Structure A control structure is a control statement and the statements whose execution it controls Design question Should a control structure have multiple entries? A selection statement is a control statement that provides the means of choosing between two or more paths of execution Two general categories: Two-way selectors Multiple-way selectors Two-Way Selection Statements General form: if control_expression then clause else clause Design Issues: What is the form and type of the control expression? How are the then and else clauses specified? How should the meaning of nested selectors be specified? ICOM Ch ICOM Ch The Control Expression If the then reserved word or some other syntactic marker is not used to introduce the then clause, the control expression is placed in parentheses In C89, C99, Python, and C++, the control expression can be arithmetic In languages such as Ada, Java, Ruby, and C#, the control expression must be Boolean Clause Form In many contemporary languages, the then and else clauses can be single statements or compound statements In Perl, all clauses must be delimited by braces (they must be compound) In Fortran 95, Ada, and Ruby, clauses are statement sequences Python uses indentation to define clauses if x > y : x = y print "case 1" ICOM Ch ICOM Ch

6 Nesting Selectors Java example if (sum == 0) if (count == 0) result = 0; else result = 1; Which if gets the else? Java's static semantics rule: else matches with the nearest unmatched if ICOM Ch Nesting Selectors (cont d) To force an alternative semantics, compound statements may be used: if (sum == 0) { if (count == 0) result = 0; } else result = 1; The above solution is used in C, C++, and C# Perl requires that all then and else clauses to be compound ICOM Ch Nesting Selectors (cont d) Multiple-Way Selection Statements Statement sequences as clauses: Ruby if sum == 0 then if count == 0 then result = 0 else result = 1 Indentation: Python if sum == 0 : if count == 0: result = 0 else : result = 1 Allow the selection of one of any number of statements or statement groups Design Issues: 1. What is the form and type of the control expression? 2. How are the selectable segments specified? 3. Is execution flow through the structure restricted to include just a single selectable segment? 4. How are case values specified? 5. What is done about unrepresented expression values? ICOM Ch ICOM Ch

7 Multiple-Way Selection: Examples C, C++, and Java switch (expression) { case const_expr_1: stmt_1; } case const_expr_n: stmt_n; [default: stmt_n+1] Multiple-Way Selection: Examples Design choices for C s switch statement 1. Control expression can be only an integer type 2. Selectable segments can be statement sequences, compound statements, or blocks 3. Any number of segments can be executed in one execution of the construct (there is no implicit branch at the of selectable segments) 4. default clause is for unrepresented values (if there is no default, the whole statement does nothing for unrepresented values) ICOM Ch ICOM Ch Multiple-Way Selection: Examples C# Differs from C in that it has a static semantics rule that disallows the implicit execution of more than one segment Each selectable segment must with an unconditional branch (goto or break) Also, in C# the control expression and the case constants can be strings Multiple-Way Selection: Examples Ada case expression is when choice list => stmt_sequence; when choice list => stmt_sequence; when others => stmt_sequence;] case; More reliable than C s switch (once a stmt_sequence execution is completed, control is passed to the first statement after the case statement ICOM Ch ICOM Ch

8 Multiple-Way Selection: Examples Ada design choices: 1. Expression can be any ordinal type 2. Segments can be single or compound 3. Only one segment can be executed per execution of the construct Constant List Forms: 1. A list of constants 2. Can include: - Subranges - Boolean OR operators ( ) ICOM Ch Multiple-Way Selection: Examples Ruby has two forms of case statements 1. One form is a compound assignment leap = case when year % 400 == 0 then true when year % 100 == 0 then false else year % 4 == 0 2. The other uses a case value and when values case in_val when -1 then neg_count++ when 0 then zero_count++ when 1 then pos_count++ else puts "Error in_val is out of range" ICOM Ch Multiple-Way Selection Using if Multiple Selectors can appear as direct extensions to two-way selectors, using else-if clauses, for example in Python: if count < 10 : bag1 = True elif count < 100 : bag2 = True elif count < 1000 : bag3 = True Multiple-Way Selection Using if The Python example can be written as a Ruby case case when count < 10 then bag1 = true when count < 100 then bag2 = true when count < 1000 then bag3 = true ICOM Ch ICOM Ch

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