# Expression Evaluation and Control Flow. Outline

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1 Expression Evaluation and Control Flow In Text: Chapter 6 Outline Notation Operator Evaluation Order Operand Evaluation Order Overloaded operators Type conversions Short-circuit evaluation of conditions Control structures N. Meng, S. Arthur 2 1

2 Arithmetic Expressions Design issues for arithmetic expressions Notation form? What are the operator precedence rules? What are the operator associativity rules? What is the order of operand evaluation? Are there restrictions on operand evaluation side effects? Does the language allow user-defined operator overloading? N. Meng, S. Arthur 3 Operators A unary operator has one operand A binary operator has two operands A ternary operator has three operands Functions can be viewed as unary operators with an operand of a simple list N. Meng, S. Arthur 4 2

3 Operators Argument lists (or parameter lists) treat separators (comma, space) as stacking or append operators A keyword in a language statement can be viewed as functions in which the remainder of the statement is the operand N. Meng, S. Arthur 5 Notation & Placement Prefix op a b op(a,b) (op a b) Infix a op b Postfix a b op N. Meng, S. Arthur 6 3

4 Notation & Placement Most imperative languages use infix notation for binary and prefix for unary operators Lisp: prefix (op a b) N. Meng, S. Arthur 7 Operator Evaluation Order [1] Precedence Associativity Parentheses N. Meng, S. Arthur 8 4

5 Operator Precedence Define the order in which adjacent operators of different precedence levels are evaluated Parenthetical groups (...) Exponentiation ** Mult & Div *, / Add & Sub +, - Assignment := Where to put the parentheses? E.g., A * B + C ** D / E - F N. Meng, S. Arthur 9 Operator Associativity Define the order in which adjacent operators with the same precedence level are evaluated: Left associative *, /, +, - Right associative ** (exponentiation) Where to put the parentheses? E.g., B ** C ** D - E + F * G / H N. Meng, S. Arthur 10 5

6 Operator Associativity EFFECTIVELY Most programming languages evaluate expressions from left to right LISP uses parentheses to enforce evaluation order APL is strictly RIGHT to LEFT, taking note only of parenthetical groups N. Meng, S. Arthur 11 Operator Associativity Associativity For some operators, the evaluation order does not matter, i.e., (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) However, in a computer when floatingpoint numbers are represented approximately, the mathematical associativity does not always hold E.g., A = 200, B = Float.MIN_VALUE, C = -10 N. Meng, S. Arthur 12 6

7 Parentheses Programmers can alter the precedence and associativity rules by placing parentheses in expressions A parenthesized part of an expression has precedence over its adjacent unparenthesized parts N. Meng, S. Arthur 13 Parentheses Advantages Allow programmers to specify any desired order of evaluation Do not require author or reader of programs to remember any precedence or association rules Disadvantages Can make writing expressions more tedious May seriously compromise code readability N. Meng, S. Arthur 14 7

8 Operand Evaluation Order If none of the operands of an operator has side effects, then the operand evaluation order does not matter What are side effects? Referential transparency and side effects N. Meng, S. Arthur 15 Side Effects Often discussed in the context of functions A side effect is some permanent state change caused by execution of functions The subsequent computation is influenced other than by the return value for use j = i++ a = 10, b = a + fun(&a) (assume the function can change its parameter value) N. Meng, S. Arthur 16 8

9 Side Effects Many imperative languages distinguish between expressions, which always produce values, and may or may not have side effects, and statements, which are executed solely for their side effects, and return no useful value Imperative programming is sometimes called computing via side effects N. Meng, S. Arthur 17 Side Effects Pure functional languages have no side effects The value of an expression depends only on the referencing environment in which the expression is evaluated, not the time at which the evaluation occurs If an expression yields a certain value at one point in time, it is guaranteed to yield the same value at any point in time N. Meng, S. Arthur 18 9

10 How to avoid side effects? Design the language to disallow functional side effects No pass-by-reference parameters in functions Disallow global variable access in functions Concerns Programmers need the flexibility to return more than one value from a function Passing parameters is inefficient compared with accessing global variables N. Meng, S. Arthur 19 How to avoid side effects? Design the language with a strictly fixed evaluation order between operands Concerns Disallow some optimizations which involve reordering operand evaluations N. Meng, S. Arthur 20 10

11 Referential Transparency and Side Effects A program has the property of referential transparency if any two expressions having the same value can be substituted for one another E.g., result1 = (fun(a) + b) / (fun(a) c); ó temp = fun(a); result2 = (temp + b) / (temp - c), given that the function fun has no side effect N. Meng, S. Arthur 21 Key points of referentially transparent programs Semantics is much easier to understand Being referentially transparent makes a function equivalent to a mathematical function Programs written in pure functional languages are referentially transparent The value of a referentially transparent function depends on its parameters, and possibly one or more global constants N. Meng, S. Arthur 22 11

12 Overloaded Operators The multiple use of an operator is called operator overloading E.g., + is used to specify integer addition, floating-point addition, and string catenation Do not use the same symbol for two completely unrelated operations, because that can decrease readability In C, & can represent a bitwise AND operator, and an address-of operator N. Meng, S. Arthur 23 Type Conversion Narrowing conversion To convert a value to a type that cannot store all values of the original type E.g., double->float, float->int Widening conversion To convert a value to a type that can include all values belong to the original type E.g., int->float, float->double N. Meng, S. Arthur 24 12

13 Narrowing Conversion vs. Widening Conversion Narrowing conversion are not always safe The magnitude of the converted value can be changed E.g., float->int with 1.3E25, the converted value is distantly related to the original one Widening conversion is always safe However, some precision may be lost E.g., int->float, integers have at least 9 decimal digits of precision, while floats have 7 decimal digits of precision 25 Implicit Type Conversion A coercion is an implicit type conversion Arithmetic expressions with operators that can have differently typed operands are called mixed-mode expressions Languages allowing such expressions must define implicit operand type conversions N. Meng, S. Arthur 26 13

14 Implicit Type Conversion var x, y: integer; z: real;... y := x * z; /* x is automahcally converted to real */ Implicit type conversion can be achieved by narrowing or widening one or more operators It is better to widen when possible E.g., x = 3, z = 5.9 y = 17 if x is widened, y = 15 if z is narrowed N. Meng, S. Arthur 27 Key Points of Implicit Coercions They decrease the type error detection ability of compilers Did you really mean to use mixed-mode expressions? In most languages, all numeric types are coerced in expressions, using widening conversions N. Meng, S. Arthur 28 14

15 Explicit Type Conversion Also called casts Ada example FLOAT(INDEX)-- INDEX is an INTEGER C example: (int) speed /* speed is a float */ N. Meng, S. Arthur 29 15

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