Lecture 3 Operators MIT AITI

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1 Lecture 3 Operators MIT AITI

2 What are Operators? Operators are special symbols used for mathematical functions assignment statements logical comparisons Examples: // uses + operator * (5 3) // uses +, -, * operators Expressions can be combinations of variables, primitives and operators that result in a value

3 The Operator Groups There are 5 different groups of operators: Arithmetic operators Assignment operator Increment/Decrement operators Relational operators Conditional operators

4 Arithmetic Operators Java has 6 basic arithmetic operators + add - subtract * multiply / divide % modulo (remainder) ^ exponent (to the power of) Order of operations (or precedence) when evaluating an expression is the same as you learned in school (PEMDAS).

5 Order of Operations Example: / 5; The result is different depending on whether the addition or division is performed first ( ) / 5 = (15 / 5) = 13 Without parentheses, Java will choose the second case Note: you should be explicit and use parentheses to avoid confusion Should give more examples during lecture. Be dynamic teachers.

6 Integer Division In the previous example, we were lucky that ( ) / 5 gives an exact integer answer (5). But what if we divide 63 by 35? Depending on the data types of the variables that store the numbers, we will get different results.

7 Integer Division Example int i = 63; int j = 35; System.out.println(i / j); Output: 1 double x = 63; double y = 35; System.out.println(x / y); Ouput: 1.8 The result of integer division is just the integer part of the quotient!

8 Assignment Operator The basic assignment operator (=) assigns the value of expr to var var = expr ; Java allows you to combine arithmetic and assignment operators into a single operator. Examples: x = x + 5; is equivalent to x += 5; y = y * 7; is equivalent to y *= 7;

9 Increment/Decrement Operators count = count + 1; can be written as: ++count; or count++; ++ is called the increment operator. count = count - 1; can be written as: --count; or count--; -- is called the decrement operator.

10 The increment/decrement operator has two forms: The prefix form ++count, --count first adds 1 to the variable and then continues to any other operator in the expression int numoranges = 5; int numapples = 10; int numfruit; numfruit = ++numoranges + numapples; numfruit has value 16 numoranges has value 6 The postfix form count++, count-- first evaluates the expression and then adds 1 to the variable int numoranges = 5; int numapples = 10; int numfruit; numfruit = numoranges++ + numapples; numfruit has value 15 numoranges has value 6

11 Relational (Comparison) Operators Relational operators compare two values Produces a boolean value (true or false) depending on the relationship operation is true when... a > b a >= b a == b a!= b a <= b a < b a is greater than b a is greater than or equal to b a is equal to b a is not equal to b a is less than or equal to b a is less than b Note: == sign!

12 Examples of Relational Operations int x = 3; int y = 5; boolean result; 1) result = (x > y); now result is assigned the value false because 3 is not greater than 5 2) result = (15 == x*y); now result is assigned the value true because the product of 3 and 5 equals 15 3) result = (x!= x*y); now result is assigned the value true because the product of x and y (15) is not equal to x (3)

13 Conditional Operators Symbol && Name AND OR! NOT Conditional operators can be referred to as boolean operators, because they are only used to combine expressions that have a value of true or false.

14 Truth Table for Conditional Operators x y x && y x y!x True True True True False True False False True False False True False True True False False False False True

15 Examples of Conditional Operators boolean x = true; boolean y = false; boolean result; 1. Let result = (x && y); now result is assigned the value false (see truth table!) 2. Let result = ((x y) && x); (x y) evaluates to true (true && x) evaluates to true now result is assigned the value true

16 Using && and Examples: (a && (b++ > 3)) (x y) Java will evaluate these expressions from left to right and so will evaluate a before (b++ > 3) x before y Java performs short-circuit evaluation: it evaluates && and expressions from left to right and once it finds the result, it stops.

17 Short-Circuit Evaluations (a && (b++ > 3)) What happens if a is false? Java will not evaluate the right-hand expression (b++ > 3) if the left-hand operator a is false, since the result is already determined in this case to be false. This means b will not be incremented! (x y) What happens if x is true? Similarly, Java will not evaluate the right-hand operator y if the left-hand operator x is true, since the result is already determined in this case to be true.

18 POP QUIZ 1) What is the value of number? -12 int number = 5 * 3 3 / 6 9 * 3; 2) What is the value of result? false int x = 8; int y = 2; boolean result = (15 == x * y); 3) What is the value of result? true boolean x = 7; boolean result = (x < 8) && (x > 4); 4) What is the value of numcars? 27 int numbluecars = 5; int numgreencars = 10; int numcars = numgreencars++ + numbluecars + ++numgreeencars;

19 References Summary of Java operators Order of Operations (PEMDAS) 1. Parentheses 2. Exponents 3. Multiplication and Division from left to right 4. Addition and Subtraction from left to right

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