EEC 483 Computer Organization


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1 EEC 483 Computer Organization Chapter 3. Arithmetic for Computers Chansu Yu Table of Contents Ch.1 Introduction Ch. 2 Instruction: Machine Language Ch. 34 CPU Implementation Ch. 5 Cache and VM Ch. 67 I/O & Multiprocessors Computer CPU Programmer interface instruction set ALU, Mux, Memory, Sequential circuit,... CPU designer interface component spec. connection spec. User interface keyboard/ mouse screen/ speaker Software interface (ch.2) Hardware interface (ch.35) 2 Textbook subtitle 1
2 Table of Contents Ch.1 Introduction Ch. 2 Instructions: Language of the Computer Ch. 3 CPU Implementation: Arithmetic 3.1 Introduction 3.3 Multiplication 3.2 Addition and subtraction 3.4 Division 3.5 Floating point Appendix C.5 Constructing an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Ch. 4 CPU Implementation: Pipeline Software interface Hardware interface Ch. 5 Cache and Virtual Memory Ch. 67 I/O and Multiprocessors 3 Arithmetic Where we've been: Performance (seconds, cycles, instructions) Abstractions: Instruction Set Architecture Assembly Language and Machine Language What's up ahead: Implementing the Architecture a b 32 operation ALU 32 result
3 3.2 Addition & Subtraction Just like in grade school (carry/borrow 1s) Two's complement operations easy subtraction using addition of negative numbers Overflow (result too large for finite computer word): e.g., adding two nbit numbers does not yield an nbit number Detecting Overflow No overflow when adding a positive and a negative number No overflow when signs are the same for subtraction Overflow occurs when the value affects the sign: overflow when adding two positives yields a negative or, adding two negatives gives a positive or, subtract a negative from a positive and get a negative or, subtract a positive from a negative and get a positive An exception (interrupt) occurs Control jumps to predefined address for exception Interrupted address is saved for possible resumption 6 3
4 Cf. Exceptions and Interrupts MIPS exception facility Exceptions caused by errors External interrupts caused by I/O devices Exception handling CPU records information about what went wrong Software handler process the exception Error : report and halt, cure and continue (page fault), IO interrupt : data processing from/to the interrupted IO device 7 Cf. CPU Records Information Registers Cause EPC exception type and pending interrupt bits register containing address of instruction that caused exception which problem? which instruction? mfc0 (move from system control) instruction is used to copy EPC to general purpose register mfco $10, $epc 8 4
5 Cf. Exception Type (cause) 0 Int External interrupt (hardware) 4 AdEL Address error (load or instruction fetch) 5 AdES Address error (store) 6 IBE Bus error on instruction fetch 7 DBE Bus error on data load/store 8 Sys Syscall exception 9 Bp Breakpoint exception 10 RI Reserved instruction exception 11 CpU Coprocessor unimplemented 12 Ov Arithmetic overflow exception 13 Tr Trap 15 FPE Floating point exception 9 Cf. Software Handler Procedure Stop executing and Jump to fixed address 0x SPIM simulator uses 0x E.g.) CPU executes instruction whenever it is ON. If the CPU is powered on, somebody has to tell which address to start. (=reset address) 0x is the natural choice (MIPS) 0x000f fff0 for Intel CPU (ROM BIOS) 10 5
6 3.3 Multiplication More complicated than addition accomplished via shifting and addition More time and more area Let's look at 3 versions based on grade school algorithm (multiplicand) x_01011 (multiplier) Negative numbers: convert and multiply there are better techniques, we won t look at them 11 Multiplication Paper and pencil example (unsigned): Multiplicand Multiplier Product m bits x n bits = m+n bit product Binary makes it easy: 0 => place 0 1 => place a copy ( 0 x multiplicand) ( 1 x multiplicand) 12 6
7 Multiplication Paper and pencil example (unsigned): Multiplicand Multiplier Product m bits x n bits = m+n bit product Binary makes it easy: 0 => place 0 1 => place a copy ( 0 x multiplicand) ( 1 x multiplicand) 13 Product (T) =0 Multiplier 0 =1, thus, T += Multiplicand () Multiplier 1 =1, thus, T += Multiplicand<<1 (0) Multiplier 3 =1, thus, T += Multiplicand<<3 (000) Each step, shift Multiplicand one bit to the left Each step, shift Multiplier one bit to the right and check Multiplier 0 Multiplication T=0 Multiplier 0 =1 T += Multiplicand N Multiplicand<<1 Multiplier >>1 Done N 14 7
8 Multiplication: 5 () x 11 (01011) Iteration Step Multiplier (R) Multiplicand (D) Product (T) 0 Initial values 1 1: T = T + D (since R0=1) 2: Shift left D 2 1: T = T + D (since R0=1) 2: Shift left D 3 1: no operation (since R0=0) 2: Shift left D 4 1: T = T + D (since R0=1) 2: Shift left D 5 1: no operation (since R0=0) 2: Shift left D => 55 Size of register that holds Multiplier? Size of register that holds T? Size of register that holds Multiplicand? 15 Multiplication: Implementation Do addition (if 1 ) Write (if 1 ) Multiplicand 64 bits Shift left 64bit ALU Multiplier Shift right 32 bits Product 64 bits Write Control test Number of bits???  32bit architecture  Multiplier: 32bit  Multiplicand: 64bit!!!  Product: 64bit!!!  ALU: 64bit ALU!!! It is actually a series of 32bit add operations. Replace 64bit ALU with 32bit ALU Shift product (res) instead of shifting m cand Next slice!!! 16 8
9 Multiplication Paper and pencil example (unsigned): Multiplicand Multiplier Product m bits x n bits = m+n bit product Binary makes it easy: 0 => place 0 1 => place a copy ( 0 x multiplicand) ( 1 x multiplicand) 17 Product (T) =0 Multiplier 0 =1, thus, T += Multiplicand () Or, T += Multiplicand<<5 () & T>>5 Multiplier 1 =1, thus, T += Multiplicand<<1 (0) Or, T += Multiplicand<<5 () & T>>4 Multiplier 3 =1, thus, T += Multiplicand<<3 (000) Or, T += Multiplicand<<5 () & T>>2 How can we improve the design? Itera tion Step Multiplier (R) Multiplicand (D) Product (T) 0 Initial values : T = T + D<<5 (since R0=1) : T = T + D<<5 (since R0=1) : no operation (since R0=0) : T = T + D<<5 (since R0=1) : no operation (since R0=0) => 55 * 32bit additions with 5bit D and upper part of T 18 9
10 Implementation Do addition (if 1 ) Write (if 1 ) Multiplicand 32 bits 32bit ALU Product Shift right Write Multiplier Shift right 32 bits Control test Number of bits???  32bit architecture  Multiplier: 32bit  Multiplicand: 64bit => 32bit  Product: 64bit!!!  ALU: 64bit ALU => 32bit ALU 64 bits Product register wastes space that exactly matches size of multiplier Multiplier space can be saved. Combine Multiplier register and Product register (Multiplier register stored in lower part of Product register will be thrown away one bit at a time) Next slice!!! 19 How can we improve the design? Itera tion Step Multiplier (R) Multiplicand (D) Product (T) 0 Initial values : T = T + D<<5 (since R0=1) : T = T + D<<5 (since R0=1) : no operation (since R0=0) : T = T + D<<5 (since R0=1) : no operation (since R0=0) => Not used 10
11 Final Version Start Product0 = 1 1. Test Product0 Product0 = 0 Multiplicand 32 bits 1a. Add multiplicand to the left half of the product and place the result in the left half of the Product register 32bit ALU Product Shift right Write Control test 2. Shift the Product register right 1 bit 64 bits 32nd repetition? No: < 32 repetitions Just 1 step instead of 2 steps => Total of 2 steps per bit 21 Done Yes: 32 repetitions Multiply in MIPS Instruction Example Meaning Comments multiply mult $2,$3 Hi, Lo = $2 x $3 64bit signed product multiply unsigned multu$2,$3 Hi, Lo = $2 x $3 64bit unsigned product Move from Hi mfhi $1 $1 = Hi Used to get copy of Hi Move from Lo mflo $1 $1 = Lo Used to get copy of Lo 22 11
12 3.4 Divide: Division in MIPS Instruction Example Meaning Comments divide div $2,$3 Lo = $2 $3, Lo = quotient, Hi = remainder Hi = $2 mod $3 divide unsigned divu $2,$3 Lo = $2 $3, Unsigned quotient & remainder Hi = $2 mod $3 Move from Hi mfhi $1 $1 = Hi Used to get copy of Hi Move from Lo mflo $1 $1 = Lo Used to get copy of Lo 23 Divide $2 / $3 = quotient... remainder Is quotient 32bit or 16bit? Is remainder 32bit or 16bit? Example $2= $3= Quotient= Quotient must be 32bit! $2= $3= Quotient=1, Remainder= Remainder must be 32bit! 24 nbit / nbit nbit quotient, nbit remainder More hardware (wasting) nbit / n/2bit n/2bit quotient, n/2bit remainder Overflow Two basic approaches Restoring : conventional Nonrestoring 12
13 Implementation: Paper & Pencil 8 Quotient Divisor Dividend Quotient Divisor Dividend We know where to start Just start from the first possible digit If the result is negative, move on to the next digit while recovering the dividend to the original value If the subtraction gives positive, Qi=1, Otherwise, Qi=0 and restore the dividend * Each step, shift right divisor * One nice thing with binary computation is that the quotient 25 bit can be 1 or 0 Implementation: Paper & Pencil Divisor Quotient 10 Dividend Remainder (or Modulo result) We know 10 is less than But ALU does not know until it subtracts and gets the negative result. If it is negative, it needs to restore the dividend to the original value by adding 1000, i.e., ( )+1000 = 10 See how big a number can be subtracted, creating quotient bit on each step Binary => 1 * divisor or 0 * divisor Dividend = Quotient x Divisor + Remainder => Dividend = Quotient + Divisor 3 versions of divide, successive refinement 26 13
14 Dividend: (11), Divisor: (5) Iteration Step Initial values 1: R = R  D 2: R<0 => Restore R, Shift left Q, Q0=0 3: Shift right D 1: R = R  D 2: R<0 => Restore R, Shift left Q, Q0=0 3: Shift right D 1: R = R  D 2: R<0 => Restore R, Shift left Q, Q0=0 3: Shift right D 1: R = R  D 2: R<0 => Restore R, Shift left Q, Q0=0 3: Shift right D 1: R = R  D 2: R>=0 => Shift left Q, Q0=1 3: Shift right D 1: R = R  D 2: R<0 => Restore R, Shift left Q, Q0=0 3: Shift right D Quotient (Q) Divisor (D) Remainder (R) Quotient = 2 remainder = 1 dividend Restored Restored Restored Restored Not restored Restored Divide Algorithm Version 1 Takes n+1 steps for nbit Quotient & Rem. Remainder Quotient Divisor Remainder > 0 Start: Place Dividend in Remainder 1. Subtract the Divisor register from the Remainder register, and place the result in the Remainder register. Test Remainder Remainder < 0 2a. Shift the Quotient register to the left setting the new rightmost bit to 1. 2b. Restore the original value by adding the Divisor register to the Remainder register, & place the sum in the Remainder register. Also shift the Quotient register to the left, setting the new least significant bit to Shift the Divisor register right1 bit. n+1 repetition? 28 Done No: < n+1 repetitions Yes: n+1 repetitions (n = 4 here) 14
15 DIVIDE HARDWARE Version 1 64bit Divisor reg, 64bit ALU, 64bit Remainder reg, 32bit Quotient reg Divisor 64 bits Shift Right 64bit ALU Quotient 32 bits Shift Left Remainder 64 bits Write Control 29 Observations on Divide Version 1 1/2 bits in divisor always 0 => 1/2 of 64bit adder is wasted => 1/2 of divisor is wasted Instead of shifting divisor to right, shift remainder to left? 1st step cannot produce a 1 in quotient bit (otherwise too big) => switch order to shift first and then subtract, can save one iteration 30 15
16 DIVIDE HARDWARE Version 2 32bit Divisor reg, 32bit ALU, 64bit Remainder reg, 32bit Quotient reg Divisor 32bit ALU 32 bits Quotient 32 bits Shift Left Remainder 64 bits Shift Left Write Control 31 Remainder Divide Algorithm Version 2 Quotient Divisor Start: Place Dividend in Remainder 1. Shift the Remainder register left 1 bit. 2. Subtract the Divisor register from the left half of the Remainder register, & place the result in the left half of the Remainder register. Remainder 0 Test Remainder Remainder < 0 3a. Shift the Quotient register to the left setting the new rightmost bit to 1. 3b. Restore the original value by adding the Divisor register to the left half of the Remainderregister, &place the sum in the left half of the Remainder register. Also shift the Quotient register to the left, setting the new least significant bit to 0. nth repetition? 32 Done No: < n repetitions Yes: n repetitions (n = 4 here) 16
17 Observations on Divide Version 2 Eliminate Quotient register by combining with Remainder as shifted left Start by shifting the Remainder left as before. Thereafter loop contains only two steps because the shifting of the Remainder register shifts both the remainder in the left half and the quotient in the right half The consequence of combining the two registers together and the new order of the operations in the loop is that the remainder will shifted left one time too many. Thus the final correction step must shift back only the remainder in the left half of the register 33 Divide Hardware: Final Version 32bit Divisor reg, 32 bit ALU, 64bit Remainder reg, (0bit Quotient reg) Divisor 32 bits 32bit ALU HI LO Remainder (Quotient) 64 bits Shift Left Write Control 34 17
18 Remainder Divide Algorithm Version 3 Divisor Start: Place Dividend in Remainder 1. Shift the Remainder register left 1 bit. 2. Subtract the Divisor register from the left half of the Remainder register, & place the result in the left half of the Remainder register. Remainder 0 Test Remainder Remainder < 0 3a. Shift the Remainder register to the left setting the new rightmost bit to 1. 3b. Restore the original value by adding the Divisor register to the left half of the Remainderregister, &place the sum in the left half of the Remainder register. Also shift the Remainder register to the left, setting the new least significant bit to 0. nth repetition? 35 No: < n repetitions Yes: n repetitions (n = 4 here) Done. Shift left half of Remainder right 1 bit. Observations on Divide Version 3 Same Hardware as Multiply : just need ALU to add or subtract, and 63bit register to shift left or shift right Hi and Lo registers in MIPS combine to act as 64bit register for multiply and divide Signed Divides: Simplest is to remember signs, make positive, and complement quotient and remainder if necessary Note: Dividend and Remainder must have same sign Note: Quotient negated if Divisor sign & Dividend sign disagree e.g., 7 2 = 3, remainder = 1 Possible for quotient to be too large: if divide 64bit interger by 1, quotient is 64 bits ( called saturation ) 36 18
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