Java enum, casts, and others (Select portions of Chapters 4 & 5)

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1 Enum or enumerates types Java enum, casts, and others (Select portions of Chapters 4 & 5) Sharma Chakravarthy Information Technology Laboratory (IT Lab) Computer Science and Engineering Department The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX Course Url: URL: See section 8.9 (page 335) for details and usage An enumerated data type Consists of a set of pre-defined values You can create a variable to hold only the values that belong to the enumerated data type enum Day {SUNDAY, MONDAY, TUESDAY, WEDNESDAY} enum Typename {one or more enum constants} No quotes for constants (they are not strings) All upper case (Java convention for constants) Must be java identifiers No assignment operator Enum (2) Enumerated types are specialized classes Day workday; workday = Day.WEDNESDAY; //use fully qualified name The workday variable holds the Address of Day.WEDNESDAY object Each of these is an object of the Day type which is a specialized class Day.SUNDAY Day.MONDAY Day.TUESDAY Enum (3) System.out.println( WorkDay has value:, workday); Will print: WorkDay has value: WEDNESDAY System.out.println( The ordinal value for, + Day.SUNDAY + is + Day.SUNDAY.ordinal()); Will print: The ordinal value for SUNDAY is 0 If you define an enumerated method inside a class, it cannot be inside a method You can write an enumerated type declaration in its own file. File name should match the name of the type (will see later) Can be used in a switch statement Day.WEDNESDAY 1

2 Enum (4) Enum has a valueof() method that accepts a string and returns the corresponding enum value workday = Day.valueOf( WEDNESDAY ) Will set of the value of workday to the enum constant WEDNESDAY System.out.println( Current value of workday is:, + workday); Will print: Current value of workday is: WEDNESDAY Useful for going back between String value and enum value Useful for project 1 Enum (4) enum constants are implicitly final (because they declare constants that should not be modified) enum constants are implicitly static Creating an enum object with a new results in an error enum constants can be used anywhere a constant can be used including a switch statement Enum (5) Can be defined in a separate file (similar to a class definition) with fields, constructors, and methods java.lang.enumset has a static method range that can be used with an enum For every enum, the compiler generates the static method values that returns an array of enum constants in the order they were declared Overview of java data types 2

3 Primitive Types vs. Reference Types Types are divided into primitive types and reference types. The primitive types are boolean, byte, char, short, int, long, float and double. All non-primitive types are reference types. A primitive-type variable can store exactly one value of its declared type at a time. Primitive-type variables are not initialized by Java. Gives a compilation error if not initialized. You can specify your own initial value for a primitive-type variable by assigning the variable a value in its declaration Primitive-type instance variables are initialized by default; variables of types byte, char, short, int, long, float and double are initialized to 0, and variables of type boolean are initialized to false.. Understand the difference between an instance attributes and a local variable Java s logical operators enable you to form more complex conditions by combining simple conditions. The logical operators are && (conditional AND) (conditional OR) & (boolean logical AND) (boolean logical inclusive OR) ^ (boolean logical exclusive OR)! (logical NOT). [Note: The &, and ^ operators are also bitwise operators when they are applied to integral operands.] 3

4 In java, the parts of an expression containing && and operators are evaluated only until it is known whether the condition is true or false (known as short-circuit evaluation)! Operator && has higher precedence than Both associate from left to right The boolean logical AND (&) and boolean logical inclusive OR ( ) operators are identical to the && and operators, except that the & and operators always evaluate both of their operands (i.e., they do not perform short-circuit evaluation). This is useful if the right operand of the boolean logical AND or boolean logical inclusive OR operator has a required side effect a modification of a variable s value. 4

5 Avoid expressions like: if ((lownum!= 0) & ((highnum = result++) == --result)) A simple condition containing the boolean logical exclusive OR (^) operator is true if and only if one of its operands is true and the other is false. If both are true or both are false, the entire condition is false. Figure 5.16 is a truth table for the boolean logical exclusive OR operator (^). This operator is guaranteed to evaluate both of its operands. The! (logical NOT, also called logical negation or logical complement) operator reverses the meaning of a condition. The logical negation operator is a unary operator that has only a single condition as an operand. The logical negation operator is placed before a condition to choose a path of execution if the original condition (without the logical negation operator) is false. In most cases, you can avoid using logical negation by expressing the condition differently with an appropriate relational or equality operator. Figure 5.17 is a truth table for the logical negation operator. 5

6 Figure 5.18 produces the truth tables discussed in this section. The %b format specifier displays the word true or the word false based on a boolean expression s value. Compound assignment operators abbreviate assignment expressions. Statements like variable = variable operator expression; where operator is one of the binary operators +, -, *, / or % can be written in the form variable operator= expression; Example: c = c + 3; can be written with the addition compound assignment operator, +=, as c += 3; The += operator adds the value of the expression on its right to the value of the variable on its left and stores the result in the variable on the left of the operator. 6

7 Unary increment operator, ++, adds one to its operand Unary decrement operator, --, subtracts one from its operand An increment or decrement operator that is prefixed to (placed before) a variable is referred to as the prefix increment or prefix decrement operator, respectively. An increment or decrement operator that is postfixed to (placed after) a variable is referred to as the postfix increment or postfix decrement operator, respectively. A += b += c; is evaluated as a += (b += c); 7

8 double float long int short byte Primitive data type ranking highest rank lowest rank char can be widened to int, long, float and double boolean cannot be widened to any other type Primitive data type ranking widening conversion In assignment statements where values of lower ranked data types are stored in variables of higher ranked data types, Java automatically converts the lower ranked value to the higher ranked type double d; int i = 10; d = i; //automatically widened/converted Widening happens as long as there is no loss of information!! 8

9 Primitive data type ranking A narrowing conversion Is a conversion in the other direction Since there is a potential loss of data, Java does not do it automatically Has to be done explicitly cast operator is used for this purpose i = (int) d; //where d is declared as double i = (int) // converts to 23 The cast operator can be applied to an entire expression enclosed in parentheses doublenumber = (double) (intnum/intden); Integer division yields an integer result. To perform a floating-point calculation with integers, temporarily treat these values as floating-point numbers for use in the calculation. The unary cast operator (double) creates a temporary floatingpoint copy of its operand. Cast operator performs explicit conversion (or type cast). The value stored in the operand is unchanged. Java evaluates only arithmetic expressions in which the operands types are identical. Promotion (or implicit conversion) is performed on operands. In an expression containing values of the types int and double, the int values are promoted to double values for use in the expression. Cast operators are available for any type. Cast operator formed by placing parentheses around the name of a type. The operator is a unary operator (i.e., an operator that takes only one operand). Java also supports unary versions of the plus (+) and minus ( ) operators. Cast operators associate from right to left; same precedence as other unary operators, such as unary + and unary -. This precedence is one level higher than that of the multiplicative operators *, / and %. Appendix A: Operator precedence chart 9

10 Java internally handles arithmetic operations on int, byte, and short by converting byte and short values temporarily to int values Hence, the result of an arithmetic expression having only int, short, and byte will always be an int short firstnumber = 10, secondnumber = 30, thirdnumber; thirdnumber = firstnumber + secondnumber ; Will give an error; fix it by thirdnumber = (short) firstnumber + secondnumber ; Java strives to convert all operands in the expression to the same data type (typically with the highest rank) If one of the operand is a double, the other operand will be converted into a double (prior to the operation); the result is a double If one of the operand is a float, the other operand will be converted into a float; the result is a float If one of the operand is a long, the other operand will be converted into a long; the result is a long Other ranking conversion rules apply Conver sion char Formatting (see Appendix G) Description usage s Printing strings %s or %10s d Display decimal (base 10) integer %d or %6d or % 5d or %+6d e or E Display in exponential notation f Display floating point value in decimal format %f or %5.3f or %,5.2f b or B Print true or false for the value of a boolean %b % Print % character (use \as escape \% n Print platform specific line separator use \as \n escape char x or X Display a hexadecimal integer %x or %10x a or A Display a floating point in hexadecimal %a or %10A o Display an octal integer %o Flag Formatting (see Appendix G) Description (minus sign) Left justify within specified field + (plus sign) Display + preceding positive values and preceding negative values space Print a space before a positive value not printed with a + flag # Prefixo to the output value when used with the octal conversion character o; ox for hexadecimal conversion character 0(zero) Pada field with leading zeros, (comma) Use the locale specific 1000 separator (e.g.,, in us and. In Europe) ( Enclose negative numbers in parenthesis 10

11 Variables and Data structures Let us discuss arrays A fixed size array can be defined in Java as follows: int[] prime = new int[20]; // integer array of size 20 int prime[] = new int[20]; Same as int [] prime or int prime[] prime = new int[20]; // constructing an array separately Note that int prime[], x, y ; is different from int[] prime, x, y; Similarly, you can declare multiple arrays as in String[] b = new String[200], name = String[20]; Since boolean is a primitive type, you can create boolean[] primes = new boolean[35]; Note always the index goes from 0 to n 1 (just like C) String[] name = { John, Mary, O-O programming }; Variables and Data structures (2) Let us discuss arrays with run time bounds (complicated in C) You can declare an array first and then create it using a variable! So instead of doing int[] prime = new int[20]; // integer array of size 20 int prime[] = new int[20]; Declare the an array variable first int [] prime or int prime[] Later, when you have the value (e.g., from input), do prime = new int[highnum]; This will define an array whose size is the value given in highnum //cannot change it afterwards The max size is available as length (you need not keep track) Can use it as: prime.length as a pre defined variable! Sharma Chakravarthy 41 Sharma Chakravarthy 42 Common errors to avoid Using -- and ++ operators improperly Formulating conditions that have side effect. Using multiple assignments incorrectly Using a pre-defined variable in the initialization portion of a for statement Common errors to avoid Inserting space in a combined assignment operator Using a variable to receive the result of a calculation when the variable s data type is incompatible with the data type of the result Incorrectly terminating a multi-line comment or a documentation comment 11

12 Thank You! Sharma Chakravarthy 45 12

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