# 2/9/2012. Chapter Four: Fundamental Data Types. Chapter Goals

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1 Chapter Four: Fundamental Data Types Chapter Goals To understand integer and floating-point numbers To recognize the limitations of the numeric types To become aware of causes for overflow and roundoff errors To understand the proper use of constants To write arithmetic expressions in Java To use the String type to define and manipulate character strings To learn how to read program input and produce formatted output 1

2 Number Types int: integers, no fractional part 1, -4, 0 double: floating-point numbers (double precision) 0.5, , 4.3E24, 1E-14 A numeric computation overflows if the result falls outside the range for the number type int n = ; System.out.println(n * n); // prints Java: 8 primitive types, including four integer types and two floating point types Primitive Types Type Description Size int The integer type, with range -2,147,483, ,147,483,647 4 bytes byte The type describing a single byte, with range byte short The short integer type, with range long The long integer type, with range -9,223,372,036,854,775, ,223,372,036,854,775,807 2 bytes 8 bytes double The double-precision floating-point type, with a range of about ± and about 15 significant decimal digits 8 bytes float char The single-precision floating-point type, with a range of about ±10 38 and about 7 significant decimal digits The character type, representing code units in the Unicode encoding scheme 4 bytes 2 bytes boolean The type with the two truth values false and true 1 bit 2

3 Number Types: Floating-point Types Rounding errors occur when an exact conversion between numbers is not possible double f = 4.35; System.out.println(100 * f); // prints Java: Illegal to assign a floating-point expression to an integer variable double balance = 13.75; int dollars = balance; // Error Casts: used to convert a value to a different type int dollars = (int) balance; // OK Cast discards fractional part. Continued Number Types: Floating-point Types (cont.) Math.round converts a floating-point number to nearest integer long rounded = Math.round(balance); // if balance is 13.75, then // rounded is set to 14 3

4 Syntax 4.1 Cast (typename) expression Example: (int) (balance * 100) Purpose: To convert an expression to a different type. Self Check 4.1 Which are the most commonly used number types in Java? Answer: int and double 4

5 Self Check 4.2 When does the cast (long) x yield a different result from the call Math.round(x)? Answer: When the fractional part of x is 0.5 Self Check 4.3 How do you round the double value x to the nearest int value, assuming that you know that it is less than 2 109? Answer: By using a cast: (int) Math.round(x) 5

6 Constants: final A final variable is a constant Once its value has been set, it cannot be changed Named constants make programs easier to read and maintain Convention: use all-uppercase names for constants final double QUARTER_VALUE = 0.25; final double DIME_VALUE = 0.1; final double NICKEL_VALUE = 0.05; final double PENNY_VALUE = 0.01; payment = dollars + quarters * QUARTER_VALUE + dimes * DIME_VALUE + nickels * NICKEL_VALUE + pennies * PENNY_VALUE; Constants: static final If constant values are needed in several methods, declare them together with the instance fields of a class and tag them as static and final Give static final constants public access to enable other classes to use them public class Math {... public static final double E = ; public static final double PI = ; } double circumference = Math.PI * diameter; 6

7 Syntax 4.2 Constant Definition In a method: final typename variablename = expression; In a class: accessspecifier static final typename variablename = expression; Example: final double NICKEL_VALUE = 0.05; public static final double LITERS_PER_GALLON = 3.785; Purpose: To define a constant in a method or a class. ch04/cashregister/cashregister.java 01: /** 02: A cash register totals up sales and computes change due. 03: */ 04: public class CashRegister 05: { 06: /** 07: Constructs a cash register with no money in it. 08: */ 09: public CashRegister() 10: { 11: purchase = 0; 12: payment = 0; 13: } 14: 15: /** 16: Records the purchase price of an item. amount the price of the purchased item 18: */ 19: public void recordpurchase(double amount) 20: { 21: purchase = purchase + amount; 22: } Continued 7

8 ch04/cashregister/cashregister.java (cont.) 23: 24: /** 25: Enters the payment received from the customer. dollars the number of dollars in the payment quarters the number of quarters in the payment dimes the number of dimes in the payment nickels the number of nickels in the payment pennies the number of pennies in the payment 31: */ 32: public void enterpayment(int dollars, int quarters, 33: int dimes, int nickels, int pennies) 34: { 35: payment = dollars + quarters * QUARTER_VALUE + dimes * DIME_VALUE 36: + nickels * NICKEL_VALUE + pennies * PENNY_VALUE; 37: } 38: 39: /** 40: Computes the change due and resets the machine for the next customer. the change due to the customer 42: */ 43: public double givechange() 44: { Continued ch04/cashregister/cashregister.java (cont.) 45: double change = payment - purchase; 46: purchase = 0; 47: payment = 0; 48: return change; 49: } 50: 51: public static final double QUARTER_VALUE = 0.25; 52: public static final double DIME_VALUE = 0.1; 53: public static final double NICKEL_VALUE = 0.05; 54: public static final double PENNY_VALUE = 0.01; 55: 56: private double purchase; 57: private double payment; 58: } 8

9 ch04/cashregister/cashregistertester.java 01: /** 02: This class tests the CashRegister class. 03: */ 04: public class CashRegisterTester 05: { 06: public static void main(string[] args) 07: { 08: CashRegister register = new CashRegister(); 09: 10: register.recordpurchase(0.75); 11: register.recordpurchase(1.50); 12: register.enterpayment(2, 0, 5, 0, 0); 13: System.out.print("Change: "); 14: System.out.println(register.giveChange()); 15: System.out.println("Expected: 0.25"); 16: 17: register.recordpurchase(2.25); 18: register.recordpurchase(19.25); 19: register.enterpayment(23, 2, 0, 0, 0); 20: System.out.print("Change: "); 21: System.out.println(register.giveChange()); 22: System.out.println("Expected: 2.0"); 23: } 24: } ch04/cashregister/cashregistertester.java (cont.) Output: Change: 0.25 Expected: 0.25 Change: 2.0 Expected: 2.0 9

10 Self Check 4.4 What is the difference between the following two statements? final double CM_PER_INCH = 2.54; and public static final double CM_PER_INCH = 2.54; Answer: The first definition is used inside a method, the second inside a class. Self Check 4.5 What is wrong with the following statement? double circumference = 3.14 * diameter; Answer: (1) You should use a named constant, not the "magic number" 3.14 (2) 3.14 is not an accurate representation of π. 10

11 Assignment, Increment, and Decrement Assignment is not the same as mathematical equality: items = items + 1; items++ is the same as items = items + 1 items-- subtracts 1 from items Assignment, Increment, and Decrement 11

12 Self Check 4.6 What is the meaning of the following statement? balance = balance + amount; Answer: The statement adds the amount value to the balance variable. Self Check 4.7 What is the value of n after the following sequence of statements? n--; n++; n--; Answer: One less than it was before. 12

13 Arithmetic Operations / is the division operator If both arguments are integers, the result is an integer. The remainder is discarded 7.0 / 4 yields / 4 yields 1 Get the remainder with % (pronounced "modulo") 7 % 4 is 3 Arithmetic Operations final int PENNIES_PER_NICKEL = 5; final int PENNIES_PER_DIME = 10; final int PENNIES_PER_QUARTER = 25; final int PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR = 100; // Compute total value in pennies int total = dollars * PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR + quarters * PENNIES_PER_QUARTER + nickels * PENNIES_PER_NICKEL + dimes * PENNIES_PER_DIME + pennies; // Use integer division to convert to dollars, cents int dollars = total / PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR; int cents = total % PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR; 13

14 The Math class Math class: contains methods like sqrt and pow To compute x n, you write Math.pow(x, n) However, to compute x 2 it is significantly more efficient simply to compute x * x To take the square root of a number, use the Math.sqrt; for example, Math.sqrt(x) In Java, can be represented as (-b + Math.sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c)) / (2 * a) Mathematical Methods Function Math.sqrt(x) Math.pow(x, y) Math.exp(x) Math.log(x) Math.sin(x), Math.cos(x), Math.tan(x) Math.round(x) Math.min(x, y), Math.max(x, y) Returns square root power x y e x natural log sine, cosine, tangent (x in radians) closest integer to x minimum, maximum 14

15 Analyzing an Expression Self Check 4.8 What is the value of 1729 / 100? Of 1729 % 100? Answer: 17 and 29 15

16 Self Check 4.9 Why doesn't the following statement compute the average of s1, s2, and s3? double average = s1 + s2 + s3 / 3; // Error Answer: Only s3 is divided by 3. To get the correct result, use parentheses. Moreover, if s1, s2, and s3 are integers, you must divide by 3.0 to avoid integer division: (s1 + s2 + s3) / 3.0 Self Check 4.10 What is the value of Math.sqrt(Math.pow(x, 2) + Math.pow(y, 2)) in mathematical notation? Answer: 16

17 Calling Static Methods A static method does not operate on an object double x = 4; double root = x.sqrt(); // Error Static methods are defined inside classes Naming convention: Classes start with an uppercase letter; objects start with a lowercase letter Math System.out Syntax 4.3 Static Method Call ClassName.methodName(parameters) Example: Math.sqrt(4) Purpose: To invoke a static method (a method that does not operate on an object) and supply its parameters. 17

18 Self Check 4.11 Why can't you call x.pow(y) to compute x y? Answer: x is a number, not an object, and you cannot invoke methods on numbers. Self Check 4.12 Is the call System.out.println(4) a static method call? Answer: No the println method is called on the object System.out. 18

19 Strings A string is a sequence of characters Strings are objects of the String class String constants: "Hello, World!" String variables: String message = "Hello, World!"; String length: int n = message.length(); Empty string: "" Concatenation Use the + operator: String name = "Dave"; String message = "Hello, " + name; // message is "Hello, Dave" If one of the arguments of the + operator is a string, the other is converted to a string String a = "Agent"; int n = 7; String bond = a + n; // bond is "Agent7" 19

20 Concatenation in Print Statements Useful to reduce the number of System.out.print instructions System.out.print("The total is "); System.out.println(total); versus System.out.println("The total is " + total); Converting between Strings and Numbers Convert to number: int n = Integer.parseInt(str); double x = Double.parseDouble(x); Convert to string: String str = "" + n; str = Integer.toString(n); 20

21 Substrings String greeting = "Hello, World!"; String sub = greeting.substring(0, 5); // sub is "Hello" Supply start and past the end position First position is at 0 Continued Substrings (cont.) Substring length is past the end - start 21

22 Self Check 4.13 Assuming the String variable s holds the value "Agent", what is the effect of the assignment s = s + s.length()? Answer: s is set to the string Agent5 Self Check 4.14 Assuming the String variable river holds the value "Mississippi ", what is the value of river.substring(1, 2)? Of river.substring(2, river.length() - 3)? Answer: The strings "i" and "ssissi" 22

23 International Alphabets International Alphabets 23

24 International Alphabets Reading Input System.in has minimal set of features it can only read one byte at a time In Java 5.0, Scanner class was added to read keyboard input in a convenient manner Scanner in = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter quantity:"); int quantity = in.nextint(); nextdouble reads a double nextline reads a line (until user hits Enter) nextword reads a word (until any white space) 24

25 ch04/cashregister/cashregistersimulator.java 01: import java.util.scanner; 02: 03: /** 04: This program simulates a transaction in which a user pays for an item 05: and receives change. 06: */ 07: public class CashRegisterSimulator 08: { 09: public static void main(string[] args) 10: { 11: Scanner in = new Scanner(System.in); 12: 13: CashRegister register = new CashRegister(); 14: 15: System.out.print("Enter price: "); 16: double price = in.nextdouble(); 17: register.recordpurchase(price); 18: 19: System.out.print("Enter dollars: "); 20: int dollars = in.nextint(); Continued ch04/cashregister/cashregistersimulator.java (cont.) Output: Enter price: 7.55 Enter dollars: 10 Enter quarters: 2 Enter dimes: 1 Enter nickels: 0 Enter pennies: 0 Your change: is

26 Reading Input From a Dialog Box Reading Input From a Dialog Box String input = JOptionPane.showInputDialog(prompt) Convert strings to numbers if necessary: int count = Integer.parseInt(input); Conversion throws an exception if user doesn't supply a number see chapter 11 Add System.exit(0) to the main method of any program that uses JOptionPane 26

27 Self Check 4.15 Why can't input be read directly from System.in? Answer: The class only has a method to read a single byte. It would be very tedious to form characters, strings, and numbers from those bytes. Self Check 4.16 Suppose in is a Scanner object that reads from System.in, and your program calls String name = in.next(); What is the value of name if the user enters John Q. Public? Answer: The value is "John". The next method reads the next word. 27

Chapter 4 Fundamental Data Types Chapter Goals To understand integer and floating-point numbers To recognize the limitations of the numeric types To become aware of causes for overflow and roundoff errors

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