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1 Chapter 4 Fundamental Data Types

3 Chapter Goals To understand integer and floating-point numbers To recognize the limitations of the numeric types To become aware of causes for overflow and roundoff errors To understand the proper use of constants To write arithmetic expressions in Java To use the String type to define and manipulate character strings To learn how to read program input and produce formatted output

4 Key Concepts Computer Numbers Math Numbers All computer data is encoded as bit strings Use named constants to avoid hardcoding magic numbers Numbers Numerals

5 Number Types int: integers, no fractional part: 1, -4, 0 double: floating-point numbers (double precision): 0.5, , 4.3E24, 1E-14 A numeric computation overflows if the result falls outside the range for the number type: int n = ; System.out.println(n * n); // prints Java: 8 primitive types, including four integer types and two floating point types

6 Primitive Types Type Description Size int The integer type, with range -2,147,483, ,147,483,647 4 bytes byte The type describing a single byte, with range byte short The short integer type, with range bytes long The long integer type, with range -9,223,372,036,854,775, ,223,372,036,854,775,807 8 bytes double The double-precision floating-point type, with a range of about ± and about 15 significant decimal digits 8 bytes float char The single-precision floating-point type, with a range of about ±10 38 and about 7 significant decimal digits The character type, representing code units in the Unicode encoding scheme 4 bytes 2 bytes boolean The type with the two truth values false and true 1 bit

7 Coding Methods for Numeric Types 2 s Complement Coding for Positive and Negative Integers

8 Coding Methods for Numeric Types IEEE 754 Standard for Floating Point Numbers

9 Number Types: Floating-point Types Rounding errors occur when an exact conversion between numbers is not possible: double f = 4.35; System.out.println(100 * f); // prints Java: Illegal to assign a floating-point expression to an integer variable: double balance = 13.75; int dollars = balance; // Error

10 Self Check 4.1 Which are the most commonly used number types in Java? Answer: int and double

11 Self Check 4.2 Suppose you want to write a program that works with population data from various countries. Which Java data type should you use? Answer: The world s most populous country, China, has about 1.2 x 10 9 inhabitants. Therefore, individual population counts could be held in an int. However, the world population is over If you compute totals or averages of multiple countries, you can exceed the largest int value. Therefore, double is a better choice. You could also use long, but there is no benefit because the exact population of a country is not known at any point in time.

12 Self Check 4.3 Which of the following initializations are incorrect, and why? a. int dollars = 100.0; b. double balance = 100; Answer: The first initialization is incorrect. The right hand side is a value of type double, and it is not legal to initialize an int variable with a double value. The second initialization is correct an int value can always be converted to a double.

13 Constants: final A final variable is a constant Once its value has been set, it cannot be changed Named constants make programs easier to read and maintain Convention: Use all-uppercase names for constants final double QUARTER_VALUE = 0.25; final double DIME_VALUE = 0.1; final double NICKEL_VALUE = 0.05; final double PENNY_VALUE = 0.01; payment = dollars + quarters * QUARTER_VALUE + dimes * DIME_VALUE + nickels * NICKEL_VALUE + pennies * PENNY_VALUE;

14 Constants: static final If constant values are needed in several methods, declare them together with the instance fields of a class and tag them as static and final Give static final constants public access to enable other classes to use them public class Math {... public static final double E = ; public static final double PI = ; } double circumference = Math.PI * diameter;

15 Syntax 4.1 Constant Definition

16 ch04/cashregister/cashregister.java /** A cash register totals up sales and computes change due. */ public class CashRegister { public static final double QUARTER_VALUE = 0.25; public static final double DIME_VALUE = 0.1; public static final double NICKEL_VALUE = 0.05; public static final double PENNY_VALUE = 0.01; private double purchase; private double payment; /** Constructs a cash register with no money in it. */ public CashRegister() { purchase = 0; payment = 0; } Continued

17 ch04/cashregister/cashregister.java (cont.) /** Records the purchase price of an amount the price of the purchased item */ public void recordpurchase(double amount) { purchase = purchase + amount; } /** Enters the payment received from the dollars the number of dollars in the quarters the number of quarters in the dimes the number of dimes in the nickels the number of nickels in the pennies the number of pennies in the payment */ public void enterpayment(int dollars, int quarters, int dimes, int nickels, int pennies) { payment = dollars + quarters * QUARTER_VALUE + dimes * DIME_VALUE + nickels * NICKEL_VALUE + pennies * PENNY_VALUE; } Continued

18 ch04/cashregister/cashregister.java (cont.) } /** Computes the change due and resets the machine for the next the change due to the customer */ public double givechange() { double change = payment - purchase; purchase = 0; payment = 0; return change; }

19 ch04/cashregister/cashregistertester.java /** This class tests the CashRegister class. */ public class CashRegisterTester { public static void main(string[] args) { CashRegister register = new CashRegister(); register.recordpurchase(0.75); register.recordpurchase(1.50); register.enterpayment(2, 0, 5, 0, 0); System.out.print("Change: "); System.out.println(register.giveChange()); System.out.println("Expected: 0.25"); } } register.recordpurchase(2.25); register.recordpurchase(19.25); register.enterpayment(23, 2, 0, 0, 0); System.out.print("Change: "); System.out.println(register.giveChange()); System.out.println("Expected: 2.0");

20 ch04/cashregister/cashregistertester.java (cont.) Program Run: Change: 0.25 Expected: 0.25 Change: 2.0 Expected: 2.0

21 Self Check 4.4 What is the difference between the following two statements? final double CM_PER_INCH = 2.54; and public static final double CM_PER_INCH = 2.54; Answer: The first definition is used inside a method, the second inside a class.

22 Self Check 4.5 What is wrong with the following statement sequence? double diameter =...; double circumference = 3.14 * diameter; Answer: 1. You should use a named constant, not the magic number is not an accurate representation of π.

23 Arithmetic Operators Four basic operators: addition: + subtraction: - multiplication: * division: / Parentheses control the order of subexpression computation: (a + b) / 2 Multiplication and division bind more strongly than addition and subtraction: (a + b) / 2

24 Increment and Decrement items++ is the same as items = items + 1 items-- subtracts 1 from items

25 Integer Division / is the division operator If both arguments are integers, the result is an integer. The remainder is discarded 7.0 / 4 yields / 4 yields 1 Get the remainder with % (pronounced modulo ) 7 % 4 is 3

26 Integer Division Example: final int PENNIES_PER_NICKEL = 5; final int PENNIES_PER_DIME = 10; final int PENNIES_PER_QUARTER = 25; final int PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR = 100; // Compute total value in pennies int total = dollars * PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR + quarters * PENNIES_PER_QUARTER + nickels * PENNIES_PER_NICKEL + dimes * PENNIES_PER_DIME + pennies; // Use integer division to convert to dollars, cents int dollars = total / PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR; int cents = total % PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR;

27 Compute Change With Minimal Coins

28 Powers and Roots Math class: contains methods sqrt and pow to compute square roots and powers To compute x n, you write Math.pow(x, n) However, to compute x 2 it is significantly more efficient simply to compute x * x To take the square root of a number, use Math.sqrt; for example, Math.sqrt(x) In Java, can be represented as (-b + Math.sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c)) / (2 * a)

29 Use Parenthesis to Override Operator Precedence

30 Some (Static) Methods Available in the Math Built-in Class Function Math.sqrt(x) Math.pow(x, y) Math.exp(x) Math.log(x) Math.sin(x), Math.cos(x), Math.tan(x) Math.round(x) Math.min(x, y), Math.max(x, y) Returns square root power x y e x natural log sine, cosine, tangent (x in radians) closest integer to x minimum, maximum

31 Cast and Round Cast converts a value to a different type: double balance = total + tax; int dollars = (int) balance; Math.round converts a floating-point number to nearest integer: long rounded = Math.round(balance); // if balance is 13.75, then rounded is set to 14

32 Syntax 4.2 Cast

33 When is Explicit Casting Required? A = Automatic C = Required N = Not allowed

34 Arithmetic Expressions

35 Self Check 4.6 What is the value of n after the following sequence of statements? n--; n++; n--; Answer: One less than it was before.

36 Self Check 4.7 What is the value of 1729 / 100? Of 1729 % 100? Answer: 17 and 29

37 Self Check 4.8 Why doesn t the following statement compute the average of s1, s2, and s3? double average = s1 + s2 + s3 / 3; // Error Answer: Only s3 is divided by 3. To get the correct result, use parentheses. Moreover, if s1, s2, and s3 are integers, you must divide by 3.0 to avoid integer division: (s1 + s2 + s3) / 3.0

38 Self Check 4.9 What is the value of Math.sqrt(Math.pow(x, 2) + Math.pow(y, 2)) in mathematical notation? Answer:

39 Self Check 4.10 When does the cast (long) x yield a different result from the call Math.round(x)? Answer: When the fractional part of x is 0.5

40 Self Check 4.11 How do you round the double value x to the nearest int value, assuming that you know that it is less than 2 109? Answer: By using a cast: (int) Math.round(x)

41 Calling Static Methods A static method does not operate on an object double x = 4; double root = x.sqrt(); // Error Static methods are declared inside classes Naming convention: Classes start with an uppercase letter; objects start with a lowercase letter: Math System.out

42 Syntax 4.3 Static Method Call

43 Self Check 4.12 Why can t you call x.pow(y) to compute x y? Answer: x is a number, not an object, and you cannot invoke methods on numbers.

44 Self Check 4.13 Is the call System.out.println(4) a static method call? Answer: No the println method is called on the object System.out.

45 The String Class A string is a sequence of characters Strings are objects of the String class A string literal is a sequence of characters enclosed in double quotation marks: "Hello, World!" String length is the number of characters in the String Example: "Harry".length() is 5 Empty string: ""

46 Concatenation Use the + operator: String name = "Dave"; String message = "Hello, " + name; // message is "Hello, Dave" If one of the arguments of the + operator is a string, the other is converted to a string String a = "Agent ; int n = 7; String bond = a + n; // bond is "Agent7"

47 Concatenation in Print Statements Useful to reduce the number of System.out.print instructions: System.out.print("The total is "); System.out.println(total); versus System.out.println("The total is " + total);

48 Converting between Strings and Numbers Convert to number: int n = Integer.parseInt(str); double x = Double.parseDouble(string); Convert to string: String str = "" + n; str = Integer.toString(n);

49 Substrings String greeting = "Hello, World!"; String sub = greeting.substring(0, 5); // sub is "Hello" Supply start and past the end position First position is at 0

50 Substrings String sub2 = greeting.substring(7, 12); // sub2 is "World" Substring length is past the end - start

51 Self Check 4.14 Assuming the String variable s holds the value "Agent", what is the effect of the assignment s = s + s.length()? Answer: s is set to the string Agent5

52 Self Check 4.15 Assuming the String variable river holds the value "Mississippi ", what is the value of river.substring(1, 2)? Of river.substring(2, river.length() - 3)? Answer: The strings "i" and "ssissi"

53 German Keyboard

54 Thai Alphabet

55 Chinese Ideographs

56 Reading Input System.in has minimal set of features it can only read one byte at a time In Java 5.0, Scanner class was added to read keyboard input in a convenient manner Scanner in = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter quantity:"); int quantity = in.nextint(); nextdouble reads a double nextline reads a line (until user hits Enter) next reads a word (until any white space)

57 ch04/cashregister/cashregistersimulator.java import java.util.scanner; /** This program simulates a transaction in which a user pays for an item and receives change. */ public class CashRegisterSimulator { public static void main(string[] args) { Scanner in = new Scanner(System.in); CashRegister register = new CashRegister(); System.out.print("Enter price: "); double price = in.nextdouble(); register.recordpurchase(price); System.out.print("Enter dollars: "); int dollars = in.nextint(); Continued

58 ch04/cashregister/cashregistersimulator.java (cont.) System.out.print("Enter quarters: "); int quarters = in.nextint(); System.out.print("Enter dimes: "); int dimes = in.nextint(); System.out.print("Enter nickels: "); int nickels = in.nextint(); System.out.print("Enter pennies: "); int pennies = in.nextint(); register.enterpayment(dollars, quarters, dimes, nickels, pennies); } } System.out.print("Your change: "); System.out.println(register.giveChange()); Continued

59 ch04/cashregister/cashregistersimulator.java (cont.) Program Run: Enter price: 7.55 Enter dollars: 10 Enter quarters: 2 Enter dimes: 1 Enter nickels: 0 Enter pennies: 0 Your change: is 3.05

60 Self Check 4.16 Why can t input be read directly from System.in? Answer: The class only has a method to read a single byte. It would be very tedious to form characters, strings, and numbers from those bytes.

61 Self Check 4.17 Suppose in is a Scanner object that reads from System.in, and your program calls String name = in.next(); What is the value of name if the user enters John Q. Public? Answer: The value is "John". The next method reads the next word.

62 Reading Input From a Dialog Box

63 Reading Input From a Dialog Box String input = JOptionPane.showInputDialog(prompt) Convert strings to numbers if necessary: int count = Integer.parseInt(input); Conversion throws an exception if user doesn t supply a number see Chapter 11 Add System.exit(0) to the main method of any program that uses JOptionPane

Chapter 4 Fundamental Data Types Chapter Goals To understand integer and floating-point numbers To recognize the limitations of the numeric types To become aware of causes for overflow and roundoff errors

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