# Chapter Two PROGRAMMING WITH NUMBERS AND STRINGS

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1 Chapter Two PROGRAMMING WITH NUMBERS AND STRINGS

2 Introduction Numbers and character strings are important data types in any Python program These are the fundamental building blocks we use to build more complex data structures In this chapter, you will learn how to work with numbers and text. We will write several simple programs that use them 4/6/16 2

3 Chapter Goals To declare and initialize variables and constants To understand the properties and limitations of integers and floatingpoint numbers To appreciate the importance of comments and good code layout To write arithmetic expressions and assignment statements To create programs that read, and process inputs, and display the results To learn how to use Python strings To create simple graphics programs using basic shapes and text 4/6/16 3

4 Contents 2.1 Variables 2.2 Arithmetic 2.3 Problem Solving: First Do It By Hand 2.4 Strings 2.5 Input and Output 4/6/16 4

5 Variables A variable is a named storage location in a computer program There are many different types of variables, each type used to store different things You define a variable by telling the compiler: What name you will use to refer to it The initial value of the variable You use an assignment statement to place a value into a variable 4/6/16 5

6 Variable Definition To define a variable, you must specify an initial value. 4/6/16 6

7 The assignment statement Use the assignment statement '=' to place a new value into a variable cansperpack = 6 # define & initializes the variable cansperpack Beware: The = sign is NOT used for comparison: It copies the value on the right side into the variable on the left side You will learn about the comparison operator in the next chapter 4/6/16 7

8 Assignment syntax The value on the right of the '=' sign is assigned to the variable on the left 4/6/16 8

9 An example: soda deal Soft drinks are sold in cans and bottles. A store offers a six-pack of 12- ounce cans for the same price as a two-liter bottle. Which should you buy? (12 fluid ounces equal approximately liters.) List of variables: Number of cans per pack Ounces per can Ounces per bottle Type of Number Whole number Whole number Number with fraction 4/6/16 9

10 Why different types? There are three different types of data that we will use in this chapter: 1. A whole number (no fractional part) 7 (integer or int) 2. A number with a fraction part 8.88 (float) 3. A sequence of characters "Bob (string) The data type is associated with the value, not the variable: cansperpack = 6 # int canvolume = 12.0 # float 4/6/16 10

11 Updating a Variable (assigning a value) If an existing variable is assigned a new value, that value replaces the previous contents of the variable. For example: cansperpack = 6 cansperpack = 8 4/6/16 11

12 Updating a Variable (computed) Executing the Assignment: cansperpack = cansperpack + 2 Step by Step: Step 1: Calculate the right hand side of the assignment. Find the value of cansperpack, and add 2 to it. Step 2: Store the result in the variable named on the left side of the assignment operator 4/6/16 12

13 A Warning Since the data type is associated with the value and not the variable: A variable can be assigned different values at different places in a program taxrate = 5 # an int Then later taxrate = 5.5 # a float And then taxrate = Non- taxable # a string If you use a variable and it has an unexpected type an error will occur in your program 4/6/16 13

14 Our First Program of the Day Open IDLE and create a new file type in the following save the file as typetest.py Run the program # Testing different types in the same variable taxrate = 5 # int print(taxrate) taxrate = 5.5 # float print(taxrate) taxrate = "Non-taxable" # string print(taxrate) print(taxrate + 5) So Once you have initialized a variable with a value of a particular type you should take great care to keep storing values of the same type in the variable 4/6/16 14

15 A Minor Change Change line 8 to read: print(taxrate +?? ) Save your changes Run the program What is the result? When you use the + operator with strings the second argument is concatenated to the end of the first We ll cover string operations in more detail later in this chapter 4/6/16 15

16 Table 1: Number Literals in Python 4/6/16 16

17 Naming variables Variable names should describe the purpose of the variable canvolume is better than cv Use These Simple Rules 1. Variable names must start with a letter or the underscore ( _ ) character 1. Continue with letters (upper or lower case), digits or the underscore 2. You cannot use other symbols (? or %...) and spaces are not permitted 3. Separate words with camelcase notation 1. Use upper case letters to signify word boundaries 4. Don t use reserved Python words (see Appendix C, pages A6 and A7) 4/6/16 17

18 Table 2: Variable Names in Python 4/6/16 18

19 Programming Tip: Use Descriptive Variable Names Choose descriptive variable names Which variable name is more self descriptive? canvolume = 0.35 cv = This is particularly important when programs are written by more than one person. 4/6/16 19

20 constants In Python a constant is a variable whose value should not be changed after it s assigned an initial value. It is a good practice to use all caps when naming constants BOTTLE_VOLUME = 2.0 It is good style to use named constants to explain numerical values to be used in calculations Which is clearer? totalvolume = bottles * 2 totalvolume = bottles * BOTTLE_VOLUME A programmer reading the first statement may not understand the significance of the 2 Python will let you change the value of a constant Just because you can do it, doesn t mean you should do it 4/6/16 20

21 Constants: Naming & Style It is customary to use all UPPER_CASE letters for constants to distinguish them from variables. It is a nice visual way cue BOTTLE_VOLUME = 2 MAX_SIZE = 100 taxrate = 5 # Constant # Constant # Variable 4/6/16 21

23 Commenting Code: 1 st Style ## # This program computes the volume (in liters) of a six-pack of soda # cans and the total volume of a six-pack and a two-liter bottle # # Liters in a 12-ounce can CAN_VOLUME = # Liters in a two-liter bottle. BOTTLE_VOLUME = 2 # Number of cans per pack. cansperpack = 6 # Calculate total volume in the cans. totalvolume = cansperpack * CAN_VOLUME print("a six-pack of 12-ounce cans contains", totalvolume, "liters.") # Calculate total volume in the cans and a 2-liter bottle. totalvolume = totalvolume + BOTTLE_VOLUME print("a six-pack and a two-liter bottle contain", totalvolume, "liters.") 4/6/16 23

24 Commenting Code: 2 nd Style ## # This program computes the volume (in liters) of a six-pack of soda # cans and the total volume of a six-pack and a two-liter bottle # ## CONSTANTS ## CAN_VOLUME = # Liters in a 12-ounce can BOTTLE_VOLUME = 2 # Liters in a two-liter bottle # Number of cans per pack. cansperpack = 6 # Calculate total volume in the cans. totalvolume = cansperpack * CAN_VOLUME print("a six-pack of 12-ounce cans contains", totalvolume, "liters.") # Calculate total volume in the cans and a 2-liter bottle. totalvolume = totalvolume + BOTTLE_VOLUME print("a six-pack and a two-liter bottle contain", totalvolume, "liters.") 4/6/16 24

25 Undefined Variables You must define a variable before you use it: (i.e. it must be defined somewhere above the line of code where you first use the variable) canvolume = 12 * literperounce literperounce = The correct order for the statements is: literperounce = canvolume = 12 * literperounce 4/6/16 25

26 Arithmetic 4/6/16 26

27 Basic Arithmetic Operations Python supports all of the basic arithmetic operations: Addition + Subtraction - Multiplication * Division / You write your expressions a bit differently 4/6/16 27

28 Precedence Precedence is similar to Algebra: PEMDAS Parenthesis, Exponent, Multiply/Divide, Add/Subtract 4/6/16 28

29 Mixing numeric types If you mix integer and floating-point values in an arithmetic expression, the result is a floating-point value # Yields the floating value 11.0 Remember from our earlier example: If you mix stings with integer or floating point values the result is an error 4/6/16 29

30 Powers Double stars ** are used to calculate an exponent Analyzing the expression: Becomes: b * ((1 + r / 100) ** n) 4/6/16 30

31 Floor division When you divide two integers with the / operator, you get a floatingpoint value. For example, 7 / 4 Yields 1.75 We can also perform floor division using the // operator. The // operator computes the quotient and discards the fractional part 7 // 4 Evaluates to 1 because 7 divided by 4 is 1.75 with a fractional part of 0.75, which is discarded. 4/6/16 31

32 Calculating a remainder If you are interested in the remainder of dividing two integers, use the % operator (called modulus): remainder = 7 % 4 The value of remainder will be 3 Sometimes called modulo divide 4/6/16 32

33 A Simple Example: Open a new file in the Wing IDE: Type in the following: # Convert pennies to dollars and cents pennies = 1729 dollars = pennies // 100 # Calculates the number of dollars cents = pennies % 100 # Calculates the number of pennies print("i have", dollars, "and", cents, "cents") Save the file Run the file What is the result? 4/6/16 33

34 Integer Division and Remainder Examples Handy to use for making change: pennies = 1729 dollars = pennies / 100 # 17 cents = pennies % 100 # 29 4/6/16 34

35 Calling functions Recall that a function is a collection of programming instructions that carry out a particular task. The print() function can display information, but there are many other functions available in Python. When calling a function you must provide the correct number of arguments The program will generate an error message if you don t 4/6/16 35

36 Calling functions that return a value Most functions return a value. That is, when the function completes its task, it passes a value back to the point where the function was called. For example: The call abs(-173) returns the value 173. The value returned by a function can be stored in a variable: distance = abs(x) You can use a function call as an argument to the print function Go to the python shell window in Wing and type: print(abs(-173)) 4/6/16 36

37 Built in Mathematical Functions 4/6/16 37

38 Python libraries (modules) A library is a collection of code, written and compiled by someone else, that is ready for you to use in your program A standard library is a library that is considered part of the language and must be included with any Python system. Python s standard library is organized into modules. Related functions and data types are grouped into the same module. Functions defined in a module must be explicitly loaded into your program before they can be used. 4/6/16 38

39 Using functions from the Math Module For example, to use the sqrt() function, which computes the square root of its argument: # First include this statement at the top of your # program file. from math import sqrt # Then you can simply call the function as y = sqrt(x) 4/6/16 39

40 Built-in Functions Built-in functions are a small set of functions that are defined as a part of the Python language They can be used without importing any modules 4/6/16 40

41 Functions from the Math Module 4/6/16 41

42 Floating-point to integer conversion You can use the function int() and float() to convert between integer and floating point values: balance = total + tax # balance: float dollars = int (balance) # dollars: integer You lose the fractional part of the floating-point value (no rounding occurs) 4/6/16 42

43 Arithmetic Expressions 4/6/16 43

44 Roundoff Errors Floating point values are not exact This is a limitation of binary values; not all floating point numbers have an exact representation Open Wing, open a new file and type in: price = 4.35 quantity = 100 total = price * quantity # Should be 100 * 4.35 = print(total) You can deal with roundoff errors by rounding to the nearest integer (see Section 2.2.4) or by displaying a fixed number of digits after the decimal separator (see Section 2.5.3). 4/6/16 44

45 Unbalanced Parentheses Consider the expression ((a + b) * t / 2 * (1 - t) What is wrong with the expression? Now consider this expression. (a + b) * t) / (2 * (1 - t) This expression has three ( and three ), but it still is not correct At any point in an expression the count of ( must be greater than or equal to the count of ) At the end of the expression the two counts must be the same 4/6/16 45

46 Additional Programming Tips Use Spaces in expressions totalcans = fullcans + emptycans Is easier to read than totalcans=fullcans+emptycans Other ways to import modules: From math import, sqrt, sin, cos # imports the functions listed From math import * # imports all functions from the module Import math # imports all functions from the module If you use the last style you have to add the module name and a. before each function call y = math.sqrt(x) 4/6/16 46

47 Problem Solving DEVELOP THE ALGORITHM FIRST, THEN WRITE THE PYTHON 4/6/16 47

48 Problem Solving: First by Hand A very important step for developing an algorithm is to first carry out the computations by hand. If you can t compute a solution by hand, how do you write the program? Example Problem: A row of black and white tiles needs to be placed along a wall. For aesthetic reasons, the architect has specified that the first and last tile shall be black. Your task is to compute the number of tiles needed and the gap at each end, given the space available and the width of each tile. 4/6/16 48

49 Start with example values Givens Total width: 100 inches Tile width: 5 inches Test your values Let s see 100/5 = 20, perfect! 20 tiles. No gap. But wait BW BW first and last tile shall be black. Look more carefully at the problem. Start with one black, then some number of WB pairs Observation: each pair is 2x width of 1 tile In our example, 2 x 5 = 10 inches 4/6/16 49

50 Keep applying your solution Total width: 100 inches Tile width: 5 inches Calculate total width of all tiles One black tile: 5 9 pairs of BWs: 90 Total tile width: 95 Calculate gaps (one on each end) = 5 total gap 5 gap / 2 = 2.5 at each end 4/6/16 50

51 Now devise an algorithm Use your example to see how you calculated values How many pairs? Note: must be a whole number Integer part of: (total width tile width) / 2 x tile width How many tiles? x the number of pairs Gap at each end (total width number of tiles x tile width) / 2 4/6/16 51

52 The algorithm Calculate the number of pairs of tiles Number of pairs = integer part of (total width tile width) / (2 * tile width) Calculate the number of tiles Number of tiles = 1 + (2 * number of pairs) Calculate the gap Gap at each end = (total width number of tiles * tile width / 2 Print the number of pairs of tiles Print the total number of tiles in the row Print the gap 4/6/16 52

53 Strings 4/6/16 53

54 Strings Start with some simple definitions: Text consists of characters Characters are letters, numbers, punctuation marks, spaces,. A string is a sequence of characters In Python, string literals are specified by enclosing a sequence of characters within a matching pair of either single or double quotes. print("this is a string.", 'So is this.') By allowing both types of delimiters, Python makes it easy to include an apostrophe or quotation mark within a string. message = 'He said "Hello" Remember to use matching pairs of quotes, single with single, double with double 4/6/16 54

55 String Length The number of characters in a string is called the length of the string. (For example, the length of "Harry" is 5). You can compute the length of a string using Python s len() function: length = len("world!") # length is 6 A string of length 0 is called the empty string. It contains no characters and is written as "" or ''. 4/6/16 55

56 String Concatenation ( + ) You can add one String onto the end of another firstname = "Harry" lastname = "Morgan" name = firstname + lastname # HarryMorgan print( my name is:, name) You wanted a space in between the two names? name = firstname + " " + lastname # Harry Morgan Using + to concatenate strings is an example of a concept called operator overloading. The + operator performs different functions of variables of different types 4/6/16 56

57 String repetition ( * ) You can also produce a string that is the result of repeating a string multiple times. Suppose you need to print a dashed line. Instead of specifying a literal string with 50 dashes, you can use the * operator to create a string that is comprised of the string "-" repeated 50 times. dashes = "-" * 50 results in the string " The * operator is also overloaded. 4/6/16 57

58 Converting Numbers to Strings Use the str() function to convert between numbers and strings. Open Wing, then open a new file and type in: balance = dollars = 888 balanceasstring = str(balance) dollarsasstring = str(dollars) print(balanceasstring) print(dollarsasstring) To turn a string containing a number into a numerical value, we use the int() and float() functions: id = int("1729") price = float("17.29") print(id) print(price) This conversion is important when the strings come from user input. 4/6/16 58

59 Strings and Characters strings are sequences of characters Python uses Unicode characters Unicode defines over 100,000 characters Unicode was designed to be able to encode text in essentially all written languages Characters are stored as integer values See the ASCII subset on Unicode chart in Appendix A For example, the letter H has a value of 72 4/6/16 59

60 Copying a character from a String Each char inside a String has an index number: c h a r s h e r e The first char is index zero (0) The [] operator returns a char at a given index inside a String: name = "Harry start = name[0] last = name[4] H a r r y 4/6/16 60

61 String Operations 4/6/16 61

62 Methods In computer programming, an object is a software entity that represents a value with certain behavior. The value can be simple, such as a string, or complex, like a graphical window or data file. The behavior of an object is given through its methods. A method is a collection of programming instructions to carry out a specific task similar to a function But unlike a function, which is a standalone operation, a method can only be applied to an object of the type for which it was defined. Methods are specific to a type of object Functions are general and can accept arguments of different types You can apply the upper() method to any string, like this: name = "John Smith" # Sets uppercasename to "JOHN SMITH" uppercasename = name.upper() 4/6/16 62

63 Some Useful String Methods 4/6/16 63

64 String Escape Sequences How would you print a double quote? Preface the " with a \ inside the double quoted String print("he said \"Hello\"") OK, then how do you print a backslash? Preface the \ with another \ System.out.print(" C:\\Temp\\Secret.txt ") Special characters inside Strings Output a newline with a \n print("*\n**\n***\n") * ** *** 4/6/16 64

65 Input and Output 4/6/16 65

66 Input and Output You can read a String from the console with the input() function: name = input("please enter your name") Converting a String variable to a number can be used if numeric (rather than string input) is needed age = int(input("please enter age: ")) The above is equivalent to doing it two steps (getting the input and then converting it to a number): astring = input("please enter age: ") # String input age = int(astring) # Converted to # int 4/6/16 66

67 Formatted output Outputting floating point values can look strange: Price per liter: To control the output appearance of numeric variables, use formatted output tools such as: print("price per liter %.2f" %(price)) Price per liter: 1.22 print("price per liter %10.2f" %(price)) Price per liter: 1.22 The %10.2f is called a format specifier 10 spaces 2 spaces 4/6/16 67

68 Syntax: formatting strings 4/6/16 68

69 Format flag examples Left Justify a String: print("%-10s" %("Total:")) Right justify a number with two decimal places print("%10.2f" %(price)) And you can print multiple values: print("%-10s%10.2f" %("Total: ", price)) 4/6/16 69

70 Volume2.py 4/6/16 70

71 Format Specifier Examples 4/6/16 71

72 Summary: variables A variable is a storage location with a name. When defining a variable, you must specify an initial value. By convention, variable names should start with a lower case letter. An assignment statement stores a new value in a variable, replacing the previously stored value. 4/6/16 72

73 Summary: operators The assignment operator = does not denote mathematical equality. Variables whose initial value should not change are typically capitalized by convention. The / operator performs a division yielding a value that may have a fractional value. The // operator performs a division, the remainder is discarded. The % operator computes the remainder of a floor division. 4/6/16 73

74 Summary: python overview The Python library declares many mathematical functions, such as sqrt() and abs() You can convert between integers, floats and strings using the respective functions: int(), float(), str() Python libraries are grouped into modules. Use the import statement to use methods from a module. Use the input() function to read keyboard input in a console window. 4/6/16 74

75 Summary: python overview Use the format specifiers to specify how values should be formatted. 4/6/16 75

76 Summary: Strings Strings are sequences of characters. The len() function yields the number of characters in a String. Use the + operator to concatenate Strings; that is, to put them together to yield a longer String. In order to perform a concatenation, the + operator requires both arguments to be strings. Numbers must be converted to strings using the str() function. String index numbers are counted starting with 0. 4/6/16 76

77 Summary: Strings Use the [ ] operator to extract the elements of a String. 4/6/16 77

### Arithmetic Expressions 9/7/16 44

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