# Chapter 15. Functional Programming Languages

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1 Chapter 15 Functional Programming Languages

2 Chapter 15 Topics Introduction Mathematical Functions Fundamentals of Functional Programming Languages The First Functional Programming Language: Lisp Introduction to Scheme Common Lisp ML Haskell F# Support for Functional Programming in Primarily Imperative Languages Comparison of Functional and Imperative Languages Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-2

3 Introduction The design of the imperative languages is based directly on the von Neumann architecture Efficiency is the primary concern, rather than the suitability of the language for software development The design of the functional languages is based on mathematical functions A solid theoretical basis that is also closer to the user, but relatively unconcerned with the architecture of the machines on which programs will run Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-3

4 Mathematical Functions A mathematical function is a mapping of members of one set, called the domain set, to another set, called the range set A lambda expression specifies the parameter(s) and the mapping of a function in the following form (x) x * x * x for the function cube(x) = x * x * x Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-4

5 Lambda Expressions Lambda expressions describe nameless functions Lambda expressions are applied to parameter(s) by placing the parameter(s) after the expression e.g., ( (x) x * x * x)(2) which evaluates to 8 Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-5

6 Functional Forms A higher-order function, or functional form, is one that either takes functions as parameters or yields a function as its result, or both Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-6

7 Function Composition A functional form that takes two functions as parameters and yields a function whose value is the first actual parameter function applied to the application of the second Form: h f g which means h (x) f ( g ( x)) For f (x) x + 2 and g (x) 3 * x, h f g yields (3 * x)+ 2 Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-7

8 Apply-to-all A functional form that takes a single function as a parameter and yields a list of values obtained by applying the given function to each element of a list of parameters Form: For h(x) x * x (h, (2, 3, 4)) yields (4, 9, 16) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-8

9 Fundamentals of Functional Programming Languages The objective of the design of a FPL is to mimic mathematical functions to the greatest extent possible The basic process of computation is fundamentally different in a FPL than in an imperative language In an imperative language, operations are done and the results are stored in variables for later use Management of variables is a constant concern and source of complexity for imperative programming In an FPL, variables are not necessary, as is the case in mathematics Referential Transparency - In an FPL, the evaluation of a function always produces the same result given the same parameters Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-9

10 Lisp Data Types and Structures Data object types: originally only atoms and lists List form: parenthesized collections of sublists and/or atoms e.g., (A B (C D) E) Originally, Lisp was a typeless language Lisp lists are stored internally as singlelinked lists Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-10

11 Lisp Interpretation Lambda notation is used to specify functions and function definitions. Function applications and data have the same form. e.g., If the list (A B C) is interpreted as data it is a simple list of three atoms, A, B, and C If it is interpreted as a function application, it means that the function named A is applied to the two parameters, B and C The first Lisp interpreter appeared only as a demonstration of the universality of the computational capabilities of the notation Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-11

12 Origins of Scheme A mid-1970s dialect of Lisp, designed to be a cleaner, more modern, and simpler version than the contemporary dialects of Lisp Uses only static scoping Functions are first-class entities They can be the values of expressions and elements of lists They can be assigned to variables, passed as parameters, and returned from functions Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-12

13 The Scheme Interpreter In interactive mode, the Scheme interpreter is an infinite read-evaluate-print loop (REPL) This form of interpreter is also used by Python and Ruby Expressions are interpreted by the function EVAL Literals evaluate to themselves Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-13

14 Primitive Function Evaluation Parameters are evaluated, in no particular order The values of the parameters are substituted into the function body The function body is evaluated The value of the last expression in the body is the value of the function Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-14

15 Primitive Functions & LAMBDA Expressions Primitive Arithmetic Functions: +, -, *, /, ABS, SQRT, REMAINDER, MIN, MAX e.g., (+ 5 2) yields 7 Lambda Expressions Form is based on notation e.g., (LAMBDA (x) (* x x) x is called a bound variable Lambda expressions can be applied to parameters e.g., ((LAMBDA (x) (* x x)) 7) LAMBDA expressions can have any number of parameters (LAMBDA (a b x) (+ (* a x x) (* b x))) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-15

16 Special Form Function: DEFINE DEFINE - Two forms: 1. To bind a symbol to an expression e.g., (DEFINE pi ) Example use: (DEFINE two_pi (* 2 pi)) These symbols are not variables they are like the names bound by Java s final declarations 2. To bind names to lambda expressions (LAMBDA is implicit) e.g., (DEFINE (square x) (* x x)) Example use: (square 5) - The evaluation process for DEFINE is different! The first parameter is never evaluated. The second parameter is evaluated and bound to the first parameter. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-16

17 Output Functions Usually not needed, because the interpreter always displays the result of a function evaluated at the top level (not nested) Scheme has PRINTF, which is similar to the printf function of C Note: explicit input and output are not part of the pure functional programming model, because input operations change the state of the program and output operations are side effects Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-17

18 Numeric Predicate Functions #T (or #t) is true and #F (or #f) is false (sometimes () is used for false) =, <>, >, <, >=, <= EVEN?, ODD?, ZERO?, NEGATIVE? The NOT function inverts the logic of a Boolean expression Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-18

19 Control Flow Selection- the special form, IF (IF predicate then_exp else_exp) (IF (<> count 0) (/ sum count) ) Recall from Chapter 8 the COND function: (DEFINE (leap? year) (COND ((ZERO? (MODULO year 400)) #T) ((ZERO? (MODULO year 100)) #F) (ELSE (ZERO? (MODULO year 4))) )) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-19

20 List Functions QUOTE - takes one parameter; returns the parameter without evaluation QUOTE is required because the Scheme interpreter, named EVAL, always evaluates parameters to function applications before applying the function. QUOTE is used to avoid parameter evaluation when it is not appropriate QUOTE can be abbreviated with the apostrophe prefix operator '(A B) is equivalent to (QUOTE (A B)) Recall that CAR, CDR, and CONS were covered in Chapter 6 Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-20

21 List Functions (continued) Examples: (CAR ((A B) C D)) returns (A B) (CAR A) is an error (CDR ((A B) C D)) returns (C D) (CDR A) is an error (CDR (A)) returns () (CONS () (A B)) returns (() A B) (CONS (A B) (C D)) returns ((A B) C D) (CONS A B) returns (A. B) (a dotted pair) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-21

22 List Functions (continued) LIST is a function for building a list from any number of parameters (LIST apple orange grape) returns (apple orange grape) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-22

23 Predicate Function: EQ? EQ? takes two expressions as parameters (usually two atoms); it returns #T if both parameters have the same pointer value; otherwise #F (EQ? 'A 'A) yields #T (EQ? 'A 'B) yields #F (EQ? 'A '(A B)) yields #F (EQ? '(A B) '(A B)) yields #T or #F (EQ? 3.4 ( ))) yields #T or #F Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-23

24 Predicate Function: EQV? EQV? is like EQ?, except that it works for both symbolic and numeric atoms; it is a value comparison, not a pointer comparison (EQV? 3 3) yields #T (EQV? 'A 3) yields #F (EQV 3.4 ( )) yields #T (EQV? 3.0 3) yields #F (floats and integers are different) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-24

25 Predicate Functions: LIST? and NULL? LIST? takes one parameter; it returns #T if the parameter is a list; otherwise #F (LIST? '()) yields #T NULL? takes one parameter; it returns #T if the parameter is the empty list; otherwise #F (NULL? '(())) yields #F Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-25

26 Example Scheme Function: member member takes an atom and a simple list; returns #T if the atom is in the list; #F otherwise DEFINE (member atm a_list) (COND ((NULL? a_list) #F) ((EQ? atm (CAR lis)) #T) ((ELSE (member atm (CDR a_list))) )) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-26

27 Example Scheme Function: equalsimp equalsimp takes two simple lists as parameters; returns #T if the two simple lists are equal; #F otherwise (DEFINE (equalsimp list1 list2) (COND ((NULL? list1) (NULL? list2)) ((NULL? list2) #F) ((EQ? (CAR list1) (CAR list2)) (equalsimp(cdr list1)(cdr list2))) (ELSE #F) )) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-27

28 Example Scheme Function: equal equal takes two general lists as parameters; returns #T if the two lists are equal; #F otherwise (DEFINE (equal list1 list2) (COND ((NOT (LIST? list1))(eq? list1 list2)) ((NOT (LIST? lis2)) #F) ((NULL? list1) (NULL? list2)) ((NULL? list2) #F) ((equal (CAR list1) (CAR list2)) (equal (CDR list1) (CDR list2))) (ELSE #F) )) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-28

29 Example Scheme Function: append append takes two lists as parameters; returns the first parameter list with the elements of the second parameter list appended at the end (DEFINE (append list1 list2) )) (COND ((NULL? list1) list2) (ELSE (CONS (CAR list1) (append (CDR list1) list2))) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-29

30 Example Scheme Function: LET Recall that LET was discussed in Chapter 5 LET is actually shorthand for a LAMBDA expression applied to a parameter (LET ((alpha 7))(* 5 alpha)) is the same as: ((LAMBDA (alpha) (* 5 alpha)) 7) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-30

31 LET Example (DEFINE (quadratic_roots a b c) (LET ( (root_part_over_2a (/ (SQRT (- (* b b) (* 4 a c)))(* 2 a))) (minus_b_over_2a (/ (- 0 b) (* 2 a))) (LIST (+ minus_b_over_2a root_part_over_2a)) (- minus_b_over_2a root_part_over_2a)) )) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-31

32 Tail Recursion in Scheme Definition: A function is tail recursive if its recursive call is the last operation in the function A tail recursive function can be automatically converted by a compiler to use iteration, making it faster Scheme language definition requires that Scheme language systems convert all tail recursive functions to use iteration Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-32

33 Tail Recursion in Scheme - continued Example of rewriting a function to make it tail recursive, using helper a function Original: (DEFINE (factorial n) Tail recursive: (IF (<= n 0) 1 (* n (factorial (- n 1))) )) (DEFINE (facthelper n factpartial) (IF (<= n 0) factpartial facthelper((- n 1) (* n factpartial))) )) (DEFINE (factorial n) (facthelper n 1)) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-33

34 Functional Form - Composition Composition If h is the composition of f and g, h(x) = f(g(x)) (DEFINE (g x) (* 3 x)) (DEFINE (f x) (+ 2 x)) (DEFINE h x) (+ 2 (* 3 x))) (The composition) In Scheme, the functional composition function compose can be written: (DEFINE (compose f g) (LAMBDA (x) (f (g x)))) ((compose CAR CDR) '((a b) c d)) yields c (DEFINE (third a_list) ((compose CAR (compose CDR CDR)) a_list)) is equivalent to CADDR Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-34

35 Functional Form Apply-to-All Apply to All - one form in Scheme is map Applies the given function to all elements of the given list; (DEFINE (map fun a_list) (COND ((NULL? a_list) '()) (ELSE (CONS (fun (CAR a_list)) (map fun (CDR a_list)))) )) (map (LAMBDA (num) (* num num num)) '( )) yields ( ) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-35

36 Functions That Build Code It is possible in Scheme to define a function that builds Scheme code and requests its interpretation This is possible because the interpreter is a user-available function, EVAL Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-36

37 Adding a List of Numbers ((DEFINE (adder a_list) (COND ((NULL? a_list) 0) (ELSE (EVAL (CONS '+ a_list))) )) The parameter is a list of numbers to be added; adder inserts a + operator and evaluates the resulting list Use CONS to insert the atom + into the list of numbers. Be sure that + is quoted to prevent evaluation Submit the new list to EVAL for evaluation Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-37

38 Common Lisp A combination of many of the features of the popular dialects of Lisp around in the early 1980s A large and complex language--the opposite of Scheme Features include: records arrays complex numbers character strings powerful I/O capabilities packages with access control iterative control statements Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-38

39 Common Lisp (continued) Macros Create their effect in two steps: Expand the macro Evaluate the expanded macro Some of the predefined functions of Common Lisp are actually macros Users can define their own macros with DEFMACRO Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-39

40 Common Lisp (continued) Backquote operator (`) Similar to the Scheme s QUOTE, except that some parts of the parameter can be unquoted by preceding them with commas `(a (* 3 4) c) evaluates to (a (* 3 4) c) `(a,(* 3 4) c) evaluates to (a 12 c) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-40

41 Common Lisp (continued) Reader Macros Lisp implementations have a front end called the reader that transforms Lisp into a code representation. Then macro calls are expanded into the code representation. A reader macro is a special kind of macro that is expanded during the reader phase A reader macro is a definition of a single character, which is expanded into its Lisp definition An example of a reader macro is an apostrophe character, which is expanded into a call to QUOTE Users can define their own reader macros as a kind of shorthand Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-41

42 Common Lisp (continued) Common Lisp has a symbol data type (similar to that of Ruby) The reserved words are symbols that evaluate to themselves Symbols are either bound or unbound Parameter symbols are bound while the function is being evaluated Symbols that are the names of imperative style variables that have been assigned values are bound All other symbols are unbound Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-42

43 ML A static-scoped functional language with syntax that is closer to Pascal than to Lisp Uses type declarations, but also does type inferencing to determine the types of undeclared variables It is strongly typed (whereas Scheme is essentially typeless) and has no type coercions Does not have imperative-style variables Its identifiers are untyped names for values Includes exception handling and a module facility for implementing abstract data types Includes lists and list operations Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-43

44 ML Specifics A table called the evaluation environment stores the names of all identifiers in a program, along with their types (like a run-time symbol table) Function declaration form: fun name (formal parameters) = expression; e.g., fun cube(x : int) = x * x * x; - The type could be attached to return value, as in fun cube(x) : int = x * x * x; - With no type specified, it would default to int (the default for numeric values) - User-defined overloaded functions are not allowed, so if we wanted a cube function for real parameters, it would need to have a different name Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-44

45 ML Specifics (continued) ML selection if expression then then_expression else else_expression where the first expression must evaluate to a Boolean value Pattern matching is used to allow a function to operate on different parameter forms fun fact(0) = 1 fact(1) = 1 fact(n : int) : int = n * fact(n 1) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-45

46 ML Specifics (continued) Lists Literal lists are specified in brackets [3, 5, 7] [] is the empty list CONS is the binary infix operator, :: 4 :: [3, 5, 7], which evaluates to [4, 3, 5, 7] CAR is the unary operator hd CDR is the unary operator tl fun length([]) = 0 length(h :: t) = 1 + length(t); fun append([], lis2) = lis2 append(h :: t, lis2) = h :: append(t, lis2); Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-46

47 ML Specifics (continued) The val statement binds a name to a value (similar to DEFINE in Scheme) val distance = time * speed; As is the case with DEFINE, val is nothing like an assignment statement in an imperative language If there are two val statements for the same identifier, the first is hidden by the second val statements are often used in let constructs let in end; val radius = 2.7 val pi = pi * radius * radius Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-47

48 ML Specifics (continued) filter A higher-order filtering function for lists Takes a predicate function as its parameter, often in the form of a lambda expression Lambda expressions are defined like functions, except with the reserved word fn filter(fn(x) => x < 100, [25, 1, 711, 50, 100]); This returns [25, 1, 50] Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-48

49 ML Specifics (continued) map A higher-order function that takes a single parameter, a function Applies the parameter function to each element of a list and returns a list of results fun cube x = x * x * x; val cubelist = map cube; val newlist = cubelist [1, 3, 5]; This sets newlist to [1, 27, 125] - Alternative: use a lambda expression val newlist = map (fn x => x * x * x, [1, 3, 5]); Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-49

50 ML Specifics (continued) Function Composition Use the unary operator, o val h = g o f; Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-50

51 ML Specifics (continued) Currying ML functions actually take just one parameter if more are given, it considers the parameters a tuple (commas required) Process of currying replaces a function with more than one parameter with a function with one parameter that returns a function that takes the other parameters of the original function An ML function that takes more than one parameter can be defined in curried form by leaving out the commas in the parameters fun add a b = a + b; A function with one parameter, a. Returns a function that takes b as a parameter. Call: add 3 5; Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-51

52 ML Specifics (continued) Partial Evaluation Curried functions can be used to create new functions by partial evaluation Partial evaluation means that the function is evaluated with actual parameters for one or more of the leftmost actual parameters fun add5 x add 5 x; Takes the actual parameter 5 and evaluates the add function with 5 as the value of its first formal parameter. Returns a function that adds 5 to its single parameter val num = add5 10; (* sets num to 15 *) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-52

53 Haskell Similar to ML (syntax, static scoped, strongly typed, type inferencing, pattern matching) Different from ML (and most other functional languages) in that it is purely functional (e.g., no variables, no assignment statements, and no side effects of any kind) Syntax differences from ML fact 0 = 1 fact 1 = 1 fact n = n * fact (n 1) fib 0 = 1 fib 1 = 1 fib (n + 2) = fib (n + 1) + fib n Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-53

54 Function Definitions with Different Parameter Ranges fact n n == 0 = 1 n == 1 = 1 n > 0 = n * fact(n 1) sub n n < 10 = 0 n > 100 = 2 otherwise = 1 square x = x * x - Because Haskell support polymorphism, this works for any numeric type of x Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-54

55 Haskell Lists List notation: Put elements in brackets e.g., directions = ["north", "south", "east", "west"] Length: # e.g., #directions is 4 Arithmetic series with the.. operator e.g., [2, 4..10] is [2, 4, 6, 8, 10] Catenation is with ++ e.g., [1, 3] ++ [5, 7] results in [1, 3, 5, 7] CONS, CAR, CDR via the colon operator e.g., 1:[3, 5, 7] results in [1, 3, 5, 7] Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-55

56 Haskell (continued) Pattern Parameters product [] = 1 product (a:x) = a * product x Factorial: fact n = product [1..n] List Comprehensions (Chapter 6) [n * n * n n <- [1..50]] The qualifier in this example has the form of a generator. It could be in the form of a test factors n = [i i <- [1..n `div` 2], n `mod` i == 0] The backticks specify the function is used as a binary operator Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-56

57 Quicksort sort [] = [] sort (h:t) = sort [b b t; b <= h] ++ [h] ++ sort [b b t; b > h] Illustrates the concision of Haskell Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-57

58 Lazy Evaluation A language is strict if it requires all actual parameters to be fully evaluated A language is nonstrict if it does not have the strict requirement Nonstrict languages are more efficient and allow some interesting capabilities infinite lists Lazy evaluation - Only compute those values that are necessary Positive numbers positives = [0..] Determining if 16 is a square number member [] b = False member(a:x) b=(a == b) member x b squares = [n * n n [0..]] member squares 16 Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-58

59 Member Revisited The member function could be written as: member b [] = False member b (a:x)=(a == b) member b x However, this would only work if the parameter to squares was a perfect square; if not, it will keep generating them forever. The following version will always work: member2 n (m:x) m < n = member2 n x m == n = True otherwise = False Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-59

60 F# Based on Ocaml, which is a descendant of ML and Haskell Fundamentally a functional language, but with imperative features and supports OOP Has a full-featured IDE, an extensive library of utilities, and interoperates with other.net languages Includes tuples, lists, discriminated unions, records, and both mutable and immutable arrays Supports generic sequences, whose values can be created with generators and through iteration Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-60

61 F# (continued) Sequences let x = seq {1..4};; Generation of sequence values is lazy let y = seq { };; Sets y to [0; 1; 2; 3; ] Default stepsize is 1, but it can be any number let seq1 = seq { } Sets seq1 to [1; 3; 5; 7] Iterators not lazy for lists and arrays let cubes = seq {for i in > (i, i * i * i)};; Sets cubes to [(1, 1); (2, 8); (3, 27); (4, 64)] Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-61

62 F# (continued) Functions If named, defined with let; if lambda expressions, defined with fun (fun a b -> a / b) No difference between a name defined with let and a function without parameters The extent of a function is defined by indentation let f = let pi = let twopi = 2.0 * pi;; Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-62

63 F# (continued) Functions (continued) If a function is recursive, its definition must include the rec reserved word Names in functions can be outscoped, which ends their scope let x4 = let x = x * x let x = x * x The first let in the body of the function creates a new version of x; this terminates the scope of the parameter; The second let in the body creates another x, terminating the scope of the second x Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-63

64 F# (continued) Functional Operators Pipeline ( >) A binary operator that sends the value of its left operand to the last parameter of the call (the right operand) ll let mynums = [1; 2; 3; 4; 5] let evenstimesfive = mynums > List.filter (fun n -> n % 2 = 0) > List.map (fun n -> 5 * n) The return value is [10; 20] ;lkj; Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-64

65 F# (continued) Functional Operators (continued) Composition (>>) Builds a function that applies its left operand to a given parameter (a function) and then passes the result returned from the function to its right operand (another function) The F# expression (f >> g) x is equivalent to the mathematical expression g(f(x)) Curried Functions let add a b = a + b;; let add5 = add 5;; Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-65

66 F# (continued) Why F# is Interesting: It builds on previous functional languages It supports virtually all programming methodologies in widespread use today It is the first functional language that is designed for interoperability with other widely used languages At its release, it had an elaborate and welldeveloped IDE and library of utility software Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-66

67 Support for Functional Programming in Primarily Imperative Languages Support for functional programming is increasingly creeping into imperative languages Anonymous functions (lambda expressions) JavaScript: leave the name out of a function definition C#: i => (i % 2) == 0 (returns true or false depending on whether the parameter is even or odd) Python: lambda a, b : 2 * a - b Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-67

68 Support for Functional Programming in Primarily Imperative Languages (continued) Python supports the higher-order functions filter and map (often use lambda expressions as their first parameters) map(lambda x : x ** 3, [2, 4, 6, 8]) Returns [8, 64, 216, 512] Python supports partial function applications from operator import add add5 = partial (add, 5) (the first line imports add as a function) Use: add5(15) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-68

69 Support for Functional Programming in Primarily Imperative Languages (continued) Ruby Blocks Are effectively subprograms that are sent to methods, which makes the method a higherorder subprogram A block can be converted to a subprogram object with lambda times = lambda { a, b a * b} Use: x = times.(3, 4) (sets x to 12) Times can be curried with times5 = times.curry.(5) Use: x5 = times5.(3) (sets x5 to 15) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-69

70 Comparing Functional and Imperative Languages Imperative Languages: Efficient execution Complex semantics Complex syntax Concurrency is programmer designed Functional Languages: Simple semantics Simple syntax Less efficient execution Programs can automatically be made concurrent Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-70

71 Summary Functional programming languages use function application, conditional expressions, recursion, and functional forms to control program execution Lisp began as a purely functional language and later included imperative features Scheme is a relatively simple dialect of Lisp that uses static scoping exclusively Common Lisp is a large Lisp-based language ML is a static-scoped and strongly typed functional language that uses type inference Haskell is a lazy functional language supporting infinite lists and set comprehension. F# is a.net functional language that also supports imperative and object-oriented programming Some primarily imperative languages now incorporate some support for functional programming Purely functional languages have advantages over imperative alternatives, but still are not very widely used Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. All rights reserved. 1-71

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