Preface... (vii) CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS

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1 Contents Preface... (vii) CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS 1.1. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS HISTORY OF C & C DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND EXECUTION OF A PROGRAM TESTING OF PROGRAMS White Box Testing Black Box Testing Testing Bench Mark Problems POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED IN PROGRAMMING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES Imperative and functional programming languages Imperative programming language Functional programming language Interpretation and compilation Interpreted language Compiled language Intermediary languages Some widely used languages APPROACHES IN PROGRAMMING... 8 (ix)

2 1.8 TOP-DOWN PROGRAMMING AND STEP-WISE REFINEMENT (a) Advantages of Top down Programming (b) Disadvantages of Top down programming BOTTOM-UP PROGRAMMING Working of bottom-up programming (a) Advantages of bottom-up programming (b) Disadvantages of bottom up programming OPERATING SYSTEMS Types of operating systems Examples of operating systems Components Of an Operating System Modes Networking of Computers Computer Security Operating system user interface Diversity of operating systems and portability Black Berry and Black Berry O.S C Programming is a subset of C++ programming...27 COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 2 BASICS OF PROGRAMMING 2.1 INTRODUCTION TO BASICS OF PROGRAMMING LOGIC FOR PROGRAMMING ALGORITHM Pseudo code Flow Chart BASIC CATEGORIES OF OPERATIONS IMPORTANCE OF C LANGUAGE IMPORTANCE OF C++ LANGUAGE (x)

3 2.7 SOME OF THE COMPILERS AVAILABLE FOR C AND C List of compilers for C List of compilers available in C STRUCTURE OF A C PROGRAM PROGRAMMING RULES EXECUTING THE PROGRAM STEPS TO EXECUTE A C PROGRAM USING TC++ COMPILER COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 3 DECLARATIONS IN C AND C INTRODUCTION TO C DECLARATIONS CHARACTER SET Letters Digits Special Characters White spaces Delimiters Escape sequences or back slash character constants C TOKENS / C++ TOKENS Key Words Identifiers Constants Integer Constants Real Constants CHARACTER CONSTANTS Single Character Constants String Constants SPECIAL SYMBOLS OPERATORS (xi)

4 3.7. VARIABLES Rules for defining Variables DATA TYPES Primary or Basic or Fundamental Data type Integer, Float and Char Data types User-defined Data Types User defined data Enumerated datatypes Storage Class Data types Derived Data Types Empty Data Set or Void data type in C and C Additional Data Types in C DECLARATION AND INITIALIZATION OF VARIABLES Type conversion or type cast CONSTANT AND VOLATILE VARIABLES DEFINING SYMBOLIC CONSTANTS MODIFIABILITY Overflow and Underflow of Data Constant Qualifier Reading Data from Keyboard COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 4 OPERATORS AND EXPRESSIONS 4.1 INTRODUCTION PRIORITY OR HIERARCHY OR PRECEDENCE OF OPERATORS Use of Different Operators Evaluation of expressions using the priorities of operators TYPE CONVERSIONS IN EXPRESSIONS Operator precedence and associativity (xii)

5 4.4 SOME SPECIAL FEATURES OF C++ OVER C : SOME PROGRAMS IN C DIFFERENCES BETWEEN OLD AND AND CURRENT VERSIONS OF C Scope Resolution Operator Differences in I/O statements SOME PROGRAMS IN C++ USING TC COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 5 INPUT AND OUTPUT OPERATIONS IN C 5.1. INTRODUCTION Formatted Input Functions: (without field width specifications) Inputting Integer Variables Inputting Real Variables Inputting Character / String constants Inputting Mixed Variables FORMATTED OUTPUT STATEMENTS (WITHOUT FIELD WIDTHS) Outputting Integer Variables Outputting Real variables Outputting Mixed Variables FORMATTED INPUT STATEMENTS (WITH FIELD WIDTHS) Inputting Integer numbers Inputting Real Numbers Inputting Characters & Strings Reading Mixed Data Type using scanf ( ) Detection of Errors in Input ed Commonly used scanf ( ) format codes FORMATTED OUTPUT (WITH FIELD WIDTH) Outputting of Integer Numbers Outputting of Real Numbers (xiii)

6 5.4.3 Outputting of Mixed Variables without field widths Outputting of Strings with field widths Commonly used printf ( ) format codes ENHANCING THE READABILITY OF OUTPUT UNFORMATTED INPUT/OUTPUT FUNCTIONS Types of Unformatted Input / Output Functions in C CHARACTER RECOGNITION USING CODES COMMONLY USED LIBRARY FUNCTIONS C LIBRARY FUNCTION The Standard C Library Functions PARTIAL C/C++ FUNCTION LIST Functions Listed Alphabetically PROGRAM TO CONVERT DECIMAL NUMBER INTO BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM : DOWNLOAD Logic of This Program Program Flow Chart of sub-routine Convert Decimal to Different Number Base COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 6 DECISION AND LOOP CONTROL STATEMENTS 6.1. INTRODUCTION Conditional Operator The Simple if Statement Block if statement Nested if statements Simple if else statement Block if else statement (xiv)

7 6.1.7 Nested ifs or Nested else if or if else if ladder Break statement The continue Statement The goto Statement Switch Statement or Switch case statement THE BREAK STATEMENT Exit ( ) Function LOOPING for LOOP NESTED for LOOPS WHILE-LOOP DO-WHILE LOOP The DO-WHILE statement WITH WHILE loop JUMPS IN LOOPS Jumping Out of a Loop using Break Statement JUMPING WITHIN AND EXITING FROM THE LOOPS WITH GOTO STATEMENT SKIPPING A PART OF A LOOP USING CONTINUE STATEMENT COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 7 A R R A Y S 7.1 INTRODUCTION ONE DIMENSIONAL ARRAY Single dimensional Array initialisation TWO-DIMENSIONAL ARRAY Initialization of Two-dimensional arrays Two-dimensional sorting MULTIDIMENSIONAL ARRAYS COMPREHENSION EXERCISE (xv)

8 CHAPTER 8 F U N C T I O N S 8.1 INTRODUCTION THE RETURN STATEMENT Function with a return statement to return an expression CALLING A FUNCTION AND OBTAINING ITS RESULT Call by Value CALL BY REFERENCE CATEGORY OF FUNCTIONS CALLING A FUNCTION WITH NO ARGUMENTS AND NO RETURN VALUES CALLING FUNCTIONS WITH ARGUMENTS AND NO RETURN VALUES CALLING FUNCTION WITH ARGUMENTS AND WITH RETURN VALUE FUNCTION RETURNING MORE VALUES LOCAL AND GLOBAL VARIABLES ARGUMENTS OF A FUNCTION FUNCTION PROTOTYPES FUNCTIONS AND DECISION STATEMENTS FUNCTION AND LOOP STATEMENTS NESTING OF FUNCTIONS RECURSION FUNCTIONS WITH ARRAYS AND POINTERS SPECIAL FUNCTIONS OF C Default Parameters Inline functions atexit ( ) Function LIBRARY FUNCTIONS COMPREHENSION EXERCISE (xvi)

9 CHAPTER 9 STORAGE CLASS MODIFIERS 9.1 INTRODUCTION AUTO VARIABLES OR LOCAL VARIABLES DYNAMIC STORAGE OR EXTERNAL GLOBAL VARIABLES STATIC STORAGE OR STATIC VARIABLES REGISTER VARIABLES COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 10 P O I N T E R S 10.1 INTRODUCTION WHAT IS A POINTER? POINTER OPERATORS HOW TO ACCESS A VARIABLE THROUGH ITS POINTER? POINTER EXPRESSIONS Pointer Assignments Arithmetic Operations with Pointers POINTERS AND ARRAYS ARRAY OF POINTERS POINTERS TO POINTERS POINTERS AND CHARACTER STRINGS COMPREHENSION EXERCISE (xvii)

10 CHAPTER 11 PRE-PROCESSOR DIRECTIVES 11.1 INTRODUCTION # define DIRECTIVE AND MACRO SUBSTITUTION UNDEFINING A MACRO CONDITIONAL COMPILATION USING PRE-PROCESSOR DIRECTIVE THE #ifndef DIRECTIVE (if not defined) #if, #else and #elif (else-if) THE # line DIRECTIVE THE #error DIRECTIVE #OPERATOR OR TOKEN PASTING & STRINGIZING MACRO CONCATENATION WITH THE # # OPERATOR The # include DIRECTIVE INLINE DIRECTIVE THE #pragma SAVEREGS THE #pragma DIRECTIVE THE PREDEFINED MACROS IN ANSI AND TURBO-C STANDARD I/O PREDEFINED STREAMS IN C stdio.h THE PREDEFINED MACROS IN ctype.h COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 12 STRUCTURE AND UNION 12.1 INTRODUCTION FEATURES OF STRUCTURES DECLARATION AND INITIALIZATION OF STRUCTURES STRUCTURE WITHIN STRUCTURE OR NESTED STRUCTURES ARRAY OF STRUCTURES (xviii)

11 12.6 STRUCTURES & POINTERS OR POINTER TO STRUCTURE STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS BIT FIELDS UNION ANONYMOUS UNIONS typedef ENUMERATED DATA TYPE CALLING BIOS AND DOS SERVICES UNION OF STRUCTURES SCOPE OPERATOR OR SCOPE RESOLUTION OPERATOR : IN C COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 13 FILE OPERATIONS IN C 13.1 INTRODUCTION STREAMS AND FILE TYPES STEPS FOR FILE OPERATIONS Opening of a File FILE I/O OPERATIONS BINARY MODE - READ AND WRITE OTHER FILE FUNCTIONS SEARCHING ERRORS IN READING / WRITING FILES USE OF MULTIPLE FILES LOW LEVEL DISK I/O OPERATIONS COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS APPLICATION OF COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES I/O RE DIRECTION COMPREHENSION EXERCISE (xix)

12 CHAPTER 14 DYNAMIC MEMORY ALLOCATION - I (LINKED LISTS) 14.1 INTRODUCTION Classification of Data Structures LINKED LIST Singly Linked List Traversing a singly linked list Addition and Deletion of Elements in a Singly Linked List Insertion in singly linked list Counting of Nodes in a Singly Linked List Deletion of nodes in a Singly linked list Changing the content of an element in a Singly Linked List Reversing of a singly linked list DOUBLY LINKED LIST (DLL) MODIFICATION OF DOUBLY LINKED LIST Insertion in a doubly linked list at the beginning Insertion in a doubly linked list at a specified position Deletion of an existing node in a doubly linked list CIRCULARLY LINKED LIST Singly linked Circular List Doubly linked Circular List LINKED LIST AS APPLICATIONS OF LINEAR DATA STRUCTURE Polynomial Operation Linked Dictionary COMPREHENSION EXERCISE (xx)

13 CHAPTER 15 DYNAMIC MEMORY ALLOCATION - II (STACKS AND QUEUES) 15.1 INTRODUCTION TO STACKS IMPLEMENTATION OF STACKS USING LINKED LIST STACK RELATED TERMS OPERATION ON A STACK IMPLEMENTATION OF A STACK INTRODUCTION TO QUEUES REPRESENTATION OF QUEUE INSERTION AND DELETION OPERATIONS IN A QUEUE CIRCULAR QUEUES Deletion and insertion in a full circular queue PRIORITY QUEUE Similarity to queues Implementation of priority queue Effect of different data structures on priority queue Equivalence of priority queues and sorting algorithms Applications of priority queue DEQUE or DEQUEUE (as Noun), Deque (as verb) and Double-ended Queue Naming conventions of Deque Distinctions and sub-types of Deque Operations of Deque in different languages Implementations of Deque Language support for Deque Complexity of Deque Applications of Deque (xxi)

14 15.12 REPRESENTATION & OPERATIONS OF ARITHMETIC EXPRESSIONS USING STACK OPERATIONS Infix, prefix, and postfix notations Evaluation of postfix expression Conversion of expression from infix to postfix RECURSION COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 16 OPERATIONS ON DATA STRUCTURES (SEARCHING AND SORTING) 16.1 INTRODUCTION SEARCHING Linear Search or Sequential Search Binary Search a. Time complexity of binary search b. Comparison of binary search with other techniques Features of Binary Search Comparison of Binary Search with other Search Techniques TREES AND GRAPHS Trees Binary Trees Binary Tree Representation Traversing Binary Trees MINIMUM SPANNING TREE Algorithms to find a minimum spanning tree (xxii)

15 MST on complete graphs - calculation of approximative expected size Related problems - Types of spanning trees AVL TREE Basic Operations on an AVL Tree Comparison of AVL to other structures GRAPHS Prim s algorithm for Traversal of a Graph TYPES OF TREE SEARCHES Breadth-First Search Depth-First Search SORTING Exchange Sort (Bubble Sort) Selection Sort Quick Sort Merge sort K-Way Merge Sort What differentiates a K-Way Merge sort from a regular Merge sort? Heap Sort or Tree Sort Insertion Sort (or Simple Insertion Sort) Shell sort COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 17 CLASSES AND OBJECTS IN C INTRODUCTION Difference between Structures and Class Declaration and definition of a simple class (xxiii)

16 Inline Member Functions (Function declared inside the class or outside a class with scope operator): Array of objects Constructor for initializing an object Parameterized Constructors Explicit Constructor DESTRUCTOR FRIEND FUNCTIONS FRIEND CLASSES DIFFERENT METHODS OF ACCESSION OF OBJECTS Object Assignment Accessing a Private data member from a different object DYNAMIC MEMORY ALLOCATION IN C++ USING KEY WORDS Const. member function and const. objects Mutable to change const object instance The size of a Class Object Nested Class (Class within another class) The Copy Constructor This Pointer : (this ) Static Class member, Data member & Member Function of a class Classes and structures COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 18 INHERITANCE 18.1 INTRODUCTION SINGLE INHERITANCE Derived Classes Access in Inheritance Constructors and Destructors in inheritance (xxiv)

17 Multilevel inheritance Multiple inheritance Virtual base class Passing parameters from derived class constructor to base class constructor COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 19 DIFFERENT TYPES OF OVERLOADING IN C INTRODUCTION TO OVERLOADING TYPES OF OVERLOADING Overloading related to functions - Function Overloading Over loading of Function Call Operator ( ) Constructor overloading Operator overloading Unary Operator Overloading Binary operator overloading Overloading Relational Operators Overloading Arithmetic Assignment Operators Overloading the Assignment Operator Overloading Special type of Operator [ ] ( ) Overloading conversion operators Overloading the exponent operator ^ Overloading String Concatenation Overloading new and delete in memory management Operator Functions as friend for overloaded operator to be commutative : COMPREHENSION EXERCISE (xxv)

18 CHAPTER 20 POLYMORPHISM 20.1 INTRODUCTION COMPILE AND RUNTIME POLYMORPHISM VIRTUAL FUNCTIONS Pure virtual functions Abstract class TYPES OF DESTRUCTORS Virtual destructor Explicit destructor COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 21 INPUT-OUTPUT OPERATIONS IN C INTRODUCTION STREAM INSERTION & EXTRACTION OPERATORS ( << ) & ( >>) Stream Insertion Operator for Output (<<) Stream extraction Operator for Input ( >> ) Formatting Output using manipulators Constructing our own manipulators COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 22 FILE OPERATIONS IN C INTRODUCTION FILE INPUT / OUTPUT IN C Explicit function for file Closure (xxvi)

19 22.3 INPUT / OUTPUT OPERATIONS ON FILES I/O operations on text files I/O operations on Binary files I/O Operations on Random files COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS IN C INDEXING DATABASE AND FILES Indexing Data Base Index architecture Operations on Indexing Applications and limitations of Indexing FILE INDEXING Indexing File Record IDs COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 23 SPECIAL FEATURES IN C INTRODUCTION NAMESPACE Avoiding of namespace using scope operator Use of namespace to avoid use of scope operator Creation of separate namespace in C++ program Use of namespace Switching of namespaces Run-time Type Information (RTTI) using #include<typeinfo> Type Casting Four methods of type casting operations in C TEMPLATES Types of Templates Faster templates using inline keywords or functions Differences between Class and Function Templates (xxvii)

20 23.4 DEFAULT INITIALIZER IN TEMPLATE TO ONLY CLASS TEMPLATES EXCEPTION HANDLING Actions of Exception Handling Methods of Exception Handling Handling of different types of Exceptions Constructors and Destructors in Exception Handling Other Exception Specifications COMPREHENSION EXERCISE CHAPTER 24 ABSTRACT DATA TYPE (ADT) PROGRAMS 24.1 INTRODUCTION WHAT IS ADT? Abstract Data Structure Abstract Data Type SALIENT FEATURES OF ABSTRACT DATA TYPES WHY ADT? ADT STACK EXAMPLE Stack ADT A QUEUE ADT ADT EMPLOYEE LIST COMPREHENSION EXERCISE REFERENCES (xxviii)

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