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1 Chapter 4: Expressions Chapter 4 Expressions 1

2 Chapter 4: Expressions Operators Expressions are built from variables, constants, and operators. C has a rich collection of operators, including arithmetic operators relational operators logical operators assignment operators increment and decrement operators 2

3 Chapter 4: Expressions Arithmetic Operators C provides five binary arithmetic operators: + addition - subtraction * multiplication / division % remainder An operator is binary if it has two operands. 3

4 Chapter 4: Expressions Binary Arithmetic Operators The value of i % j is the remainder when i is divided by j. 10 % 3 has the value 1, and 12 % 4 has the value 0. Binary arithmetic operators with the exception of % allow either integer or floating-point operands, with mixing allowed. When int and float operands are mixed, the result has type float f has the value 11.5, and 6.7f / 2 has the value

5 Chapter 4: Expressions The / and % Operators The / and % operators require special care: When both operands are integers, / truncates the result. The value of 1 / 2 is 0, not 0.5. The % operator requires integer operands; if either operand is not an integer, the program won t compile. Using zero as the right operand of either / or % causes undefined behavior. In C99, the result of a division is always truncated toward zero and the value of i % j has the same sign as i. 5

6 Chapter 4: Expressions Operator Precedence The arithmetic operators have the following relative precedence: Highest: Lowest: Examples: + - (unary) * / % + - (binary) i + j * k is equivalent to i + (j * k) -i * -j is equivalent to (-i) * (-j) +i + j / k is equivalent to (+i) + (j / k) 6

7 Chapter 4: Expressions Assignment Operators Simple assignment: used for storing a value into a variable Compound assignment: used for updating a value already stored in a variable 7

8 Chapter 4: Expressions Simple Assignment The effect of the assignment v = e is to evaluate the expression e and copy its value into v. e can be a constant, a variable, or a more complicated expression: i = 5; /* i is now 5 */ j = i; /* j is now 5 */ k = 10 * i + j; /* k is now 55 */ 8

9 Chapter 4: Expressions Compound Assignment Assignments that use the old value of a variable to compute its new value are common. Example: i = i + 2; Using the += compound assignment operator, we simply write: i += 2; /* same as i = i + 2; */ There are other compound assignment operators, including the following: -= *= /= %= 9

10 Chapter 4: Expressions Increment and Decrement Operators Two of the most common operations on a variable are incrementing (adding 1) and decrementing (subtracting 1): i = i + 1; j = j - 1; Incrementing and decrementing can be done using the compound assignment operators: i += 1; j -= 1; 10

11 Chapter 4: Expressions Increment and Decrement Operators C provides special ++ (increment) and -- (decrement) operators. The ++ operator adds 1 to its operand. The -- operator subtracts 1. The increment and decrement operators are tricky to use: They can be used as prefix operators (++i and -i) or postfix operators (i++ and i--). They have side effects: they modify the values of their operands. 11

12 Chapter 4: Expressions Increment and Decrement Operators Evaluating the expression ++i (a pre-increment ) yields i + 1 and as a side effect increments i: i = 1; printf("i is %d\n", ++i); /* prints "i is 2" */ printf("i is %d\n", i); /* prints "i is 2" */ Evaluating the expression i++ (a post-increment ) produces the result i, but causes i to be incremented afterwards: i = 1; printf("i is %d\n", i++); /* prints "i is 1" */ printf("i is %d\n", i); /* prints "i is 2" */ 12

13 Chapter 4: Expressions Increment and Decrement Operators The -- operator has similar properties: i = 1; printf("i is %d\n", --i); /* prints "i is 0" */ printf("i is %d\n", i); /* prints "i is 0" */ i = 1; printf("i is %d\n", i--); /* prints "i is 1" */ printf("i is %d\n", i); /* prints "i is 0" */ 13

14 Chapter 5 Selection Statements 1

15 Statements Most of C s statements fall into three categories: Selection statements: if and switch Iteration statements: while, do, and for Jump statements: break and continue (return also falls in this category.) Other C statements: Compound statement Null statement 2

16 Relational Operators C s relational operators: < less than > greater than <= less than or equal to >= greater than or equal to These operators produce 0 (false) or 1 (true) when used in expressions. The relational operators can be used to compare integers and floating-point numbers, with operands of mixed types allowed. 3

17 Equality Operators C provides two equality operators: == equal to!= not equal to The equality operators are left associative and produce either 0 (false) or 1 (true) as their result. The equality operators have lower precedence than the relational operators, so the expression i < j == j < k is equivalent to (i < j) == (j < k) 4

18 Logical Operators More complicated logical expressions can be built from simpler ones by using the logical operators:! logical negation && logical and logical or The! operator is unary, while && and are binary. The logical operators produce 0 or 1 as their result. The logical operators treat any nonzero operand as a true value and any zero operand as a false value. 5

19 The if Statement The if statement allows a program to choose between two alternatives by testing an expression. In its simplest form, the if statement has the form if ( expression ) statement When an if statement is executed, expression is evaluated; if its value is nonzero, statement is executed. Example: if (line_num == MAX_LINES) line_num = 0; 6

20 The if Statement Confusing == (equality) with = (assignment) is perhaps the most common C programming error. The statement if (i == 0) tests whether i is equal to 0. The statement if (i = 0 < j) assigns 0 to i, then tests whether the result is nonzero. 7

21 The if Statement Often the expression in an if statement will test whether a variable falls within a range of values. To test whether 0 i < n: if (0 <= i && i < n) 8

22 The else Clause An if statement may have an else clause: if ( expression ) statement else statement The statement that follows the word else is executed if the expression has the value 0. Example: if (i > j) max = i; else max = j; 9

23 The else Clause It s not unusual for if statements to be nested inside other if statements: if (i > j) if (i > k) max = i; else max = k; else if (j > k) max = j; else max = k; Aligning each else with the matching if makes the nesting easier to see. 10

24 Cascaded if Statements A cascaded if statement is often the best way to test a series of conditions, stopping as soon as one of them is true. Example: if (n < 0) printf("n is less than 0\n"); else if (n == 0) printf("n is equal to 0\n"); else printf("n is greater than 0\n"); 11

25 Conditional Expressions C s conditional operator allows an expression to produce one of two values depending on the value of a condition. The conditional operator consists of two symbols (? and :), which must be used together: expr1? expr2 : expr3 The operands can be of any type. The resulting expression is said to be a conditional expression. 12

26 Example: int i, j, k; Conditional Expressions i = 1; j = 2; k = i > j? i : j; /* k is now 2 */ k = (i >= 0? i : 0) + j; /* k is now 3 */ The parentheses are necessary, because the precedence of the conditional operator is less than that of the other operators, with the exception of the assignment operators. 13

27 Conditional Expressions Conditional expressions tend to make programs shorter but harder to understand, so it s probably best to use them carefully. Conditional expressions are often used in return statements: return i > j? i : j; 14

28 Conditional Expressions Calls of printf can sometimes benefit from condition expressions. Instead of if (i > j) printf("%d\n", i); else printf("%d\n", j); we could simply write printf("%d\n", i > j? i : j); Conditional expressions are also common in certain kinds of macro definitions. 15

29 The switch Statement A cascaded if statement can be used to compare an expression against a series of values: if (grade == 4) printf("excellent"); else if (grade == 3) printf("good"); else if (grade == 2) printf("average"); else if (grade == 1) printf("poor"); else if (grade == 0) printf("failing"); else printf("illegal grade"); 16

30 The switch Statement The switch statement is an alternative: switch (grade) { case 4: printf("excellent"); break; case 3: printf("good"); break; case 2: printf("average"); break; case 1: printf("poor"); break; case 0: printf("failing"); break; default: printf("illegal grade"); break; } 17

31 The switch Statement A switch statement may be easier to read than a cascaded if statement. switch statements are often faster than if statements. Most common form of the switch statement: switch ( expression ) { case constant-expression : statements case constant-expression : statements default : statements } 18

32 The switch Statement The word switch must be followed by an integer expression the controlling expression in parentheses. Characters are treated as integers in C and thus can be tested in switch statements. Floating-point numbers and strings don t qualify, however. 19

33 The switch Statement Each case begins with a label of the form case constant-expression : A constant expression is much like an ordinary expression except that it can t contain variables or function calls. 5 is a constant expression, and is a constant expression, but n + 10 isn t a constant expression (unless n is a macro that represents a constant). The constant expression in a case label must evaluate to an integer (characters are acceptable). 20

34 The switch Statement After each case label comes any number of statements. No braces are required around the statements. The last statement in each group is normally break. 21

35 The switch Statement Duplicate case labels aren t allowed. The order of the cases doesn t matter, and the default case doesn t need to come last. Several case labels may precede a group of statements: switch (grade) { case 4: case 3: case 2: case 1: printf("passing"); break; case 0: printf("failing"); break; default: printf("illegal grade"); break; } 22

36 Program: Printing a Date in Legal Form Contracts and other legal documents are often dated in the following way: Dated this day of, 20. The date.c program will display a date in this form after the user enters the date in month/day/year form: Enter date (mm/dd/yy): 7/19/14 Dated this 19th day of July, The program uses switch statements to add th (or st or nd or rd ) to the day, and to print the month as a word instead of a number. 23

37 date.c /* Prints a date in legal form */ #include <stdio.h> int main(void) { int month, day, year; printf("enter date (mm/dd/yy): "); scanf("%d /%d /%d", &month, &day, &year); printf("dated this %d", day); switch (day) { case 1: case 21: case 31: printf("st"); break; case 2: case 22: printf("nd"); break; case 3: case 23: printf("rd"); break; default: printf("th"); break; } printf(" day of "); 24

38 switch (month) { case 1: printf("january"); break; case 2: printf("february"); break; case 3: printf("march"); break; case 4: printf("april"); break; case 5: printf("may"); break; case 6: printf("june"); break; case 7: printf("july"); break; case 8: printf("august"); break; case 9: printf("september"); break; case 10: printf("october"); break; case 11: printf("november"); break; case 12: printf("december"); break; } } printf(", 20%.2d.\n", year); return 0; 25

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