# Algorithms in everyday life. Algorithms. Algorithms and Java basics: pseudocode, variables, assignment, and interactive programs

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1 Data and Algorithms Algorithms and Java basics: pseudocode, variables, assignment, and interactive programs Algorithms in everyday life CSC 1051 Algorithms and Data Structures I Dr. Mary-Angela Papalaskari Department of Computing Sciences Villanova University Course website: Source: Some slides in this presentation are adapted from the slides accompanying: Java Software Solutions by Lewis & Loftus Introduction to Programming in Java: An Interdisciplinary Approach by Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne Algorithm Example: Input-Compute-Output pattern An algorithm is a specific set of instructions for carrying out a procedure or solving a problem, usually with the requirement that the procedure terminate at some point. Specific algorithms sometimes also go by the name method, procedure, or technique. The word "algorithm" is a distortion of al-khwārizmī [named after Muhammad ibn al-khwārizmī], a Persian mathematician who wrote an influential treatise about algebraic methods. Sources: and Wikipedia ( ) GPA problem: Write a program that computes and outputs the GPA, given the credits and quality points earned. Pseudocode: describe steps in simple, unambiguous language Algorithms Dr Papalaskari Variables: qp, credits, gpa Algorithm: 1. qp = input from user 2. credits = input from user 3. gpa = qp / credits 4. Print gpa 1

2 Java Program è Algorithm Variables: qp, credits, gpa Algorithm: è 1. qp = input from user 2. credits = input from user 3. gpa = qp / credits 4. Print gpa Next: A closer look at variables & input in Java //************************************************ // GPA.java Author: Joyce/Papalaskari // Demonstrates the use of Scanner. ************************************************** public class GPA public static void main (String[] args) // // Inputs quality points and credits and calcu // double qp, credits, gpa; // input qp System.out.print ("Enter Quality Points > ") qp = scan.nextint(); // input credits System.out.print ("Enter Credits > "); credits = scan.nextint(); // calculate GPA gpa = qp / credits; // print GPA System.out.println ("\n\tgpa: " + gpa); Programs can use data obtained during runtime, eg: int age; String name; output method System.out.print( Enter your name ); name = scan.next(); input method System.out.print( Enter your age ); age = scan.nextint(); ); In Java, you first need to create a Scanner object int age; String name; Scanner object System.out.print( Enter your name ); name = scan.next(); input method (for String) System.out.print( Enter your age ); age = scan.nextint(); input method (for int) The Scanner class is part of the java.util class library, and must be imported into a program in order to be used The import statement goes at beginning of your program (above class definition) è public class GPA public static void main (Stri // Dr Papalaskari 2

4 Variable Declaration Some types of data in Java A variable is a name for a location of data in memory A variable must be declared by specifying the variable's name and the type of information that it will hold data type variable name int age; double x, y; String name; type char String int double boolean set of values characters sequences of characters integers floating-point numbers truth values literal values 'A' "Hello World" jackie123" e23 true false operations compare concatenate add, subtract, multiply, divide add, subtract, multiply, divide and, or, not Assignment Statement Changes the value of a variable The assignment operator is the = sign total = 55 - discount; The expression on the right is evaluated and the result is stored in the variable on the left Combined declaration and assignment A variable can be given an initial value in the declaration int age = 18; double x = 3.2, y = -0.80; String name = scan.nextline(); Dr Papalaskari 4

5 Combined declaration and assignment A variable can be given an initial value in the declaration - a new value can be assigned later: int age = 18; double x = 3.2, y = -0.80; String name = scan.nextline(); age = 19; x = x + 0.5; name = scan.nextline(); Combined declaration and assignment Note: CANNOT declare twice A variable can be given an initial value in the declaration - a new value can be assigned later: int age = 18; double x = 3.2, y = -0.80; String name = scan.nextline(); int age = 19; Error: declaring variable age again Tracing the values of variables after each statement. Trace: TRY THIS: int age = 18; double x; String name = "Sherlock"; age = 19; x = 0.5; x = x + 0.2; name = name + "Holmes"; age x? name Sherlock SherlockHolmes int a, b; a = 3; b = 4; int c = a; a = b; b = 5; b = c; Final values: a b c Dr Papalaskari 5

6 Assignment operator Assignment ( = ) copies the value of the right side into the memory location associated with the left side It does not set up an ongoing equivalence int davesage = 21; int suesage = davesage; davesage = 22; System.out.println (davesage); // prints 22 System.out.println (suesage); // prints 21 CONSTANTS: like variables, but value cannot change declare using final modifier: final int INCHES_PER_FOOT = 12; final double LBS_PER_KG = 2.2; Convention: Use UPPER_CASE identifiers Variables & Assignment Variable. A name that refers to a value of declared type. Literal. Programming language representation of a value. Assignment statement. Associates a value with a variable. type variable SUMMARY int age; declaration statement age = 18; assignment statement double x = 3.2, y = -0.80; literal combined declaration and assignment statement final int INCHES_PER_FOOT = 12; constant declaration (always initializes value) String name = scan.nextline(); input from user Arithmetic Operators Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Remainder + - * / % If either or both operands used by an arithmetic operator are floating point (e.g., type double), then the result is a floating point Dr Papalaskari 6

7 Example int feet = 25; int inches = feet * INCHES_PER_FOOT; Division and Remainder If both operands are integers (e.g., type int), the division result is an integer (the fractional part is discarded): Integer Division: Remainder: int seconds = 143; int minutes = seconds / 60; int remainingseconds = seconds % 60; 14 / / / 16 8 / % % % 16 8 % 12 Operator Precedence Increment and Decrement example: result = total + count / max offset; What is the order of evaluation of sub-expressions? 1. Multiplication, division, remainder 2. addition, subtraction, string concatenation Operators with the same precedence: left àright Use parentheses to override default order more examples: a + b + c + d + e a / (b + c) - d % e The increment operator (++) adds one to its operand The decrement operator (--) subtracts one from its operand The statement count++; is functionally equivalent to count = count + 1; a b / c + d * e a / (b * (c + (d - e))) Dr Papalaskari 7

8 Review Java Program è Algorithm Variables: qp, credits, gpa Algorithm: è 1. qp = input from user 2. credits = input from user 3. gpa = qp / credits 4. Print gpa //************************************************ // GPA.java Author: Joyce/Papalaskari // Demonstrates the use of Scanner. ************************************************** public class GPA public static void main (String[] args) // // Inputs quality points and credits and calcu // double qp, credits, gpa; // input qp System.out.print ("Enter Quality Points > ") qp = scan.nextint(); // input credits System.out.print ("Enter Credits > "); credits = scan.nextint(); // calculate GPA gpa = qp / credits; // print GPA System.out.println ("\n\tgpa: " + gpa); Writing an algorithm in pseudocode List the variables used. List the steps for solving the problem, in order. Try to be brief and unambiguous; use Java expressions only when it is simpler to specify a step in java than in English. Variables: qp, credits, gpa Algorithm: 1. qp = input from user 2. credits = input from user 3. gpa = qp / credits 4. Print gpa Example Write an algorithm to solve the following problem: Input values representing a time duration in hours, minutes, and seconds and then calculate and output the equivalent total number of seconds. Example Write an algorithm to solve the following problem: Input a value representing a number of seconds, then calculate and output the equivalent amount of time as a combination of hours, minutes, and seconds. Dr Papalaskari 8

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