WAP (WIRELESS APPLICATION PROTOCOL)

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1 1 WAP (WIRELESS APPLICATION PROTOCOL) 1. What is WAP? Applicatin envirnment and set f cmmunicatin prtcls Optimized fr mbile phnes & wireless. Extensin t Mbile Netwrking technlgies (means) & Internet technlgies (cntent) Standard fr bringing the internet cntent and ther Value Added Services [VAS] t wireless netwrks and mbile phnes, smart devices. A device independent netwrk prtcl Allws genuine differentiatin as well in terms f hardware, applicatins and services as in pricing. Builds n existing internet standards. WAP hides all the underlying wireless netwrk technlgies that are prevalent. It is agnstic t the wireless prtcl [such as GSM, CDMA, and TDMA] Open standard that has been develped jintly with majr cmpanies in the telecm and cmputer industries The Wireless Applicatin Prtcl (WAP) is an pen, glbal specificatin that empwers mbile users with wireless devices t easily access and interact with infrmatin and services instantly. WAP bridges the gap between the mbile wrld and the Internet as well as crprate intranets and ffers the ability t deliver an unlimited range f mbile value-added services t subscribers independent f their netwrk, bearer, and terminal. Mbile subscribers can access the same wealth f infrmatin frm a pcket-sized device as they can frm the desktp. WAP is a glbal standard and is nt cntrlled by any single cmpany. Ericssn, Nkia, Mtrla, and Unwired Planet funded the WAP Frum in the summer f 1997 with the initial purpse f defining an industry-wide specificatin fr develping applicatins ver wireless cmmunicatins netwrks. The WAP specificatins define a set f prtcls in applicatin, sessin, transactin, security, and transprt layers, which enable peratrs, manufacturers, and applicatins prviders t meet the challenges in advanced wireless service differentiatin and fast/flexible service creatin. There are nw ver ne hundred members representing terminal and infrastructure manufacturers, peratrs, carriers,

2 2 service prviders, sftware huses, cntent prviders, and cmpanies develping services and applicatins fr mbile devices. WAP als defines a wireless applicatin envirnment (WAE) aimed at enabling peratrs, manufacturers, and cntent develpers t develp advanced differentiating services and applicatins including a micr brwser, scripting facilities, , Wrld Wide Web (WWW) t-mbile-handset messaging, and mbile-t-telefax access. Peple n the mve need services, infrmatin and entertainment that can keep up with them. With access t mbile services, decisins and interactins happen here and nw. The value f mbile services t end-users is bsted by three separate elements: persnalizatin, time-sensitivity and lcatin awareness. Cmbining these three effectively adds even mre value. Wireless applicatin prtcl (WAP) is a prtcl that has successfully established a de fact standard fr the way in which wireless technlgy is used fr Internet access. WAP technlgy has been ptimized fr infrmatin delivery t thin-client devices, such as mbile phnes. Mbile services pwered and WAP have been widely accepted by users. By 2004, the number f WAP users in Western Eurpe is estimated t grw t well ver 200 millin (surce: Cahners, In-Stat Grup). In part, this grwth is driven by the intrductin f General Packet Radi Service (GPRS), WAP 2.0, Bluetth and Mbile Cmmerce. Purpse f WAP: T enable easy fast delivery f relevant infrmatin and services t mbile users. Type f devices WAP will use: Handheld digital wireless devices such as mbile phnes, pagers, tw-way radis, smart phnes and cmmunicatrs -- frm lwend t high-end. Wireless netwrks that WAP wrk with : WAP is designed t wrk with mst wireless netwrks such as CDPD, CDMA, GSM, PDC, PHS, TDMA, FLEX, ReFLEX, iden, TETRA, DECT, DataTAC, Mbitex and GRPS. Operating systems cmpatible with WAP: WAP is a cmmunicatins prtcl and applicatin envirnment. It can be built n any perating system including PalmOS, EPOC, Windws CE, FLEXOS, OS/9, JavaOS etc. It prvides service interperability even between different device families. Equipment manufacturers interested in WAP: Being a glbal pen specificatin suite, WAP has generated the critical mass fr manufacturers. This has pened up new prduct and marketing pprtunities in the wireless industry and prvides new revenue t participating cmpanies.

3 3 2. Why Chse WAP? In the past, wireless Internet access has been limited by the capabilities f handheld devices and wireless netwrks. WAP utilizes Internet standards such as XML, user datagram prtcl (UDP), and Internet prtcl (IP). Many f the prtcls are based n Internet standards such as hypertext transfer prtcl (HTTP) and TLS but have been ptimized fr the unique cnstraints f the wireless envirnment: lw bandwidth, high latency, and less cnnectin stability. Internet standards such as hypertext markup language (HTML), HTTP, TLS and transmissin cntrl prtcl (TCP) are inefficient ver mbile netwrks, requiring large amunts f mainly text-based data t be sent. Standard HTML cntent cannt be effectively displayed n the small-size screens f pcket-sized mbile phnes and pagers. WAP utilizes binary transmissin fr greater cmpressin f data and is ptimized fr lng latency and lw bandwidth. WAP sessins cpe with intermittent cverage and can perate ver a wide variety f wireless transprts. WML and wireless markup language script (WML Script) are used t prduce WAP cntent. They make ptimum use f small displays, and navigatin may be perfrmed with ne hand. WAP cntent is scalable frm a tw-line text display n a basic device t a full graphic screen n the latest smart phnes and cmmunicatrs. The lightweight WAP prtcl stack is designed t minimize the required bandwidth and maximize the number f wireless netwrk types that can deliver WAP cntent. Multiple netwrks will be targeted, with the additinal aim f targeting multiple netwrks. These include glbal system fr mbile cmmunicatins (GSM) 900, 1,800, and 1,900 MHz; interim standard (IS) 136; digital Eurpean crdless cmmunicatin (DECT); timedivisin multiple access (TDMA), persnal cmmunicatins service (PCS), FLEX, and cde divisin multiple access (CDMA). All netwrk technlgies and bearers will als be supprted, including shrt message service (SMS), USSD, circuit-switched cellular data (CSD), cellular digital packet data (CDPD), and general packet radi service (GPRS). As WAP is based n a scalable layered architecture, each layer can develp independently f the thers. This makes it pssible t intrduce new bearers r t use new transprt prtcls withut majr changes in the ther layers. WAP will prvide multiple applicatins, fr business and custmer markets such as banking, crprate database access, and a messaging interface.

4 4 3. WAP ARCHITECTURE The request frm the mbile device is sent as a URL thrugh the peratr's netwrk t the WAP gateway, which is the interface between the peratr's netwrk and the Internet. COMPONENTS OF WAP ARCHITECTURE WDP The WAP datagram prtcl (WDP) is the transprt layer that sends and receives messages via any available bearer netwrk, including SMS, USSD, CSD, CDPD, IS 136 packet data, and GPRS. WTLS Wireless transprt layer security (WTLS), an ptinal security layer, has encryptin facilities that prvide the secure transprt service required by many applicatins, such as e-cmmerce. WTP The WAP transactin prtcl (WTP) layer prvides transactin supprt, adding reliability t the datagram service prvided by WDP. WSP The WAP sessin prtcl (WSP) layer prvides a lightweight sessin layer t allw efficient exchange f data between applicatins. HTTP Interface The HTTP interface serves t retrieve WAP cntent frm the Internet requested by the mbile device.

5 5 4. Hw WAP Wrks? WORKING MODEL OF WAP Uses the in-built micr brwser t make a request (in WML frmat) Passes the request t WAP Prxy WAP Prxy Translates WAP requests t WWW requests WAP Prxy Encdes and sends the respnses frm the web server int the cmpact binary frmat (WWW r WAP cntent)

6 6 5. WAP Cmpnents Client / Applicatins Brwser like sftware embedded int the device. Presents infrmatin User interactin thrugh applicatins. Server Infrmatin prtals n stcks, news, sprts, business infrmatin etc., Service prtals fr , tell mail, vice mail, inftainment etc., Cmmerce prtals fr banking, shpping, bking, auctins etc., WAP Gateway Bridge between telecm and cmputer [Inter/Intra Net] netwrk. Des the prtcl transfrmatin [WAP t HTTP r vice versa] Cnversin between binary encded data t cntent frmat and vice versa. Other value additins WAP COMPONENTS

7 7 6. Cmparisn b/n Internet & WAP WWW Prgramming Mdel WAP Prgramming Mdel Internet WAP TAPI [Applicatin] WTAI HTML WML Java Script WML script HTTP [Sessin & trns] WSP, WTP TLS-SSL [Security] WTLS IP [Netwrk] WDP Link Layer Bearers like CSD, SMS,

8 8 CDPD, IS-136, USSD etc 7. Services Entertainment : Music, Games, Graphics, Vide Cmmunicatin : , SMS, MMS, Unified messaging, Chat, Vide Cnferencing Infrmatin: News, City Guides, Maps, Directry Services, Frtune, Traffic, Weather, Stck qutes, sprts. Transactins: Banking, Brking, Mbile Wallet, Bking reservatins, Shpping, Auctins, Betting. Business: Cst, Inventry, Prduct and Crprate infrmatin. Push and Alert services SMS ( Shrt Messaging Service ) The Shrt Message Service (SMS) is the ability t send and receive text messages t and frm mbile telephnes. The text can cmprise f wrds r numbers r an alphanumeric cmbinatin. SMS was created as part f the GSM Phase 1 standard. The first shrt message is believed t have been sent in December 1992 frm a Persnal Cmputer (PC) t a mbile phne n the Vdafne GSM netwrk in the UK. Each shrt message is up t 160 characters is length when Latin alphabets are used, and 70 characters in length when nn-latin alphabets such as Arabic and Chinese are used. Fr a relatively simple messaging service, there are a lt f elements that need t be taken int accunt when develping and deplying SMS! Hwever peratrs wh take the time and truble t invest in SMS will find appreciative custmers and appreciating revenues. As such, please say "Yes t SMS"! STANDARDIZED PROTOCOLS E.G. WAP The intrductin f standardized prtcls such as SIM Applicatin Tlkit and the Wireless Applicatin Prtcl (WAP) cntributes t an increase in messaging usage by prviding a standard service develpment and deplyment envirnment fr applicatin develpers and business partners. These prtcls als make it easier fr users t reply t and therwise access messaging services thrugh the prvisin f custm menus n the phne. As such, whilst these prtcls are nly a means t an end and nt new messaging destinatins r services in their wn right, they are likely t lead t 10-15% uplift in ttal SMS vlumes. TERMINAL DEVELOPMENTS E.G. SMART, HANDHELD COMPUTERS

9 9 The intrductin f mre friendly and easy t use terminals cntributes t increases in messaging usage by prviding simpler access t messaging services. Terminals such as smart phnes make it easier fr users t riginate, reply t and therwise access messaging services thrugh the prvisin f a QWERTY keybard rather than the limited keypad n standard mbile phnes. As such, whilst these terminals are nly a means t an end and nt new messaging destinatins r services in their wn right, they are likely t lead t 10-15% uplift in ttal SMS vlumes. As such, there are varius steps that mbile carriers can and shuld take t spur the develpment f WAP usage. Each f these steps is cmplementary and useful in making WAP a success. It is the cmbined effect frm these steps that has led t the significant and almst expnential grwth in the usage f WAP by many develped netwrk peratrs in the late 1990s. Cnsumer Applicatins using WAP The vast majrity f WAP usage is accunted fr by cnsumer applicatins. It is nt uncmmn t find 90% f a netwrk peratr's ttal WAP traffic being accunted fr by the applicatins described in this next sectin. The main cnsumer applicatins based n WAP are: CORPORATE The Shrt Message Service can be used t extend the use f crprate systems beynd an emplyee's desk and ffice PC. With 40% f emplyees typically away frm their desks at any ne time, it is imprtant fr them t keep in tuch with the ffice at all times. Crprate systems run n Lcal Area cmputer Netwrks (LAN) and include Micrsft Mail, Outlk, Outlk Express, Micrsft Exchange, Ltus Ntes and Ltus cc: Mail. Crprate ntificatins are similar t Internet ntificatins. Users are given infrmatin such as the sender and subject f the . Any s f a business r persnal nature that are sent t the crprate address can be sent ut ver the wireless netwrk. Because unlike Internet ntificatins, crprate services tend t use the existing crprate infrastructure and addresses, this kind f applicatin tends t generate significant average quantities f shrt messages per user. Very few crpratins have s far extended their ffice systems ut t the wireless envirnment, leaving a large pprtunity fr the deplyment f such services. AFFINITY PROGRAMS Sme mbile netwrk peratrs view the develpment f the Shrt Message Service as lw dwn in their verall pririties- because few users select the mbile netwrk slely r primarily n the basis f WAP. Hwever, affinity prgrams- which are als knwn as

10 10 lifestyle packages- are a large pprtunity fr mbile netwrk peratrs with the ptential t secure large numbers f new custmers, in which WAP is an integral part f the ffering. Affinity prgrams are the result f cllabratin between mbile carriers and ther cmpanies in different industries with large custmer grups. Affinity partners include televisin cmpanies, sprts clubs, supermarkets and ther retailers, airlines and banks. WAP can be used t prvide custmers will all kinds f reminders and infrmatin such as frequent flyer miles status, verdue videtape rentals, appintment reminders and prescriptin drug pick-up ntificatins. All parties t affinity prgrams can ptentially benefit frm the partnership- mbile netwrk peratrs gain access t a largely new set f ptential custmers and affinity partners get t ffer their custmers new cnvenient services t their custmers- ffering differentiatin pssibilities against their cmpetitrs. Fr affinity prgrams, the mbile phne may be branded with the affinity partner's lg and may have custm and persnalized packaging. The rute t market- i.e. the sales channel fr the affinity prduct- is likely t be different frm that f standard mbile phne purchases. Typically, the custmized phnes are marketed and distributed using direct mail- custmers receive infrmatin abut the affinity prgram thrugh an insert int their statements r bills and they can then sign up and receive the package cntaining the mbile phne by pst. A single bill, lwer rates and easy access t the services are ften features f the affinity package. MOBILE BANKING Let us take a clser lk at a specific kind f affinity prgram- mbile banking. The successful implementatin f mbile banking prgrams incrprates several different elements discussed in this guide, such as Infrmatin services and SIM Applicatin Tlkit. Affinity prgrams and related lifestyle packages are a fast grwing area f mbile cmmunicatins, because as cmpetitin between netwrk peratrs increases, differentiatin and custmizatin fr specific user grups will be necessary t extend mbile phne penetratin and usage. As such, they are likely t be a significant generatr f shrt messages. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Electrnic cmmerce applicatins invlve using a mbile phne fr financial transactin purpses- this usually means making a payment fr gds r transferring funds electrnically. Transferring mney between accunts and paying fr purchases are electrnic cmmerce applicatins.

11 11 The cnvenience f paying fr purchases using WAP must be weighed against the related issues f security, integratin with the retail and banking hardware and systems, and mney transfer issues. Hwever, this area f electrnic cmmerce applicatins is expected t cntribute t grwing WAP traffic in the CUSTOMER SERVICE By prviding mbile phne custmers will infrmatin abut their accunt, the Shrt Message Service can help t avid the need fr expensive persn t persn vice calls t custmer service centers. In the custmer service envirnment, WAP can help t deliver accunt status infrmatin, new service cnfiguratin and s n, in particular when standard WAP is cmbined with a prtcl such as SIM Applicatin Tlkit r Wireless Applicatin Prtcl. Sme netwrk peratrs find significant financial justificatin fr deplying a value-added services platfrm n the basis f what they save in custmer service csts alne. VEHICLE POSITIONING This applicatin integrates satellite psitining systems that tell peple where they are with WAP which lets peple tell thers where they are. The Glbal Psitining System (GPS) is a free-t-use glbal netwrk f 24 satellites run by the US Department f Defense. Anyne with a Glbal Psitining System (GPS) receiver can receive their satellite psitin and thereby find ut where they are. Many cmmercial GPS receivers als incrprate supprt fr the Russian equivalent f the Glbal Psitining System. The Shrt Message Service is ideal fr sending Glbal Psitining System (GPS) psitin infrmatin such as lngitude, latitude, bearing and altitude. GPS infrmatin is typically abut 60 characters in length, leaving rm fr ther infrmatin such as the vehicle registratin details, average speed frm the tachmeter and s n t be transmitted as part f the same shrt message. Because the psitin updates are autmatically generated, mbile netwrk peratrs find that vehicle psitining applicatins are amngst the leading generatrs f shrt messages. JOB DISPATCH 160 characters is sufficient fr cmmunicating mst delivery addresses such as thse needed fr a sales, service r sme ther jb dispatch applicatin such as mbile pizza delivery and curier package delivery. The Shrt Message Service is used t assign and cmmunicate new jbs frm fficebased staff t mbile field staff. Custmers typically telephne a call center whse staff takes the call and categrize it. Thse calls requiring a visit by field sales r service

12 12 representative can then be escalated t thse mbile wrkers using WAP. Jb dispatch applicatins can ptinally be cmbined with vehicle psitining applicatins- such that the nearest available suitable persnnel can be deplyed t serve a custmer. WAP can be used nt nly t send the jb ut, but als as a means fr the service engineer r sales persn can keep the ffice infrmed f prgress twards meeting the custmer s requirement. The remte wrker can send in a shrt status message such as "Jb 1234 cmplete, n my way t 1235". Because f the need t cmmunicate with mbile wrkers and effectively and csteffectively serve custmers, such jb dispatch applicatins are likely t be steady generatrs f shrt messages. REMOTE POINT OF SALE WAP can als be used in a retail envirnment fr credit card authrizatin. It is particularly cnvenient t use mbile technlgy when making sales frm, fr example, carts in the middle f isles at shpping malls, at flee markets r at sprts stadiums, where it wuld be incnvenient t trail a fixed telephne wire. A mbile phne is cnnected t a Pint f Sale terminal such as a credit card swipe and keypad. The credit card number is sent t a bank fr authrizatin. The authrizatin cde is then returned as a shrt message t the Pint f Sale terminal. REMOTE MONITORING The Shrt Message Service can be used t manage machines in a remte mnitring envirnment. This applicatin prvides peple with valuable infrmatin frm a remte lcatin when an imprtant event ccurs that they need t knw abut. The infrmatin is autmatically delivered electrnically withut having t cnstantly emply physical resurces lcally n the ff chance that such an event ccurs. Examples f remte mnitring applicatins include remte meter reading, sending cmputer system fault infrmatin t mbile phnes and ntifying cmpanies abut empty vending machines. Nw that we have lked at the majr applicatins that WAP facilitates, let s take a clser lk at sme f the factrs that facilitate the achievement f the messaging milestnes. M-COMMERCE E-cmmerce cnducted thrugh mbile devices is m-cmmerce. Currently m-cmmerce wrks in many ways. One shining example is Japan's i-mde service that prvides all e- cmmerce functinality -- m-banking, m-ticketing, m-payment, m-sprts, m-stck price checking and m-stck-brking. Lesser mrtals elsewhere have many ther frms f m- cmmerce tday.

13 13 We take a brader definitin f e-cmmerce -- nt mere payment system but all aspects f decisin-making in a business cntext. This includes custmer prspecting, rder prcessing, catalg management, rder taking, prcurement, prductin, transprting, shipping, invicing and final payment. Let us lk at the rle f m-cmmerce in a typical business transactin. MMS ( Multi-Media messaging System ) - Send Mre Than Just Wrds One f the mst recent develpments in mbile messaging is knwn as multimedia messaging service (MMS). Just as the traditinal shrt message service (SMS), multimedia messaging prvides autmatic and immediate delivery f persnal messages. Unlike the WAP hwever, MMS allws mbile phne users t enhance their messages by incrprating sund, images, and ther rich cntent, transfrming it int a persnalized visual and audi message. But MMS technlgy ffers mre than just a bradening f message cntent. With MMS, it is nt nly pssible t send yur multimedia messages frm ne phne t anther, but als frm phne t , and vice versa. This feature dramatically increases the pssibilities f mbile cmmunicatin, bth fr private and crprate use. Multimedia messaging reshapes the landscape f mbile cmmunicatin, making it mre persnal, mre versatile, and mre expressive than ever befre. That's why we're thrilled by it, and we think yu will be t. T see mre f the new MMS technlgy, and t have a lk at the amazing new MMS-enabled mbile phnes Cntent Althugh MMS encmpasses a wide range f cntent types, it is a lgical extensin f WAP, making it easily adptable fr tday's generatin f mbile users. Anther advantage f MMS is that the message is a multimedia presentatin in a single entry, nt a text file with attachments, making it much simpler and user-friendly. Cmpatibility The MMS standard lists JPEG, GIF, text, AMR vice, and ther frmats as supprted media types, while unsupprted frmats are handled in a cntrlled way. Like WAP, MMS is an pen industry standard, and MMS messages can be delivered using existing netwrks and prtcls. MMS is als bearer-independent, which means it is nt limited t GSM r WCDMA netwrks. Perfrmance The speed f MMS transmissin, althugh quick, is still dependent n the message size and n the bearer used. Hwever, since the receiver is nt aware f the nging transmissin befre the message has been delivered, the delay is imperceptible, making MMS as cnvenient t use as WAP.

14 14 8. Benefits f WAP Operatrs Fr wireless netwrk peratrs, WAP prmises t decrease churn, cut csts, and increase the subscriber base bth by imprving existing services, such as interfaces t vic and prepaid systems, and facilitating an unlimited range f new value-added services and applicatins, such as accunt management and billing inquiries. New applicatins can be intrduced quickly and easily withut the need fr additinal infrastructure r mdificatins t the phne. This will allw peratrs t differentiate themselves frm their cmpetitrs with new, custmized infrmatin services. WAP is an interperable framewrk, enabling the prvisin f end-t-end turnkey slutins that will create a lasting cmpetitive advantage, build cnsumer lyalty, and increase revenues. Cntent Prviders Applicatins will be written in wireless markup language (WML), which is a subset f extensible markup language (XML). Using the same mdel as the Internet, WAP will enable cntent and applicatin develpers t grasp the tag-based WML that will pave the way fr services t be written and deplyed within an peratr's netwrk quickly and easily. As WAP is a glbal and interperable pen standard, cntent prviders have immediate access t a wealth f ptential custmers wh will seek such applicatins t enhance the service fferings given t their wn existing and ptential subscriber base. Mbile cnsumers are becming hungrier t receive increased functinality and valueadd frm their mbile devices, and WAP pens the dr t this untapped market that is expected t reach 100 millin WAP enabled devices by the end f the year This presents develpers with significant revenue pprtunities. End Users End users f WAP will benefit frm easy, secure access t relevant Internet infrmatin and services such as unified messaging, banking, and entertainment thrugh their mbile devices. Intranet infrmatin such as crprate databases can als be accessed via WAP technlgy. Because a wide range f handset manufacturers already supprts the WAP initiative, users will have significant freedm f chice when selecting mbile terminals and the applicatins they supprt. Users will be able t receive and request infrmatin in a cntrlled, fast, and lw-cst envirnment. It is expected that the Internet service prviders (ISPs) will explit the true ptential f WAP. Web cntent develpers will have great knwledge and direct access t the peple they attempt t reach. In additin, these develpers will likely acknwledge the huge ptential f the peratrs' custmer bases; thus, they will be willing and able t ffer cmpetitive prices fr their cntent. WAP's push capability will enable weather and travel infrmatin prviders t use WAP.

15 15 9. WAP & Blue Tth Tday s Envirnment T many wires and cnnectrs Prtable devices dn t wrk well tgether N anywhere seamless cnnectivity Blue Tth is an extremely lw-cst (as lw as eight dllars) technlgy that permits very many devices (cellular phnes, PCs, Organizers, Palm-Tp, Hand-held cmputers, printers and even wristwatches!) using wireless cmmunicatins ver freely available electrmagnetic spectrum. Bluetth is a lcal area lw pwer radi link between devices. Many f the usage scenaris fr Bluetth will als invlve ne f the devices cmmunicating ver the air using WAP. While many Bluetth members are als WAP members, and it is expected that many future handheld wireless devices will deply bth Bluetth and WAP technlgy, the tw technlgies fundamentally address different prblems. Bluetth Features Used fr cable replacement in wireless persnal area netwrk [WPAN] LAN access fr ad-hc netwrks. Uses the Industrial, Scientific & Medical [ISM] Band 2.45GHz ensures mbility arund the wrld Multimedia supprt [Vice & data] Data rate f 1Mbps FHSS access scheme & OdB Tx pwer means lw interference. Open standard. Data cnnectin via shrt-range (10m) adhc netwrks using the license free 2,45 GHz (ISM) band Lw cst RF mdules fr mass market (Target price : $5) Lw pwer cnsumptin. Vice and data transmissin Applicatins mainly fr all prtable devices Frget Plug and Play Just Play High data rate Increases interperability Digital cnvergence Crucial cmpnent f the wireless wrld!

16 Success With Mbile Business Mbility is ne f the key factrs reshaping the way tday's business is cnducted. Cnstant availability is quickly becming an essential part f future cmpetitin. Businesses that chse t embrace the cncept f the Mbile Wrld will reinvent themselves as real-time rganizatins, where access and interactin are instant. Mbile applicatins help bring flexibility, efficiency, and custmer fcus t yur business. WAP ffers many slutins fr crprate mbile phne users interested in the pssibilities f wireless mbile technlgy. These innvatins range frm checking their accunts t accessing their crprate databases, all frm remte, wireless lcatins. Private individuals are already managing their finances smthly thrugh mbile phnes. The number f glbal mbile intranet users is estimated t grw t ver 80 millin by 2003 (Surce: Rbertsn Stephens). A large number f cmpanies are already extending their crprate applicatins t WAP-enabled phnes. By ging ttally mbile, businesses and rganizatins can imprve n the services they prvide fr emplyees and custmers. These mbile applicatins can be tailred t match their unique business needs, and help them becme mre prductive and efficient. 11. Disadvantages f WAP Lw Bandwidth High Latency Less Cnnectin Stability / Unpredictable Availability Small Display Limited Input Facilities Limited Memry and CPU Limited Battery Pwer Security Cncerns Sftware need t be written fr the WAP

17 WAP Frum An industry assciatin - develps the wrld standard fr wireless infrmatin and telephny services n digital mbile phnes and ther wireless terminals Ensure prduct interperability and grwth f wireless market WAP Frum Started in June 1997 Funder: Ericssn, Mtrla, Nkia, and Phne.cm (Unwired Planet) Objectives: Netwrk standard, Open t all, Applicatin scale acrss transprt ptins (GSM, IS-95 etc.), Applicatin scale acrss device types (mbile phnes, PDAs) 13. The Future f WAP The tremendus surge f interest and develpment in the area f wireless data in recent times has caused wrldwide peratrs, infrastructure and terminal manufacturers, and cntent develpers t cllabrate n an unprecedented scale, in an area ntrius fr the diversity f standards and prtcls. The cllabrative effrts f the WAP Frum have devised and cntinue t develp a set f prtcls that prvide a cmmn envirnment fr the develpment f advanced telephny services and Internet access fr the wireless market. If the WAP prtcls were t be as successful as transmissin cntrl prtcl (TCP)/Internet prtcl (IP), the bm in mbile cmmunicatins wuld be phenmenal. Indeed, the WAP brwser shuld d fr mbile Internet what Netscape did fr the Internet. As mentined earlier, industry players frm cntent develpers t peratrs can explre the vast pprtunity that WAP presents. As a fixed-line technlgy, the Internet has prved highly successful in reaching the hmes f millins wrldwide. Hwever, mbile users until nw have been frced t accept relatively basic levels f functinality, ver and abve vice cmmunicatins and are beginning t demand the industry t mve frm a fixed t a mbile envirnment, carrying the functinality f a fixed envirnment with it. Initially, services are expected t run ver the well-established SMS bearer, which will dictate the nature and speed f early applicatins. Indeed, GSM currently des nt ffer the data rates that wuld allw mbile multimedia and Web brwsing. With the advent f GPRS, which aimed at increasing the data rate t 115 kbps, as well as ther emerging high-bandwidth bearers, the reality f access speeds equivalent r higher t that f a fixed-line scenari becme evermre believable. GPRS is seen by many as the perfect partner fr WAP, with its distinct time slts serving t manage data packets in a way that prevents users frm being penalized fr hlding standard circuit-switched cnnectins. The services available t users will be wide-ranging in nature, as a result f the pen specificatins f WAP, their similarity t the established and accepted Internet mdel,

18 18 and the simplicity f the WML/WMLS languages with which the applicatins will be written. Infrmatin will be available in push-and-pull functinality, with the ability fr users t interact with services via bth vice and data interfaces. Web brwsing as experienced by the desktp user, hwever, is nt expected t be the main driver behind WAP as a result f time and prcessing restraints. Real-time applicatins and services demand small and key pieces f infrmatin that will fuel the success f WAP in the mbile marketplace. Stck prices, news, weather, and travel are nly sme f the areas in which WAP will prvide services fr mbile users. Essentially, the WAP applicatin strategy invlves taking existing services that are cmmn within a fixed-line envirnment and tailring them t be purpseful and userfriendly in a wireless envirnment. Empwering the user with the ability t access a wealth f infrmatin and services frm a mbile device will create a new battlegrund. Mbile industry players will fight t prvide their custmers with sphisticated, value-added services. As mbile cmmerce becmes a mre secure and trusted channel by which cnsumers may cnduct their financial affairs, the market fr WAP will becme even mre lucrative. (a) Will WAP cmply with Third Generatin wireless standards? Yes, WAP has been designed t be as independent as pssible frm the underlying netwrk technlgy. (b) Is WAP necessary with higher bandwidth 3G netwrks? Even as bandwidths increase, the cst f that bandwidth des nt fall t zer. These csts result frm higher pwer usage in the terminals, higher csts in the radi sectins, greater use f RF spectrum, and increased netwrk lading. In additin, the riginal cnstraints WAP was designed fr -- intermittent cverage, small screens, lw pwer cnsumptin, wide scalability ver bearers and devices, and ne-handed peratin -- are still valid in 3G netwrks. WAP in the Cmpetitive Envirnment Cmpetitin fr WAP prtcls culd cme frm a number f surces: Subscriber identity mdule (SIM) tlkit The use f SIMs r smart cards in wireless devices is already widespread and used in sme f the service sectrs. Windws CE This is a multitasking, multithreaded perating system frm Micrsft designed fr including r embedding mbile and ther spacecnstrained devices. JavaPhne Sun Micrsystems is develping PersnalJava and a JavaPhne API, which is embedded in a Java virtual machine n the handset. NEPs will be able t build cellular phnes that can dwnlad extra features and

19 19 functins ver the Internet; thus, custmers will n lnger be required t buy a new phne t take advantage f imprved features. 14. Summary WAP prvides a markup language and a transprt prtcl that pens the pssibilities f the wireless envirnment and give players frm all levels f the industry the pprtunity t access an untapped market that is still in its infancy. The bearer-independent nature f WAP has prved t be a lng-awaited breath f fresh air fr an industry riddled with multiple prprietary standards that have suffcated the advent f a new wave f mbile-internet cmmunicatins. WAP is an enabling technlgy that, thrugh gateway infrastructure deplyed in mbile peratr's netwrk, will bridge the gap between the mbile wrld and the Internet, bringing sphisticated slutins t mbile users, independent f the bearer and netwrk. Backed by 75 percent f the cmpanies behind the wrld's mbile telephne market and the huge develpment ptential f WAP, the future fr WAP lks bright.

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